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A Discourse Analysis of a Classroom Interaction Essay Sample

A Discourse Analysis of a Classroom Interaction Pages
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I. INTRODUCTION

In this globalization era, the value of English as an international language is significantly escalating in different aspects. Its significance is considered in classroom to prepare students in their future line of endeavor. Despite the innumerable benefits that English language can give, it has still a wide variety of components that are needed to be considered and examined in order to fully understand its complexities.

Discourse analysis as an aspect of language use is vital to understanding diverse conversational exchanges or written texts. Definitions of it are given by different language experts to essentially and practically extract its importance. (Brown & Yule, 1983 mentioned in Juez, 2009) The analysis of discourse is, necessarily, the analysis of language in use. As such, it cannot be restricted to the description of linguistic forms independent of the purposes or functions which these forms are designed to serve in human affairs. (Fasold, 1990 mentioned in Juez, 2009) The study of discourse is the study of any aspect of language use.

Applying discourse analysis in a classroom interaction brings an avenue of discovering the undiscovered language domains found in varied socially situated processes. Furthermore, unspoken acts i.e., body languages are taken into account to uncover the hidden messages of the exchange of ideas throughout the activity. (Wray and Kumpulainen) Classroom interaction refers to all the ways in which participants in classrooms interact with one another, including oral interaction, non-verbal interaction and shared activity.

II. rELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The following studies have been reviewed in relation to the present study. 1. A Study of Classroom Interaction Characteristics in a Geography Class Conducted in English: The Case at Year Ten of an Immersion Class

Nurmasitah (2010) conducted a research that the objectives were to explore the classroom interaction characteristics and to find out whether or not the English interactions as used to teach Geography at year ten of Immersion Class at SMAN 2 Semarang have met teaching effectiveness elements.

The scope of the study was the Geography teacher and Immersion Class students at year ten (X-3) of SMA N 2 Semarang. The class consisted of 30 students. The study concerned with teaching effectiveness elements and classroom interaction characteristics in immersion classroom.

The result of the study showed that the most dominant characteristics in immersion classroom interaction was content cross. It reflected that most of the teaching0learning time was devoted to questions and lectures by the teacher. Teacher emphasized on the subject matters.

2. Classroom Interaction and the Effectiveness of Teaching Learning English as a Local Content Subject at the Elementary School
Pheasanty (2003) conducted a research that the objective was to identify the characteristics of the classroom interaction in the elementary school English classes; to identify the English mastery of the Elementary school students; and to find out whether there are any significant differences in the effectiveness of teaching learning process among classes with different percentages of classroom interaction characteristics.

This study involved the fifth grade students and the English teachers od some schools as the subjects. The result of the analysis showed that the dominant characteristics of classroom interaction in Elementary School are the student participation. Indirect ratio, and content cross. The English mastery tests of the fifth graders of these Elementary Schools are good enough. The inferential analysis shows that there are significant differences in the effectiveness of teaching learning English among classes which have different percentages of characteristics of classroom interaction.

III. METHODOLOGY

The study used a videotape to record a classroom interaction of Grade 7 students of Don Bosco Tarlac. A transcript was prepared, and an analysis was made to fully understand and explore the classroom interaction.

IV. Presentation of Data

Teacher: Yesterday, we talked about the difference between a sentence and a sentence fragment. Yesterday also, you answered exercises in the workbook. Yes or No? Students: Yes! Teacher: Thank you for your response. In connection to that, I’ll be introducing a new topic which is about Recognizing Subject and Predicate. And I believe you have a good idea as regards these two basic parts of a sentence. Let’s continue. Let’s try to differentiate a complete subject from a complete predicate. Someone to read? Yes, Mr. Pascua. Student: The complete subject names what or whom the sentence is telling about. Teacher: Okay, that’s the complete subject. In other words, it is the one being talked about in a sentence. What makes it different from a predicate now? Someone to read? Student: The complete predicate says something about the complete subject. Teacher: Okay, the complete predicate tells something about the complete subject. It describes the complete subject. Okay, let’s continue. Later on, I’ll be giving examples of it. Anyway, let’s have some examples of complete subjects and complete predicates. Student: Some of the early literature of our country.

Teacher: Okay, that’s the complete subject That’s the one being talked about in the sentence. What’s the complete predicate now? Student: came from the Indonesian settlers.
Teacher: Okay that complete predicate tells something about the complete subject. But, how can we be able to determine if it’s the complete predicate? Complete predicates are always introduced with what part of speech? Student: Verb or sometimes verb phrase.

Teacher: Next one. The complete subject in the second sentence is It. Student: consisted of folk tales and legends to explain creation. Teacher: Okay, that’s the complete predicate in the sentence. It tells something about the it. Another thing to remember is a subject which is either a noun or a pronoun. Are you getting it so far? Students: Yes, sir.

Teacher: Okay, let’s go to the third example. Someone to read? Student: The people believed that spirits influence their lives. Teacher: The people is the complete subject while the complete predicate is? Student: believed that spirits influenced their lives.

Teacher: How can you be able to know if it is the complete predicate like I said? Student: I don’t know.
Teacher: You don’t know the answer? Very good!
Student: They start with verbs.
Teacher: Okay, they are actually introduced with verbs. Let’s continue. What makes these complete subject and complete predicate different from simple subject and simple predicate. Okay let one define it. The keyword is a complete subject is either a noun or pronoun. Later on, I’ll be giving an example of it, so you’ll not be confused. What is on the other hand a simple predicate? It is the keyword in a complete predicate. It is a verb.
Definitely the simple subjects and simple predicates are easy to identify if you are able to correctly identify the complete subject and complete predicate because the simple predicate and the simple subject are called headwords or the keywords of a sentence. Let’s take an example. Let’s go back then. Let’s take the sentence #1. Allow me to write. Quiet please! 1. Some of the early literature of our country came from the Indonesian settlers.

The complete subject is, Some of the early literature of our country. What is now the simple subject or the keyword in the sentence?
Student: literature
Teacher: Good. The simple subject is literature. What about the complete predicate?
Student: came from the Indonesian settlers.
Teacher: What is the complete predicate? Clue! It is the verb in the sentence.
Student: came
Teacher: Easy or hard?
Students: Easy…hard…
Teacher: Let’s have another example. What if I would say, The Koreans have visited the tourist spot in Vigan. Do you know where Vigan is?
Students: Yes!
Teacher: Have you been there?
Students: Yes!
Teacher: It’s like going back to the past, and trying to experience the environment that was experience by the people of the past or by our ancestors. The Koreans have visited the tourist spot in Vigan. What is the complete subject? Yes, Lorenzo?

Student: The Koreans
Teacher: Okay, good! What is the simple subject or the keyword? Yes, Alberto.
Student: visited the tourist spot in Vigan.
Teacher: Okay, remain standing. I’ll repeat the question. What is the simple subject? The simple subject is found in the complete subject.
Student: Koreans
Teacher: Good. This is the simple subject. What is the complete predicate? Yes, Mr. Quiambao?
Student: have visited the tourist spot in Vigan.
Teacher: What is the simple predicate? Licud?
Student: visited
Teacher: Are you sure?
Student: have?
Teacher: Are you sure? Simple predicate.
Student: Sir, visited
Teacher: Mr. Talon?
Student: have visited
Teacher: Okay, that’s the simple predicate. Isn’t I told you about this one. This is the helping verb and the main verb. Helping verb + main verb is equal to verb phrase. Are you getting it? Any violent reaction? In case of will come, shall repeat, that will serve as the simple predicate. Got it?

Students: Yes, sir!
Teacher: Okay, good. Let’s go now to the next sentence. Try to identify the simple subject, complete subject, simple predicate and complete predicate. Anyway, anyhow, the complete subject and complete predicate are obvious. Number?

Student: 6
Teacher: 6 x 2 = 12. You remain there. Dijamco. You can do that! Stand. Read it first.
Student: The arrival of the Malay marked the beginning of the epics.
Teacher: Obviously, the complete subject is the arrival of the Malay. What is the simple subject? What is the keyword in the complete subject?
Student: arrival
Teacher: Okay, good! The complete subject is arrival. Are you getting it? What about marked the beginning of the epics. What is the simple predicate? The single predicate is found in the complete predicate.

Student: marked
Teacher: Okay, good. Are you getting it? or you want more examples?
Students: Yes, sir!
Teacher: Those who understand it, will you raise your hands. Put your hands down. Those who are still confused, raise your hand. Okay, let’s have another example or other examples. Everyone read! in 3,2,1 go!

Students: Do Bosco Tarlac hosted the big event.
Teacher: Okay, What is the complete subject? Well, it is possible that the simple subject is the complete subject. Yes, Mejia?
Student: Don Bosco Tarlac
Teacher: Okay, good! So the simple subject is also Don Bosco Tarlac right? What is the simple predicate?
Student: hosted
Teacher: Okay, good! Any question?
Student: None sir!
Teacher: Is it clear?
Student: Yes, sir!
Teacher: Very clear?
Student: Yes, sir!
Teacher: As clear as the water?
Student: Yes, sir!
Teacher: Kindly, bring out your notebook and copy.

Analysis of the transcription
A. The questions asked are in relevance to the newly introduced topic about Recognizing Subject and Predicate. And they are the following as in order of asking: 1. Yesterday, we talked about the difference between a sentence and a sentence fragment. Yesterday also, you answered exercises in the workbook. Yes or No? 2. Let’s try to differentiate a complete subject from a complete predicate. Someone to read? Yes, Mr. Pascua. 3. What makes it different from a predicate now? Someone to read? 4. Okay, that’s the complete subject That’s the one being talked about in the sentence. What’s the complete predicate now? 5. But, how can we be able to determine if it’s the complete predicate? Complete predicates are always introduced with what part of speech? 6. Another thing to remember is a subject which is either a noun or a pronoun. Are you getting it so far? 7. Someone to read?

8. The people is the complete subject while the complete predicate is? 9. How can you be able to know if it is the complete predicate like I said? 10. You don’t know the answer?
11. What is on the other hand a simple predicate?
12. The complete subject is, Some of the early literature of our country. What is now the simple subject or the keyword in the sentence? 13. What about the complete predicate?
14. What is the complete predicate?
15. Easy or hard?
16. Do you know where Vigan is?
17. Have you been there?
18. What is the complete subject? Yes, Lorenzo?
19. What is the simple subject or the keyword?
20. What is the simple subject?
21. What is the complete predicate? Yes, Mr. Quiambao?
22. What is the simple predicate? Licud?
23. Are you sure?
24. Got it?
25. Number?
26. What is the simple subject? What is the keyword in the complete subject? 27. Are you getting it?
28. What is the simple predicate?
29. Are you getting it? or you want more examples?
30. What is the complete subject? Well, it is possible that the simple subject is the complete subject. Yes, Mejia? 31. Okay, good! So the simple subject is also Don Bosco Tarlac right? What is the simple predicate? 32. As clear as the water?

33. Any question?
34. Is it clear?
35. Very clear?
B. The type of question asked in the opening and closing of the lesson is close-ended question in order to know immediately the understanding of the
students. More so, different related questions were asked as well in order to gauge their understanding of the previous topic. C. In one hand, the questions were effective in terms of my objectives and goals for teaching and learning because immediate responses were elicited from the students. On the other hand, since close-ended questions were employed, students were not able to speak the target language (TL), which is English at the optimum level. D. The effects of the questions gave actual opportunities for the students to practice the target language. The questions were intended to encourage students to express themselves in the TL in accordance to their level of language and understanding. Moreover, different types of questions i.e., close-ended and open-ended questions were asked to provoke different levels of responses. E. The students responded in different ways as to the different types of questions asked.

There were times when students were not able to answer the questions given, but follow-up questions were utilized to achieve the desired outcomes. It was also evident that some students were uttering verbal fillers and pauses i.e., “hmmm…”, “hh”, “err” before they would answer the question signifying that they were thinking of appropriate response they would give as to the question thrown. More so, satisfaction was attained from the elicited responses because students were able to express themselves in the TL in one way or another. F. The question that elicited the most discussion was when I asked the class to identify the simple predicate in the sentence below. 1. The Koreans have visited the tourist spot in Vigan.

One student answered have; another answered visited until finally the correct answer was given, and that is have visited. Nodding was observed when the right answer was revealed showing an agreement of what was discussed. After the correct answer was identified, explanation was given to the students to answer whatever questions they had in mind. G. In my class where students are all boys, the students who responded the most to the questions asked were those who have ample size of vocabulary in the TL. I could say, they are straight boys who were willing to share their thoughts in the discussion, and are much interested and focused to what has been discussed. H. During the discussion, there were those who had difficulties using the target language primarily because of their limited exposure to English; consequently, there were a few who giggled, but not to the point of embarrassing the person talking. On the other side, there were students who felt comfortable speaking the second language since they were exposed to the language. Furthermore, most of them belong to the top in the class.

V. CONCLUSIONS
In light of the findings, the following conclusions are reached. 1. In the classroom interaction, the mostly used type of question is close-ended. Such was used to elicit immediate response from the students and to budget the time—enough to finish the topic. 2. Students who shared their thoughts and communicated their ideas in the discussion are exposed to the target language, and they have an ample vocabulary size. 3. Not all students gave correct answers to all the questions asked. There was a moment when they were puzzled to a certain question, but eventually they were clarified. 4. There were moments when students uttered verbal fillers before answering the questions given to them. These pauses gave them time to think of their responses. 5. Gender was not an issue in the active participation of the class.

REFERENCES

Juez, Laura H. (2009). Perspectives on Discourse Analysis: Theory and Practice. United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Nurmasitah, Sita (2010). A Study of Classroom Interaction Characteristics in a Geography Class Conducted in English: The Case at Year Ten of an Immersion Class in SMA N 2 Semarang. Master’s Degree in Linguistics. Diponegero University.

Pheasanty, A, R. (2003). Classroom Interaction and the Effectiveness of Teaching English as a Local Content Subject at the Elementary School. Final Project. Semarang State University.
Wray and Kumpulainen (2005). Researching Classroom and Talk. http://www.google.com.ph/search?hl=fil&newwindow=1&q=researching+classroom+interaction+and+talk+david+wray+and+kristiina+kumpulainen&oq=resea

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