1. Explain how cells specialize to form specific tissue and organs. Cells specialize through birth when the embryonic stem cells take in different proteins that make them either be epithelial, muscle, connective, or nervous tissue. For example, stem cells can take in specific proteins to become epithelial tissue which protects the body’s surface, lines the internal organs, and composes the glands. The Eritrean man needed a new wind pipe that was constructed by cells that specialize in creating connective tissue that is meant to support the throat for the digestive system.
2. Explain what is already being accomplished in the areas of tissue and organ bioengineering and what still remains to be accomplished. We have been able to recreate and grow tissues and cells, but have had complications with creating full organs such as kidney’s, hearts, and lungs. For example, the windpipe is an easy creation to make, but if someone needed a complicated organ such as a heart we haven’t reached the level of expertise to do that. We have been able to create various samples of epithelial tissue for skin grafting with burn victims, create small pieces of muscle tissue for victims of lost pieces of limbs as well. With the creation of full larger organs still needing to be accomplished, I would say bioengineering has gone quite a ways for now.
3. Discuss how these medical advancements impact individuals and society. These medical advancements allow people who have gone through accidents and endangerments to continue their lives without error by bringing more organs that can help them function more in life. They also allow for society’s standards of what is normal to fade away, opening people’s minds to new possibilities. These medical advancements have also angered various other people thinking that these practices are wrong and shameful, causing a lot of controversy for the subject of bioengineering. These individuals who are in need of a donor organ that will wait for months at a time can now get an organ that doesn’t have the chance of being rejected quicker into their body.