The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as how: •The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products, and retailers); •The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, signs, media); •The behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; •Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; •How consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and •How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer. One “official” definition of consumer behavior is “The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.” Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it brings up some useful points:
•Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g., friends influence what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should use). •Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. Since many environmental problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sent into sewage systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills) this is also an area of interest. •Consumer behavior involves services and ideas as well as tangible products. •The impact of consumer behavior on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressive marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have serious repercussions for the national health and economy.
There are four main applications of consumer behavior:
•The most obvious is for marketing strategy—i.e., for making better marketing campaigns. For example, by understanding that consumers are more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, we learn to schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. By understanding that new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and only spread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn that (1) companies that introduce new products must be well financed so that they can stay afloat until their products become a commercial success and (2) it is important to please initial customers, since they will in turn influence many subsequent customers’ brand choices.
•A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Accutane, a near miracle cure for acne, was introduced. Unfortunately, Accutane resulted in severe birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Although physicians were instructed to warn their female patients of this, a number still became pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers’ attention, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic pictures of deformed babies be shown on the medicine containers.
•Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something. Marty Fishbein, a marketing professor, went on sabbatical to work for the Centers for Disease Control trying to reduce the incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use. The best solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop. This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be stopped. As a result, using knowledge of consumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbein created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needles in bleach before sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.
•As a final benefit, studying consumer behavior should make us better consumers. Common sense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64 liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, you should pay less per ounce than if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, you often pay a size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case, knowing this fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels to determine if you are really getting a bargain. There are several units in the market that can be analyzed. However, we will also need to analyze our own firm’s strengths and weaknesses and those of competing firms. Suppose, for example, that we make a product aimed at older consumers, a growing segment. A competing firm that targets babies, a shrinking market, is likely to consider repositioning toward our market. To assess a competing firm’s potential threat, we need to examine its assets (e.g., technology, patents, market knowledge, awareness of its brands) against pressures it faces from the market. Finally, we need to assess conditions (the marketing environment).
Tracking consumer behavior is critical for a marketing department of any company that creates products for the public. Depending on the type of item being sold, different behaviors will be exhibited by most consumers. A more expensive item that has many differences between the brands will cause a different behavior than an inexpensive item that is purchased all the time. Understanding these differences can spell the difference between a successful product campaign and an unsuccessful one. Beliefs and Attitudes
•In complex consumer behavior, the consumer has a high involvement in the purchase while perceiving a significant difference among brands. This behavior often occurs when the product is infrequently purchased, self-expressive, risky or expensive. The consumer might not know a lot of the terminology associated with the product such as “megs of RAM” and “Pentium Core Duo.” The consumer makes his purchase after developing beliefs and attitudes about the potential products. The brands that are most effective in these purchases are those that convey their extensive information clearly and effectively. Habitual
•Habitual buying behavior exhibits little perceived difference between the possible brands and low consumer involvement. This is a product that consumers purchase often and they will typically buy a particular brand out of habit. One example is salt. While most salt products are essentially the same, a consumer might buy Morton because they have always bought Morton. Consumers do not extensively search for information because they buy based on brand recognition. Marketers of habitual products typically use lower prices and sales to stimulate the habit of buying their particular product. Also, ads are used that connect the brand with an attribute such as Crest and fighting cavities or Taster’s Choice and romantic mornings together. Variety Seeking
•In variety-seeking behavior, consumers have low involvement, but the brands have significant perceived differences. Consumers might switch brands often as they will try a brand and then make their own evaluation. Consumers might choose a new brand based on their evaluation or they might simply get a new product to try something new. This can occur with items such as cookies, energy drinks and other luxury food items. The brands that are the most successful at influencing variety-seeking customers is to keep shelves fully stocked, keep name recognition up through advertising and to offer special deals that make them seem better than similar products. Dissonance Reducing
oIn dissonance-reducing buying behavior, consumers are highly involved with the purchase, which is often risky, infrequent and expensive, but the brands have little or no precieved differences. An example of this is a home computer. Brands such as Acer, Dell, and HP seem similar and have similar specifications, so buyers will often look at several brands and prices and then will purchase because of convenience or price. Brands that are the most effective with these types of products have established strong after-sale communications and support.
Consumer behavior refers to the selection, purchase and consumption of goods and services for the satisfaction of their wants. There are different processes involved in the consumer behavior. Initially the consumer tries to find what commodities he would like to consume, then he selects only those commodities that promise greater utility. After selecting the commodities, the consumer makes an estimate of the available money which he can spend. Lastly, the consumer analyzes the prevailing prices of commodities and takes the decision about the commodities he should consume. Meanwhile, there are various other factors influencing the purchases of consumer such as social, cultural, personal and psychological. The explanation of these factors is given below. 1. Cultural Factors
Consumer behavior is deeply influenced by cultural factors such as: buyer culture, subculture, and social class. • Culture
Basically, culture is the part of every society and is the important cause of person wants and behavior. The influence of culture on buying behavior varies from country to country therefore marketers have to be very careful in analyzing the culture of different groups, regions or even countries. • Subculture
Each culture contains different subcultures such as religions, nationalities, geographic regions, racial groups etc. Marketers can use these groups by segmenting the market into various small portions. For example marketers can design products according to the needs of a particular geographic group. • Social Class
Every society possesses some form of social class which is important to the marketers because the buying behavior of people in a given social class is similar. In this way marketing activities could be tailored according to different social classes. Here we should note that social class is not only determined by income but there are various other factors as well such as: wealth, education, occupation etc. 2. Social Factors
Social factors also impact the buying behavior of consumers. The important social factors are: reference groups, family, role and status. • Reference Groups
Reference groups have potential in forming a person attitude or behavior. The impact of reference groups varies across products and brands. For example if the product is visible such as dress, shoes, car etc then the influence of reference groups will be high. Reference groups also include opinion leader (a person who influences other because of his special skill, knowledge or other characteristics). • Family
Buyer behavior is strongly influenced by the member of a family. Therefore marketers are trying to find the roles and influence of the husband, wife and children. If the buying decision of a particular product is influenced by wife then the marketers will try to target the women in their advertisement. Here we should note that buying roles change with change in consumer lifestyles. • Roles and Status
Each person possesses different roles and status in the society depending upon the groups, clubs, family, organization etc. to which he belongs. For example a woman is working in an organization as finance manager. Now she is playing two roles, one of finance manager and other of mother. Therefore her buying decisions will be influenced by her role and status. 3. Personal Factors
Personal factors can also affect the consumer behavior. Some of the important personal factors that influence the buying behavior are: lifestyle, economic situation, occupation, age, personality and self concept. • Age
Age and life-cycle have potential impact on the consumer buying behavior. It is obvious that the consumers change the purchase of goods and services with the passage of time. Family life-cycle consists of different stages such young singles, married couples, unmarried couples etc which help marketers to develop appropriate products for each stage. • Occupation
The occupation of a person has significant impact on his buying behavior. For example a marketing manager of an organization will try to purchase business suits, whereas a low level worker in the same organization will purchase rugged work clothes. • Economic Situation
Consumer economic situation has great influence on his buying behavior. If the income and savings of a customer is high then he will purchase more expensive products. On the other hand, a person with low income and savings will purchase inexpensive products. • Lifestyle
Lifestyle of customers is another import factor affecting the consumer buying behavior. Lifestyle refers to the way a person lives in a society and is expressed by the things in his/her surroundings. It is determined by customer interests, opinions, activities etc and shapes his whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. • Personality
Personality changes from person to person, time to time and place to place. Therefore it can greatly influence the buying behavior of customers. Actually, Personality is not what one wears; rather it is the totality of behavior of a man in different circumstances. It has different characteristics such as: dominance, aggressiveness, self-confidence etc which can be useful to determine the consumer behavior for particular product or service. 4. Psychological Factors
There are four important psychological factors affecting the consumer buying behavior. These are: perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes. • Motivation
The level of motivation also affects the buying behavior of customers. Every person has different needs such as physiological needs, biological needs, social needs etc. The nature of the needs is that, some of them are most pressing while others are least pressing. Therefore a need becomes a motive when it is more pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction. • Perception
Selecting, organizing and interpreting information in a way to produce a meaningful experience of the world is called perception. There are three different perceptual processes which are selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention. In case of selective attention, marketers try to attract the customer attention. Whereas, in case of selective distortion, customers try to interpret the information in a way that will support what the customers already believe. Similarly, in case of selective retention, marketers try to retain information that supports their beliefs. • Beliefs and Attitudes
Customer possesses specific belief and attitude towards various products. Since such beliefs and attitudes make up brand image and affect consumer buying behavior therefore marketers are interested in them. Marketers can change the beliefs and attitudes of customers by launching special campaigns in this regard.
People buy for their own reasons. They may not necessarily be sensible, intelligent, or even rational reasons. But they aretheirs, and you need to be aware of which ones are motivating your prospect at any given time, so that you can tailor your sales approach accordingly. The Six Buying Motives are: 1.Desire for Gain
2.Fear of Loss
3.Comfort and Convenience
4.Security and Protection
5.Pride of Ownership
No one Buying Motive is any more important than any other. And they don’t come in any particular order. But rest assured that at least one of these motives – and often more than one – applies to every purchase, every time. Your job is to find out which.
There is no one single way of classifying buying motives. The study of buying motives is part of human behaviour and human behaviour is a part of psychology which is the study of human mind of all subject, human psychology though it is the oldest, it took centuries to understand human mind, still it is considered as the youngest science. Therefore, experts have given number of ways in which they classified on one basis or the other. Each one is right in his own way thinking. The possible classifications are: “Primary” and “secondary” : where primary motives are hunger, thirst, shelter, and sex while secondary are security, comfort, love and affection sense of belonging, concern for others.
Another way “Innate” and “Acquired”. Innate are nothing more than primary motives and acquired are those which are cited as secondary. Still some others speak of ‘Positive’ and ‘Negative’ Naturally, positive motives are those that increase happiness and welfare and negative are those which curtail the happiness and welfare. Still another way as “conscious” and “unconscious” or “active” or “dormant” buying motives : The active motives are food, shelter, clothing, sex and dormant are comfort, security, pride, jealousy, recognition, concern for others. Some classify them as physical and psychological. The physical motives are —possession, shelter, number of wives and children, riches : On the other hand, psychological are—love and affection, imitation, recognition, imitation and so on. Of late, for marketing point of view, these have been basically classed as ‘product’ and ‘patronage’ motives and these can be also ‘rational’ and ’emotional’. The widely accepted classification is one which configures as under. A. Product Motives
Product buying motives are those that prompt the consumer or prospect him to and impel him to buy because of physical and psychological product attributes. The product might be appealing to his eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin and matching to his mind. These physical and psychological attractions may be design, size, colour taste, package, price, performance, pride, affection, durabilities, suitability, versatility, safety, comfort, economy, convenience and so on. These product buying motives may be either, ’emotional’ or ‘rational’. This sub classification is of much significance to under stand the very girth of buying motives. I. Product Emotional Buying Motives
Emotion is the excited state of feeling or mental agitation. Emotional action is more quick without much thinking or reasoning being applied. These actions are based on feelings or passions. Emotional decision is not based on detailed study or plan but it is the outcome of the spur of the moment. Emotional buying motives pertaining to products can be: 1. Pride:
Man and woman are proud of their achievements, birth in the family, social standing or status, possession like sizes, knowledge, talents, skills, salary drawn, pioneers enjoyed. Such persons are led by pride and go on buying those products that help them in getting satisfactionthrough showmanship. Costly and distinctive products such as cars, sound gadgets, visuals, furniture, flat, banglow, farm house, stable and so on. These speak of lavish spending. The question is not of purchasing a local furniture but ‘Chippendale’ imported from Italy or ‘Goitre’ from Germany and so on. 2. Vanity:
Like pride, vanity plans a decisive role in the life of person. Vanity is a virtue of a woman. Though some people do not differentiate between pride and vanity, there is difference. Pride is justified while vanity is not. There is nothing wrong when a scholar is proud of his scholarship or an artist of his talents. A vanity, being unjustified, is dominant in some person. While vibrant in others. Vanity is making empty showmanship. That is, they will buy goods that they really do not need and afford. Thus, a rich man buys a modern art canvas not because he understood the modern art but he wants to show of his riches and a false impression of patronising artistic talents. Similarly a person changing a car models every year as a fashion. 3.
Closely related to pride and vanity is jealousy. Jealousy is more associated with fair sex. That is why a woman has been rightly described as “jealousy thy name is woman”. It does not mean that men are free from the clutches of jealousy. Jealousy is a strong feeling of hating others because, they are superior in a given field. It may be a matter of intelligence, riches, beauty, health, achievement and the like. To why, Mr. Nitish wants his son to be an engineer or doctor not because he is capable but because Ritish’s son did it who happens to a close friend or relative of Nitish. This jealous attitude has spoilt the careers of countless youngsters because their parents wanted to decide their sons destinies. 4. Fashion:
To imitate is to copy the things. It is basic human tendency to initiate others in many way maybe their style of walking, talking, speaking, singing, dancing, eating, drinking, smoking, pasting of hairs, wearing dress, shoes and what not ? A person sells himself to the styles of matters. Today, hair-styles, dress- materials, apparels, goggles, shoes, watches, are all the result of invitation that requires nothing not even thinking. For instance, when Big Ambitab Bachhan married Jaya Bhaduri, it was a model case of persons of tall husband and dwarf wife —for which people used to laugh earlier. Today, many of his fans have done it. Even committing suicide by youngsters by unsuccessful but bold lovers has been a filmy style — “Ek Dooje Ke Liye”. 5. Sex:
Though sex or romance is a basic human motive, it is highly emotional. It is the sex appeal that makes teenagers and adults to behave in an unusual manner. Love is mutual and needs of partnership. It is the sex appeal which makes the men and women to look more young and smart than are, to attract the opposite sex. That is why, man and woman spend a lot on clothing, cosmetics and entertaining. 6. Habits:
Human beings are the slaves of habits. A habit is a repetitive art on his or her part done consciously or sub-consciously or unconsciously habits are highly emotional as they arise out of dual mind of excitement. These habits are individualistic and relate to all the act that we indulge from dawn to dusk. It is the habit of getting up early or late in the morning, having bed tea or drink or smoking, tobacco, chewing gum, pan masala, chocolates, wearing a dress, shoes, eating, parting, walking, jogging, studying and so on. It takes time to form habits, if the habits are formed once, it is very difficult to up root them. However, strong doses of salesmanship and publicity can bring about desired change. 7. Love and Affection:
Human beings are basically social animals and the motive of love and affection or attachment for his or her dear and near once is formed and cemented, it is natural. It is the relation between the persons that is going to decide as to what form this attachment is going to take. It is purely the blood relation that mailers. Thus, a husband and wife have the closest relation and attachment and is more pronounced and is called as love. Both father and mother have affection to their sons and daughters, a brother for his sister and vice a versa. Persons buy so many products and extend serious to express that deep love and affection. Thus, a husband buying costly sarees, ornaments for his better-half, readymade and latest dresses, equipments for their children. A brother might present a watch to his sister or a sister may present a costly ready wear to his brother. 8. Comfort:
Each person reaches a stage in his life where comfort seeking stares and aggregates. It is natural tendency to avoid strain pain, physical exertion. The concept of comfort’s influenced by the factors like softness, accuracy, noise, space, thrust, hunger, humidity, heat, cold and hot likes. Thus, a rich person prefers, a foam beds and pillows to cotton or coir ones, air conditioning is resorted to changing climate, soft drinks to quench his thrust, instead of a glass of natural cold water, remote control comes in plane of manual operation, tasks of washing clothes is passion to washing machines and so on. 9. Aesthetic Pleasure:
Aesthetic is the study of art, tastes, beauty, aroma and the like. Aesthetic pleasure is derived by human beings through their seasonal gratification. We derive lot of pleasure through senses of touch, sight, smell, taste and audit of hearing. These are highly emotional state of affairs. Thus, the concept of beauty differs from person to person and time to time. This motive of seasonal gratification or aesthetic pleasure has revolutionised the design and the beauty of articles like four wheelers, two wheelers, watches, goggles, clothing, architecture, packaging and packing, furniture, interior layout and decoration of a house or a flat, a factory, a store, a show-room, petrol pump, office school, temples, church, mosque and what not ? This seasonal gratification is not one the same force. It one likes dark tea, another with milk, if one prefers sweet another sour or pungent, if one likes strong smell another mild one, if one likes rough things, another very smooth, if one likes loud sound, another hates it. These differences have given rule and variety of products being produced. 10. Praise:
Some people like to be praised or admired by others. A praise of any aspect of a person makes him highly emotional or emotionally charged and is ready to do literally any thing. It may be praising a man’s honesty, daring, personality, integrity, achievements, abilities, attitude towards others, even simple like his dress, spectacles, hair-cut, or side business. Praising some one on his face costs nothing but yields rich dividends at no investment is money terms. Therefore, a person goes on buying those goods and services that make him praise worthy. Thus, a person may buy an expensive set of furniture or a carpet for his drawing room with the intent of being admired. II. Product Rational Motives
Human beings are both social and rational. They think before doing any thing good or bad, right or wrong. They have an astounding ability of creative thinking and imaginative juggling of environmental variables to their great benefit. It is rationality that distinguishes a man from other animals. Reasoning is predominant in a host of his activities, actions and decisions. Rational motives are based on reasoning or judgement. He has such product rational buying motives which are outlined as follows: 1. Safety or Fear:
Human life is patent example of uncertainty as it is full of hazards. Fear is of one kind or the other haunts every one in one form or the other. Tensions moment because, one has no money, one has too much money, one has bad health, one has enemies than friends, inherent risks in jobs, in travelling, swimming, eating, drinking, sleeping, entertaining and so on. These fears and tensions have made men to be cautious because precaution is better than cure. Appeal □ rear works and clicks. Today, we are buying and consuming pills of vitamins, capsules, tonics are maintaining and improving sound health, iron-safes, burglar alarms for safety, insurance policies to reduce and shift the risks. Thus, fear is the key and is the strongest motive. 2. Suitability:
Industrial requirements differ wides depending on his paying capacity, size of the family, the size of the house or a flat, relations with the outside world and the like. The size of fridge, Honing table, water-filter, utensils, car, and the like depend on the size of the family and income. Suitability as one of the foremost rational product motives where he seeks maximum real value of his money spent. 3. Durability:
Durability is the quality of lasting longer. Each one is interested in durability of a product before he invests his money particularly in case of consumer durables such as cars, two wheelers, veiling machines, micro-wave ovens, cooking-range, serving machines, grinder-mixer, vacuum are and so on. He studies carefully the materials of which the product is made, its composition its life. It is because, these life long investments. 4. Economy:
Economy is the most common rational motive of a person. Economy is seen from two points namely original investment and operating costs. It also speaks of breaking value at the of guaranteed life. Thus, while purchasing a four wheeler or two wheeler, one is particular about the factors such as initial investments. Its operating costs per kilometer maintenance and resale value after its life. 5. Convenience:
Easy and cosy attempts and approaches lead to convenience. Convenience is the most sought after rational buying motive. It speaks of saving valuable time, mental and physical exertion guarantees accurate and efficient work. Today children need not tax their brain too much rocket, desk and watch calculation have come to their rescue. We need not go to cricket and -ball stadium to see matches as idiot’s boxes have done this it right one’s drawing room at button of remote control no more cinema going as video sets have converted each house flat into a mini-family theatre; one need not wind the watches and clocks as automatic or quartz watches and clocks have come; you need not climb the stair case to multi floors as lifts there; you need not wait for hours together for home ice-cream as instant ice cream has made available so also ready meal items are there. 6. Versatility:
Versatility is that quality which permits the user to put the product of alternative uses. Getting maximum utility is the point. We are having today, two-in-one, three-in-one items are able in sound gadgets, folding parasols, tables and chairs, walking sticks much protection –or self-define driven, reversible dresses and so on. It increases the utility of the product with S in adjustment of product. Today we have moving houses. The science and technology is g available new ideas, new products, new process and methods. 7. Cupidity or Profit Greed:
No one wants to lose in this material works in any line. Profit making or earnings is more cupid urge in human beings to be very accurate, one wants to earn not only just profit but more than expected that too in minimum possible time. People buy shares and bonds, investing saving schemes, deposits, mutual funds mainly because of revenue and capital gains and tax-concessions. Even in business line, people have discovered the wonderful thing in the wake if making hinge profits. Thus, Japanese have developed a poultry strain that lays two eggs a day though the bird dies in six months. Americans have developed poultry bird that adds weight within shortest time which is not a layer but broiler. 9. Curiosity:
Curiosity is the burning passion for new experience. It is the desire for much awaited exposure. Children are curious to know so many things to which they are not exposed. Adults and middle-aged people are equally eager to know the unknown things. Between men and women, it is women who have upper hand. It may be a new toy, a new film, a new place, an article, a story, a novel, a gadget, play, expenses of service, a painting, a sculpture, a model or a process. People are after what is called as ‘latest’ in every walk of life. There is a thirst for knowing an more and more and learning more and more. 10. Recreation:
Human life is on going. It is not a matter of a day or two. So long as heart beats, the drums of the destiny beat for him or her. One should have a busy schedule of work from dawn to dusk but human body should not and need not be treated like a machine of so many horse power working all the three shifts. It needs rest or recouping space and time. It is the rest ‘pause’ that makes him to play and relax. Leisure is not a waste bust good investment rest not a rust of mind but a change of work. After a day’s work or week’s work, persons do resort to evening strolls, reading, enjoying motives, attending social get together, witness matches in stadia drammas in academies and so on. Thus, recreation is a rational motive that keeps his physical and mental health in kilt. 11. Hobbies:
One should not misunderstand the hobbies to habit. Hobbies are rational and creative while habits are highly emotional and may be damaging. Like habits, hobbies are purely personal. These hobbies have taken enormous forms of creative activity such as collection of antics, coins, stamps, assembly of parts in spatial relation and models, photography, carving, instrumental and vocal music, painting, adventure game, tailoring, kitchen-gardening, singing, dancing, growing long nails, bird-watching, tricking, mountaineering and so on. These hobbies make those persons to buy products and services that further their attainment and satisfaction. B. Patronage Motives
Patronage motives speaking the choice of a particular person— a shop-keeper or an outlet for purchase. In other words, he has certain motives to patronise or support and suggest a particular shop or a store. These may be emotional and rational. I. Patronage Emotional Motives:
Patronage emotional motives are based on his wish or will and discretion or pulsive attitude. His decision to support a store is not the outcome of reasoning and judgement. His selection is founded on the casual factors and these are: 1. Appearance of the Store:
It is the mob-psychology that a store that is attractive or alluring deserves entry. Therefore, well decorated, lavishly lit, colourfully couched store gives the customer the effect of “love at first sight” like a slim, young and beautiful lady. It is the external shining through window display the getup of shop that forces him or her to enter the. 2. Recommendation of Friends or Relatives:
Good many times, a person enters a reticular shop not because he thinks appropriate but because it has been recommended strongly by his friends and relatives. It is not always that things do well because, individual thinking differs. For instance, Mr. Andy likes “Amercons” while Mr. Trendy likes “Poshak” in case of ready made garments. However, we can not under mine the recommendations of friends and relatives as their experience—better or bitter has its own place. 3. Imitation:
Imitation is one such thing that makes many customers to go in for a particular shop or a store. Here, the opinion leaders, have their role to play. If Ambitab Bachhan sees to a particular saloon for his hair dressing and shaving, his fans will not forget to copy him. If a cine-star enters “Taj Inter continental” for lunch or dinner, his follower, though, can not if afford will, enter to have at least a cup of tea or copy. They indulge in such unaffordable activities :c boast of themselves. I may buy ‘JOKEY’ underwear because Mr. Bill Clinton uses them. What people want to establish is that they are in no way inferior to so called super personalities. 4. Prestige:
For some people prestige is all. For the sake of prestige, they do and undo the things. In case of people who have good deal of amassed wealth and those social status, rave a particular life-style and they want to maintain it at any rate. Thus, a person might be used to ‘5 Star’ or “7 Star” hotel, or a departmental store or any other outlet. This requirement should come only from that outlet else, he feels at below his dignity. Thus, paying Rs. 150 for his hair cut in a luxurious saloon is a must for him than paying Rs. 20 in any other saloons rendered belter haircut. They are caught in the vortex
of “Log Kya Kahenge”. 5. Habit:
Habit is the root cause of consumer loyally. Once his emotionally attracted r- a particular store, he continues to patronise the same. It is the usual case with grocers, green grocers, green shops, barber, beauty parlours, restaurants, hotels, lodgings, motels, massage centres, and so on. It becomes a routine thing to go to a particular out-let almost mechanically. The customer sells himself or herself to that out-let or store without thinking or.much thinking. II. Patronage Rational Motives:
All customers are not emotional in supporting a particular store. They are rational. They _nak and judge before extending loyalty to a particular store. The motives of this kind are : 1. Proximity:
Convenience in buying can not be ruled out. Here, cost is not a matter. Thus, each family selects one provision store which is the nearest to its residence for emergency purchases. Like wise a house wife has her regular grocer, green grocer, baker, pharmacy, libraries, textile dealer, repair, and so on. It is purely individualistic. Here, ‘convenience’ overrules the cost. It is our usual exposure, that in fiat system or separate houses, many times, house wives go to other flats or houses for even one or two eggs or garam masala, or coriander leaves and so on where prestige status, all go to hell. 2. Widest Assortment:
People do not want to move from one place to another in search of routine type. They prefer that store which provides the widest choice through a nice package of assortments. That is, in each item wide range of varieties are provided in terms of size dimension, might, colour, taste, packages and so on. Thus, Janata bazars, Apana Bazar, cooperative stores and departmental stores are becoming very popular as a source of widest choice. Some and specialization of A to Z in case of kids wears—youngsters, aged people-requirements. Retail business has undergone a thorough change where shopping complexes are fast coming up better known as “malls”. 3. Credit-facilities:
Modern business can not be thought in terms of “hard cash”. Credit the breath of to days’ business that works. It is essentially a competitive weapon. Credit facilitates the individuals to adjust their weeks or monthly budgets where the cash can be better utilised for other purposes. Those stores that grants credit liberally, attracts the customers or permanent basis. It can be a point of consumer prepare and loyalty too. These days, business house encourage use of ‘credit’ and debit cards-where plastic money is found much safer and convenient. 4. Treatment:
Buying goods is done by any one. Today’s customer is having his own self respect and standing and wants that he is to be given due respect through warm treatment Courtesy, modesty, meekness in behaviour of the sales staff and the owner make the class of customer feel at home. He feels that he is not lost in the rush. Individual and timely treatment: makes a person to support to that shop. Now consumers have realised, that they are important and they are to be respected. It is because, of a form loses one customer, it is sowing a seed of poison that kills the growth of new customers; not only that existing customers will be also los: to others. 5. Services Offered:
Consumers have their preference for a,store that is known for additional services on request of the customer. These are door deliveries, booking orders on phone, replacements, repairs at reasonable costs, accommodate complaints giving tips on installation and use, extension of emergency help in the form of finance, parking, lift, and the like. Even after-sale services do count. It may be installations or trial run, or demonstration which are considered as the plus points. In the end, a word of caution must be given that we have classified these buying motives as ‘product’ and ‘patronage’ and ’emotional’ and ‘rational’. For instance, ‘appearance of store’ can be ‘rational’ not necessary ’emotional’ because, a good store is known by its appearances among other things. Again, ‘proximity’ or ‘convenience’ can be ’emotional’ than ‘rational’. Thus, much depends on how one looks at them.
A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis Galton. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Thus, for some demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be practical. As a type of survey, questionnaires also have many of the same problems relating to question construction and wording that exist in other types of opinion polls. A distinction can be made between questionnaires with questions that measure separate variables, and questionnaires with questions that are aggregated into either a scale or index. Questionnaires within the former category are commonly part of surveys, whereas questionnaires in the latter category are commonly part of tests. Questionnaires with questions that measure separate variables, could for instance include questions on: preferences (e.g. political party)
behaviors (e.g. food consumption)
facts (e.g. gender)
Questionnaires with questions that are aggregated into either a scale or index, include for instance questions that measure: •latent traits (e.g. personality traits such as extroversion) •attitudes (e.g. towards immigration)
•an index (e.g. Social Economic Status)
•A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a questionnaire to assess the type of diet consumed in people, and may be used as a research instrument. Examples of usages include assessment of intake of vitamins or toxins such as acrylamide.
A laptop computer is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop has most of the same components as a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device such as a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) and/or a pointing stick, and speakers into a single unit. A laptop is powered by mains electricity via an AC adapter, and can be used away from an outlet using arechargeable battery. Laptops are also sometimes called notebook computers, notebooks or netbooks.
Portable computers, originally monochrome CRT-based and developed into the modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications such as the military, accountants and sales representatives. As portable computers became smaller, lighter, cheaper, more powerful and as screens became larger and of better quality, laptops became very widely used for all sorts of purposes.