A good introduction should introduce child development with particular attention to ‘holistic’ development and describe expected patterns of development and what this means. Child development is a stage that every child goes through. This process involves learning and mastering skills like sitting, walking, talking, skipping, eating and tying shoes. Children learn these skills called developmental milestones during predictable time periods. Children develop skills in five main areas of development: 1. Cognitive Development. This is the child’s ability to learn and solve problems. For example, this includes a two-month-old baby learning to explore the environment with hands or eyes and a five-year-old learning how to do simple math problems. 2. Social and Emotional Development. This is the child’s ability to interact with others, including helping themselves and self-control. Examples of this type of development would include: a six-week-old baby smiling, a ten-month-old baby waving bye-bye or a five-year-old boy knowing how to take turns in games at school.
3. Speech and Language Development. This is the child’s ability to both understand and use language. For example, this includes a 12-month-old baby saying their first words, a two-year-old naming parts of their body, a five-year-old learning to say ‘feet’ instead of ‘foots’. 4. Fine Motor Skill Development. This is the child’s ability to use small muscles, specifically their hands and fingers, to pick up small objects, hold a spoon, turn pages in a book, or use a crayon to draw. 5. Gross Motor Skill Development. This is the child’s ability to use large muscles. For example, a six-month-old baby learns how to sit up with some support, a 12-month-old baby learns to pull up to a stand holding onto furniture, and a five-year-old learns how to skip. ‘Holistic Development’ is looking at all aspects of a child’s development. Section 2.
Describe the expected pattern of development of children and young people from birth to 19 years.
* Physical development – gross and fine development.
* Intellectual development and learning development.
* Communication and language development.
* Emotional, social and behavioural development.
0 – 6 months.
* Physical development – Reflexes (rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, walking and standing reflex, falling reflex * Intellectual development – Start to look around and react to sounds. * Communication and language development – Start to cry in order to communicate their needs. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Produce and recognise a strong, close bond with their primary carer (usually parents). 6 – 12 months.
* Physical development – Exploring toys and objects using mouth as well as fingers. Sitting up with support. Crawling/rolling. * Intellectual development – Enjoyment when simple games such as pat-a-cake are repeated. Curiosity as babies look around to see what is happening around them. * Communication and Language – Tuneful strings of babbling. Laughing and squealing. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Smiles of delight when they are playing with their primary carers. Arms lifting up to show a parent that they want to be picked up. 1 – 2 years.
* Physical development – Standing up and holding onto furniture. Walking up and down stairs with adult help. Able to feed self with spoon. * Intellectual development – Waving bye-bye, fingers pointing at objects to draw an adult’s attention to them. * Communication and Language development – Tuneful babbling that sounds like talking, less babbling and more recognizable words. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Crying if they see their parent or carer, distress if not with people that they know well, signs of temper and frustration, eagerness to feed themselves with a spoon.
2 – 4 years.
* Physical development – Running and climbing, playing on sit-and-ride toys, able to use the toilet, riding on tricycles, climbing and enjoying simple ball games. * Intellectual development – Points to pictures of familiar objects and names them, enjoyment of sand and water play, concentration when an activity has caught their interest. * Communication and Language development – Phrases such as ‘daddygone’ or ‘drinkno’ where two words are used, children ask questions and enjoy talking. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Anger and frustration if they cannot do what they want to do, keen to help and copy adults, children responding to adult praise and recognition. 4 – 7 years.
* Physical development – Skilful use of the hands to do activities such as threading, pouring and using scissors, more legible handwriting and increased fine manipulative movements, good at balancing, running and throwing. * Intellectual development – Beginning to decode some familiar words, beginning to read books silently, writing short stories and text with less adult help required. * Communication and language development – Enjoyment of jokes, verbal arguments, negotiation and persuasion, enjoyment of playing and making up games with rules. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Keen to understand and use rules, play that involves turn taking, friendship preferences, clear differences in activities that interest boys and girls. 7 – 12 years.
* Physical development – Skilled at drawing, colouring and manipulating small objects, skilled at throwing and kicking, increased strength and stamina, changes in body shape. * Intellectual development – Problem solving, e.g. how to play co-operatively and how to use materials fairly, beginning to manage own time and take responsibility. * Communication and language development – Stories and writing that shows imagination as well as being legible and reasonably grammatical, able to read and write fluently. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Stable friendships are usually same sex, enjoyment when with their friends, awareness of behaviour and its consequences and increased thoughtfulness.
12 – 16 years.
* Physical development – Changes to body shape as a result of puberty, increase in strength and stamina. * Intellectual development – High level of skills in some subjects. * Communication and language development – Uncertantity of how to talk to unfamiliar adults. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Confidence and enjoyment with friends, thoughts and ideas that may be different to their parents.
16 – 19 years.
* Physical development – Girls now fully developed, boys still likely to be growing until they reach 18 years or so, boys will have higher levels of strength and stamina. * Intellectual development – Increasing levels of intellectual age maturity, allowing young people to make more informed decisions. * Communication and language development – Growing confidence in communicating with older adults. * Emotional, social and behavioural development – Good levels of confidence in young people who have identified their future goals, many young people exploring their sexuality, now responsible for their own behaviour. Describe, with examples, how different aspects of development can affect one another. (004 – 1.2) Different aspects of behaviour can affect one another in loads of different ways. For example: difficulty following instructions.
A child that finds it hard to follow instructions, even simple ones, may find that their parents get annoyed at them easily. This could make the young person feel angry because they can become easily frustrated. The child may feel as if they need to be more withdrawn from others and feel like they can’t talk to anyone. They may feel as if they cannot talk to anyone because they will get annoyed with them. Following this, the child could develop a speech impediment such as stuttering. The child may get frustrated with themselves and stop interaction with other children; they are most likely to have either little or no confidence. This can affect emotional, social and communication development. They may be bullied as they get older because of it which can lead to them feeling isolated and feel unable to talk to anyone about their problems.