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Consumer Behavior Towards Fasion Essay Sample

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In Chapter 1, I have discussed the important issues which related to fashioning adoption. All the issues that mentioned in the chapter 1 are important contributors to the research. As a result, to more understand these issues, an examination of literature on the related study was carried out. As now that, literature review provides the theoretical basis for the development of the research framework of this study, which will be discussing in the next chapter – Chapter 3. This chapter consists of the four variables which are brand awareness, self-concept, product quality, and fashion adoption. 2.1 Brand Awareness

Friedmann (2000) described a brand is not sales or is not a method to cheap customers. A brand has the meaning to the customers, organization, and employees. Brand is an emotional link between the company and customer. It is something what people are purchase when they are purchasing the company product. The most important part of brand’s identity is when the promises are made by the company to the customers. An excellent of brand awareness is done when the company is controlling extension in advertising, promotion, public relations and sales function. Brand awareness can build consistency and repetition. For example, people bought brands that they are known and trust (Friedmann, 2002). From the researcher of Waters (2009), brand awareness refers to the ability of a customer to recognize and recall a name, image or other mark associated with the particular brand. Brand awareness is seen very important because it an ability to reinforce the value of market in the most competitive atmosphere when the retailers able to maintain and build brand awareness (Waters, 2009). Brand awareness is something like the memory that saved in the customer’s mind.

Customers are easily to recall the name of the brand when the memory is saved. Brand awareness is important to promoting products because it will usually get more sales compare to competitors if the company’s products maintain the highest brand awareness. Brad (2009) explains brand awareness is also one of the two most important drivers of strong brands. As past research has shown brand awareness to have a high correlation with purchase behavior. Top-of-mind unaided brand awareness for the product or service category is most correlated with other relevant behaviors. Brand awareness is important because no people willing to purchase the product if no one ever heard the company or the product (Brad, 2009). Generally, consumer has less knowledge about the brand after they purchased the product so that the company should build up brand awareness in order to encourage repeat purchase. As Evan (1989) States, the average consumer has tiny knowledge of which the manufacturer was when clothes is purchased.

Therefore, retailers can cultivate store image dimensions to build up customer’s loyalty in order to encourage repeat purchase (Evan, 1989). Usually, customers would like to purchase the product that they know about the brand. This is how the brand awareness uses to influence the consumer’s decision. Since the brand is stored in the consumer’s mind so that the consumers would like to consume the brand of the product for their whole life. Moreover, according to the Esch, et al (2006) was assuming that brand knowledge such as brand awareness and image will be an affect consumer response to the brand. The consumer’s respond to the brand will divide into two different conditions, which are current behavior and intended future behavior. Current behavior can refer to the purchase of the brand which they are consuming; future behavior refers to the consumer’s purchase intention to the brand in the future (Esch et al, 2006).

Brand knowledge is seen will affect consumer’s decision making, whether they want to purchase the brand because people would not like to purchase the brand that they are without the knowledge of the brand. Furthermore, Esch, et al (2006) expects brand satisfaction and brand trust required brand knowledge, which is brand awareness and image. However, there is no point if the consumer already stores the brand in memory (Esch st al, 2006). The satisfaction and trust of the consumers are the outcome which the consumer had been consumed the product of the brand. For example, people would feel satisfaction or dissatisfaction after they bought the certain brand. On the other side, the trust is built when the brand is fulfilling the promises.

For example, the brand is mention that the material of the clothes is 100% in cotton and as the truth the clothes is 100% in cotton so that the trust is built in this kind of condition. As important here, brand knowledge has to consider first before an outcome of the brand satisfaction and trust. This is because the consumer would not feel anything if they are not aware of the brand. Additionally, the researcher of Esch et al, (2006) finding brand awareness will affect brand image and brand knowledge, which are brand awareness and image will affect the current consumer purchase behavior. However, brand image will influence consumer’s repeat purchase (Esch et al, 2006). In this researcher, was found that brand awareness played a main role in the brand knowledge because it will affect brand image. The image of the brand does not exist when the consumers are not aware of the brand. For example, people unable to come out the image of the brand in mind if they are not aware of the brand. Furthermore, brand awareness will affect the current consumer purchase behavior.

This is because people only will purchase the brand which they are well known. In other words, consumer will purchase the brand that they can recall and recognition. For example, consumer would not have any purchase behavior or intention towards the brand which they do not know. In this brand awareness research, three brands are suggested: Padini, Giordano, and DKNY. These brands are made in Malaysia. Padini Concept Store as known as “one-stop-shopping”. All the brands in just one store and the shopping option are set to create a fashion revolution. The brands are Padini, Seed, Vincci, PDI, Padini Authentics, P & Co, Miki Kids & Miki Maternity. The Padini store contains wide choices from all the brands. Multi-brands store to provide shoppers to create a personalized look with time-saving and never get bored with so many things to shop for in just one store (http://www.padini.com). Giordano’sas cool as well. The brand approach innovative and modern black, white and grey monochromes in a variety of styles.

Giordano has its own manufacturing division where many of its own clothing styles are produced. Giordano also makes basic and practical men’s, women’s, and children’s T-shirts and trousers, especially denims (www.wikipedia.com). DKNY concept was initiated in 199 sual tailored items, sportswear, jeans and shoes (Nygaard, 2005). In sum, brand awareness is about whether a consumer is can to recognition or recall towards the certain brand. It depends how the company to implement the strategy to build brand awareness. Brand awareness is a good strategy to build before the company launch the product. For example, P1Wimax can create the brand awareness when they start to promote the services. Nowadays, a lot of people know about the brand which is P1wimax. Through the secondary data, brand awareness is one of the factors to influence consumer purchase intention.

1.5 Methodology
After the research problem and objective have been set, therefore it provide a direction in order to understand how the consumer behavior towards fashion. Besides, questionnaires-based survey was selected among many types of different research methodologies. This is because fashion adoption would allow the researcher to explore a significant number of issues. The procedure of how the sample is collected is the questionnaire is designed with questions. For the moment, the population is targeted and the sample size is chosen. A survey is conducted to collect the data from the sample. This survey is conducted through hand distribution method. Data collection methods that are used include two categories which are primary data collection and secondary data collection. For secondary data collection, it is accumulated mostly through online information databases. Online databases that have been accessed are Emerald Insight, and other internet sources. The use of secondary data is important since it can be obtained quickly and economically.

Free access provided by the university computer lab has saved a lot of costs and time. Moreover, secondary data tends to provide framework in completing the research. While under primary data collection, survey is used to obtain needed data. As compared to other data collection methods, survey method allows the collection of huge amount of data in an economical manner. Next, is the data analysis consists of descriptive analysis, hypothesis testing, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis. Descriptive research is undertaken to design answer to question of who, what, where, when, and how.

There are two types of descriptive studies which is cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies. Hypothesis testing is a statistical procedure used to “support” (accept) or “not support” (reject) the hypothesis based on sample is the only source of current information about the population. Reliability estimates were determined for the scales based on Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is one of the most used reliability statistics to test the reliability of each variable. Multiple regression is an expansion of bivariate regression analysis and there is more than one independent variables is used in the regression equation. 1.6 Outline of the Project Report

Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter presents the introduction of the research topic which is consumer behavior towards fashion. Background of research had been described which are focus on background of industry and narrow down to research problem. Furthermore, research problem, objective of research, justification for the research, methodology, outline of the project report, delimitation of scope and chapter summary are stated in this chapter. Chapter 2: Literature Review

In this chapter, the literature review is focus on the consumer behavior towards fashion. Besides, provides an extensive review of international journals, reports, and articles from online and offline resources. All the reviews in this chapter are related to the problem of the research that will guide to build the conceptual foundation and hypothesis of the study. Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This chapter describes the methods used in conducting this research in detail. Besides, it presents the development of the research framework which proposed the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables. Furthermore, describe for the sampling design and data analysis. Next, is the data analysis consists of descriptive analysis, hypothesis testing, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis. 1.7 Delimitations of scope

This study will be focusing on fashion clothes for the certain brands as known as apparel industry and the consumer behavior as well. This study scope is limited to students in a private university which is Multimedia University between the age group of 18 to 25, on their behavior towards fashion. Nowadays, fashion clothes had become a necessity among university students and assumption is made that 50 percent of the students would like to fashion adoption. This study will provide the student’s perception on fashion clothes, which will be useful for fashion clothes improvement. 1.8 Chapter Summary

In an overall, this chapter presented the introduction of the research topic which is consumer behavior towards fashion in details. At this chapter, it is all about a background of the research, research problem, objective of research, justification for the research, methodology, outline of the project report, and delimitation of scope. It is because we have to understand the concept of this research before we proceed to the next chapter. First of all, is mentioning why I want to start this research, the purpose of the research, what the problem of the research, what kind of the method I use to analyze, and which scope is preferring for the research? I have clearly identified each of the subtitles. Thus, all the subtitles had been identified and will proceed to next chapter, which will describe the independent and dependent variables in detail. 2.0 Introduction

In Chapter 1, I have discussed the important issues which related to fashioning adoption. All the issues that mentioned in the chapter 1 are important contributors to the research. As a result, to more understand these issues, an examination of literature on the related study was carried out. As now that, literature review provides the theoretical basis for the development of the research framework of this study, which will be discussing in the next chapter – Chapter 3. This chapter consists of the four variables which are brand awareness, self-concept, product quality, and fashion adoption. 2.1 Brand Awareness

Friedmann (2000) described a brand is not sales or is not a method to cheap customers. A brand has the meaning to the customers, organization, and employees. Brand is an emotional link between the company and customer. It is something what people are purchase when they are purchasing the company product. The most important part of brand’s identity is when the promises are made by the company to the customers. An excellent of brand awareness is done when the company is controlling extension in advertising, promotion, public relations and sales function. Brand awareness can build consistency and repetition. For example, people bought brands that they are known and trust (Friedmann, 2002). From the researcher of Waters (2009), brand awareness refers to the ability of a customer to recognize and recall a name, image or other mark associated with the particular brand.

Brand awareness is seen very important because it an ability to reinforce the value of market in the most competitive atmosphere when the retailers able to maintain and build brand awareness (Waters, 2009). Brand awareness is something like the memory that saved in the customer’s mind. Customers are easily to recall the name of the brand when the memory is saved. Brand awareness is important to promoting products because it will usually get more sales compare to competitors if the company’s products maintain the highest brand awareness. Brad (2009) explains brand awareness is also one of the two most important drivers of strong brands. As past research has shown brand awareness to have a high correlation with purchase behavior. Top-of-mind unaided brand awareness for the product or service category is most correlated with other relevant behaviors. Brand awareness is important because no people willing to purchase the product if no one ever heard the company or the product (Brad, 2009).

Generally, consumer has less knowledge about the brand after they purchased the product so that the company should build up brand awareness in order to encourage repeat purchase. As Evan (1989) States, the average consumer has tiny knowledge of which the manufacturer was when clothes is purchased. Therefore, retailers can cultivate store image dimensions to build up customer’s loyalty in order to encourage repeat purchase (Evan, 1989). Usually, customers would like to purchase the product that they know about the brand. This is how the brand awareness uses to influence the consumer’s decision. Since the brand is stored in the consumer’s mind so that the consumers would like to consume the brand of the product for their whole life. Moreover, according to the Esch, et al (2006) was assuming that brand knowledge such as brand awareness and image will be an affect consumer response to the brand. The consumer’s respond to the brand will divide into two different conditions, which are current behavior and intended future behavior. Current behavior can refer to the purchase of the brand which they are consuming; future behavior refers to the consumer’s purchase intention to the brand in the future (Esch et al, 2006).

Brand knowledge is seen will affect consumer’s decision making, whether they want to purchase the brand because people would not like to purchase the brand that they are without the knowledge of the brand. Furthermore, Esch, et al (2006) expects brand satisfaction and brand trust required brand knowledge, which is brand awareness and image. However, there is no point if the consumer already stores the brand in memory (Esch st al, 2006). The satisfaction and trust of the consumers are the outcome which the consumer had been consumed the product of the brand. For example, people would feel satisfaction or dissatisfaction after they bought the certain brand. On the other side, the trust is built when the brand is fulfilling the promises. For example, the brand is mention that the material of the clothes is 100% in cotton and as the truth the clothes is 100% in cotton so that the trust is built in this kind of condition. As important here, brand knowledge has to consider first before an outcome of the brand satisfaction and trust.

This is because the consumer would not feel anything if they are not aware of the brand. Additionally, the researcher of Esch et al, (2006) finding brand awareness will affect brand image and brand knowledge, which are brand awareness and image will affect the current consumer purchase behavior. However, brand image will influence consumer’s repeat purchase (Esch et al, 2006). In this researcher, was found that brand awareness played a main role in the brand knowledge because it will affect brand image. The image of the brand does not exist when the consumers are not aware of the brand. For example, people unable to come out the image of the brand in mind if they are not aware of the brand. Furthermore, brand awareness will affect the current consumer purchase behavior. This is because people only will purchase the brand which they are well known.

In other words, consumer will purchase the brand that they can recall and recognition. For example, consumer would not have any purchase behavior or intention towards the brand which they do not know. In this brand awareness research, three brands are suggested: Padini, Giordano, and DKNY. These brands are made in Malaysia. Padini Concept Store as known as “one-stop-shopping”. All the brands in just one store and the shopping option are set to create a fashion revolution. The brands are Padini, Seed, Vincci, PDI, Padini Authentics, P & Co, Miki Kids & Miki Maternity. The Padini store contains wide choices from all the brands. Multi-brands store to provide shoppers to create a personalized look with time-saving and never get bored with so many things to shop for in just one store (http://www.padini.com). Giordano’sas cool as well.

The brand approach innovative and modern black, white and grey monochromes in a variety of styles. Giordano has its own manufacturing division where many of its own clothing styles are produced. Giordano also makes basic and practical men’s, women’s, and children’s T-shirts and trousers, especially denims (www.wikipedia.com). DKNY concept was initiated in 199 sual tailored items, sportswear, jeans and shoes (Nygaard, 2005). In sum, brand awareness is about whether a consumer is can to recognition or recall towards the certain brand. It depends how the company to implement the strategy to build brand awareness. Brand awareness is a good strategy to build before the company launch the product. For example, P1Wimax can create the brand awareness when they start to promote the services. Nowadays, a lot of people know about the brand which is P1wimax. Through the secondary data, brand awareness is one of the factors to influence consumer purchase intention. 2.2 Self-concept

According to the Allen (2000), self-concept is how we see and feel about our own. We will buy and consume those products that reflect our image in order to let other people see what image we prefer. There are four basic dimensions to the self-concept such as an actual self-concept, ideal self-concept, private self-concept, and social self-concept. These self-concepts are reasons of consumers to consume the products (Allen, 2000). Actual self-concept is a perception which how they see themselves. For example, I am a Multimedia University student. This is my perception and how I describe to others. There are many marketers target segments by the different roles in consumer daily lives. For example, Toyota’s minivans promote the products by using the slogan “It’s all about your family” (Allen, 2000). Parents realize the self-concept and would like to purchase because of concern their children’s safety.

Ideal self-concept is a perception of how they prefer to be. Many consumers purchase and consume the products because they think they are closer to their ideal self-concept. Private self-concept is a perception of how you act. Marketers use these product images to relate to their self-concept. For example, Starkist Tuna is a product as “Dedicated to Living Well and Eating Well” (Allen, 2000). Consumers would like to purchase and consume Starkist Tuna if they feel they are health conscious. People will say that people are healthy when that people are consuming the product. Social self-concept is a perception of how people see ourselves that we are preferred to. Normally, young people want other people accept their appearance so that marketers are marketing clothing brands among young generation. Extended self is a perception of ourselves through our possessions. Possessions are important aspects that we have.

Usually, possessions are things that belong to us, or things that we have received through work hard. Furthermore, Goldsmith et al, (1999) explains the self-concept mentioned the people hold toward theirs manner. The self-concept watches own to include the self-respect or the human value. It’s also includes self-image, or the perception of the people about what they are like. Marketers can easily to estimate the decision that when the consumers select products and brands which to suit or match their image because the self-concept in the common sense of self-image (Goldsmith et al, 1999). Different people have their own different self-concept. The people only will do something that the people willing to do because this is him or her own attitudes. It’s correlation with self-image because the different self-concept has their different self-image. In addition, Self-concept is a combination of the physical and mental and clothes are wearing for functional reason or emotional enhancement (Evan, 1989).

Physical is something that the other people can be observed which another mean is appearance. Generally, some people dress nicely or with the functional of warmth because they want to show their appearance or in the cold season. But, some people might not mind of their appearance so that they will dress simply. Emotional enhancement is to increase the people feeling. For example, people will feel happy if the people wearing the colorful clothes. Moreover, As Goldsmith et al, (1999) research, the results show that female fashion innovators have a unique self-image (Goldsmith et al, 1999). Certainly, different people have their different self-image. For the moment, people will desire the different needs with the different self-concept. For example, student will desire a simple style when they were in school but after 3 or 5 years when they are graduated, they would like to desire a formal style when they are working. The people’s self-concept might change by the time to time or with the different condition. This is how the self-image which correlation with self-concept will influence consumers to adopt the fashion. Additionally, Health and Scott (1998) say that, the study of self-concept is relevance with the image of individuals that lead them to the specific purchase behavior patterns.

For example, consumers may purchase a particular product because they want the particular product to enhance or change their own self-image. Besides, marketers easily to build up effective manner to various target markets with different self-concepts if marketers have an understanding of the self-concept’s influence on purchasing behavior (Health and Scott, 1998). In conclusion, the self-concept is the concept about what we desire for ourselves and different people will have the different self-concept. For example, people purchase and consume the products because the particular product is reflecting our own image. The certain image is depended how we desire or how we would like to let other people observe. Through the data obtain, the self-concept is affecting purchasing behavior because different people prefer different brand. According to Sebastianelli and Tamimi (2002) research, the relationship of how firm defines quality and product quality dimensions are important to its competitive strategy.

Product quality consists of eight dimensions: performance, features, reliability, other words, we can say that consumer’s purchasing behavior is depending how they’re perceived quality. For example, consumer will purchase fashion brand because they think quality equal to the brand, means that people purchase the brand because of the quality. Moreover, from the marketer’s perspective, product quality is based on specification, feature, function or performance of a product (Yoon and Kijewski, 1997). As we know, different consumer has their different needs and wants so that marketer is to promote the product by different attribute which in product quality to satisfy consumer’s needs and wants. For example, a consumer is desiring attribute in sweet taste so that the marketer has to promote the product which in sweet taste to the consumer. In addition, Wong and Zhou (2004) states, perceived quality towards brand effect on buying behavior is greater for low social compliance group compare to the high social compliance group.

In general, there are differences in consumers’ buying behavior between high and low social compliance. High social compliance has been high peer or group pressure to the people who are making decision (Wong and Zhou, 2004). In this research, shows that product quality is affecting the consumer’s decision making who is less influence by group. In other words, people who are without a group preferring will care about the product quality. Therefore, the product quality must be enhancing in order to satisfy the needs and wants of the consumers. Otherwise, consumers would not like to consume the brand. Additionally, from the researcher of Tsiotsou (2005), the results show that purchase intentions are low in the low perceived quality group and high in the high perceived quality group. However, consumers have the higher intention to buy sport shoes again if they perceive the quality of sport shoes (Tsiotsou, 2005).

Through the research, purchase intention of consumers is caused by high perceiver quality. People would like to buy it because of the product quality, and it also will build the repeat purchase. In brief, product quality is important to build a relationship with customers because it can influence customers to post purchase. Different consumers will desire different product quality so that product quality is not only about the durability of the product, but it must consider also for the feature, performance, and etc. An excellent quality of product is the factor to influence the consumer purchase behavior. As we know, people would not like to purchase and consume the low quality of product when there is similar price.

3.0 Introduction
In the literature review, I have been identified the factors which would contribute the fashion adoption. However, for this study, the factors that we have identified not necessary will be the factors to contribute in the fashion adoption. Therefore, a test against all these factors has been conducted and the result will much contribute in this study. In chapter 3, is going to present in detail of the method used in conducting the research. It is a challenge for this study to integrate all these variables in order to be tested against the fashion adoption. 3.1 Theoretical frameworks of the consumer behavior towards fashion I have reviewed all the variables in the chapter 2. For the moment, I am going to develop the research frameworks as known as a model. This model is showing how the different behavior of consumer that contribute to the fashion adoption.

The research framework is consisted of two parts, which are independent variables and dependent variables. The independent variables included brand awareness, self-concept, and product quality and the dependent variable is fashion adoption. In this study, combines three of the different consumer behavior which is brand awareness among certain fashion brands, the self-concept to influence fashion adoption, and perceived high product quality to select fashion in the research framework. These independent variables are illustrated and identified the important behavior could cause the fashion adoption.

At the end of the research, brand awareness among the certain fashion brands is known about how the respondent’s behavior to decide by their brand awareness. Whether they would have purchase intention when they are aware of the certain brand. Second independent variable is the self concept, through the research, we will know the self-concept of the different consumer will have their own decision, whether they would like to fashion adoption. The last independent variable is product quality, which wants to know about would the consumers perceived high product quality so that they will choose to fashion adoption. All these independent variables would affect the dependent variables which are fashion adoption. 3.2 Hypotheses development

Based on the literature review and research framework formed, nine specific hypotheses are developed within these components from the overall frame work. The null hypotheses are: 1.H1=Brand awareness will have a significant positive effect on fashion adoption. 2.H2= Self-concept will have a significant negative effect on fashion adoption. 3.H3= Product quality will have a significant relationship with fashion adoption. 4.H4= All the variables will have a significant effect on fashion adoption. 3.3 Sampling design

3.3.1 Target population
According to the Malhotra (2009), the target population is the collection of elements that provide the information which the researcher is seeking. It is important that the researcher to define target population if the data collect is to address the marketing research problem (Malhotra, 2009). In this research, the study will be focusing on fashion clothes for the certain brands as known as apparel industry and the consumer behavior as well. This study scope is limiting to students in a private university which is Multimedia University between the age group of 18 to 25, on their behavior towards fashion clothes. 3.3.2 Sampling design method

Sampling design method is a mean for selecting people or items from a population for a survey. There are two types of sampling techniques, which are non probability sampling and probability sampling. In this study, non-probability sample is using to conduct the survey. Types of
non-probability sampling are convenience, judgmental, quota, and snowball. Under the types of non-probability sample, the convenience sample is used in this study. The convenience sampling is a type of non-probability sample in which the population is selected easily based on the convenience of the researcher. Respondents are selected because they happen in the right place at the right time (Malhotra, 2009). The procedure of how the sample is collected is the questionnaire is designed with questions. For the moment, the population is targeted and the sample size is chosen. A survey is conducted to collect the data from the sample. This survey is conducted through hand distribution method. 3.3.3 Sample size

Sample size refers to the number of elements to be included in the study. There are two types of sample size, which is qualitative and quantitative research. In this study, quantitative research is applied. Quantitative research seeks to quantify the data. It seeks data based on large and involving some statistical analysis form (Malhotra, 2009). In this research, there is using a formula to get how many respondents are required as follows: 50+8m= respondents

50+8(4)= 82 respondents
The formula is showing that, there is the minimum number of the respondents which is 82 respondents for the research. 3.3.4 Sample procedure

After the research problem and objective have been set, therefore it provided a direction in order to understand how the consumer behavior towards fashion. Next, I would like to analysis the secondary data analysis. I have provided some idea and support through the literature review. Besides, questionnaires-based survey was selected among many types of different research methodologies. This is because fashion adoption would allow the researcher to explore a significant number of issues. Furthermore, Questionnaires-based survey consists of two types, which are cross-sectional design and longitudinal design, but I am only using cross-sectional design in order to save time because it means one time collection and I believe that the cross-sectional design that I have done is valuable and reliable. 3.4 Data Collection

Data collection methods are used to include two categories, which are primary data collection and secondary data collection. For secondary data collection, it is accumulated mostly through online information databases. Online databases that have been accessed are Emerald Insight, and other internet sources. The use of secondary data is important since it can be obtained quickly and economically. Free access provided by the university computer lab has saved a lot of costs and time. Moreover, secondary data tends to provide the framework in completing the research. When come to primary data collection, survey is used to obtain needed data. As in comparison to other data collection methods, survey method allows the collection of a huge amount of data in an economical manner. 3.4.1 Secondary Data

Secondary data have previously been gathered by someone other than the researcher and for some other purpose than the research project at hand. Secondary data refer to the process of searching for and interpreting existing information relevant to the research objectives. Secondary data are the data that have been collected for some other purpose. In general, library and Internet are full of secondary data, which include information found in books, journals, magazines, special reports, bulletin, newsletters, and so on (Burns and Bush, 2008) . 3.4.2 Primary Data

Primary data refer to information that is developed or gathered by the researcher, specifically for the research project and at hand (Burns and Bush, 2008). 3.5 Data analysis
The data analysis will be a focus on chapter 4 and this study will be going to apply some method to analyze the data from the respondent. The data which collected from the questionnaire were then analyzed using descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, hypothesis testing and multiple regression analysis. 3.5.1 Descriptive Analysis

Descriptive research is undertaken to design answer to question of who, what, where, when, and how. When we wish to know who our customers are, what brands they buy and in what quantities, where they buy the brands, when they shop, and how they found out about our products, we turn to descriptive research. Descriptive research is also desirable when we wish to project a study’s findings to a larger population. If a descriptive study’s sample is representative, the findings may be used to predict some variables of interest such as sales (Burns and Bush, 2008). There are two types of descriptive studies, which are cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies. Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time. Longitudinal studies repeatedly measure the same sample units of a population over a period of time (Burns and Bush, 2008). 3.5.2 Hypotheses Testing

It’s a statistical procedure used to “support” (accept) or “not support” (reject) the hypothesis based on sample is the only source of current information about the population. Because our sample is a probability sample and therefore representative of the population, the sample results are used to determine whether or not the hypothesis about the population parameter has been supported (Burns and Bush, 2008). Reliability Analysis

Reliability estimates were determined for the scales based on Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is one of the most used reliability statistics to test the reliability of each variable. It verifies the internal consistency or average correlation of items in a survey instrument to measure its reliability. In general, reliabilities less than 0.60 is considered to be poor, those in the 0.70 range, acceptable, and those over 0.80 good (Sekaran, 2005). Multiple Regression Analysis

It’s an expansion of bivariate regression analysis and there is more than one independent variables is used in the regression equation. The addition of independent variable makes the regression model more realistic because predictions normally depend on multiple factors, not just one (Burns and Bush, 2008). 3.6 Chapter Summary

This chapter describes the methods used in conducting this research in detail. Besides, it presents the development of the research framework which proposed the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables. Furthermore, describe for the sampling design and data analysis. Next, is the data analysis consists of descriptive analysis, hypothesis testing, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis.

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