Alcohol misuse and smoking are major public health problems, placing a heavy burden on society, and affecting a large number of individuals of all ages. Contrary to what many people believe, alcohol, as one of the many health problems, is not a stimulant. It is a depressant. This is why drinking too much often leads to impaired judgment, slurring of the speech, a tendency to violent behavior and loss of short-term memory. Similar to alcohol is smoking. Smoking is the inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. Casual smoking is the act of smoking only occasionally, usually in a social situation or to relieve stress. Major diseases caused by smoking
We all know smoking is bad for our health. Most people know that smoking can cause lung cancer, but it can also cause many other cancers and illnesses. Smoking directly causes over 100,000 deaths in the UK each year and contributes too many more. Of these deaths, about 42,800 are from smoking-related cancers, 30,600 from cardiovascular disease and 29,100 die slowly from emphysema and other chronic lung diseases. Cigarettes contain more than 4000 chemical compounds and at least 400 toxic substances. When you inhale, a cigarette burns at 700°C at the tip and around 60°C in the core. This heat breaks down the tobacco to produce various toxins. On average, each cigarette shortens a smoker’s life by around 11 minutes. Of the 300 people who die every day in the UK as a result of smoking, many are comparatively young smokers. The number of people under the age of 70 who die from smoking-related diseases exceeds the total figure for deaths caused by breast cancer, AIDS, traffic accidents and drug addiction.
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death due to smoking. Hardening of the arteries is a process that develops over years, when cholesterol and other fats deposit in the arteries, leaving them narrow, blocked or rigid. When the arteries narrow (atherosclerosis), blood clots are likely to form. Smoking accelerates the hardening and narrowing process in your arteries: it starts earlier and blood clots are two to four times more likely. Cardiovascular disease can take many forms depending on which blood vessels are involved, and all of them are more common in people who smoke. About 100,000 people in the UK die each year due to smoking. Smoking-related deaths are mainly due to cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart disease. About half of all smokers die from smoking-related diseases. If you are a long-term smoker, on average, your life expectancy is about 10 years less than a non-smoker. Put another way, in the UK about 8 in 10 non-smokers live past the age of 70, but only about half of long-term smokers live past 70.
The younger you are when you start smoking, the more likely you are to smoke for longer and to die early from smoking. Many smoking-related deaths are not quick deaths. For example, if you develop COPD you can expect several years of illness and distressing symptoms before you die. Smoking increases the risk of developing a number of other diseases. Many of these may not be fatal, but they can cause years of unpleasant symptoms. As smoking also causes many deaths in our society, heavy drinking can cause sickness and nausea, and sometimes diarrhea. Alcohol also has a dehydrating effect, which is the main reason why excessive drinking can lead to a hangover. It can also lead to temporary impotence in men. Either on its own or in conjunction with other factors, alcohol is estimated to be responsible for at least 33,000 deaths in the UK each year. Major diseases caused by alcohol
The short term health risks of alcohol include:
* Sexual difficulties such as impotence
* Impaired judgement leading to accidents and injuries
* Slowed breathing and heartbeat
* Loss of consciousness
* Suffocation through choking on your own vomit (aspiration)
* Potentially fatal poisoning
Drinking heavily also increases your calorie intake, and it is frequently associated with obesity. This in turn leads to increased health risks. Adding 3 or 4 units per day to your usual diet would lead to an increase in weight of around 4lbs in four weeks. The good news is that the short term effects of drinking are reversible. When you reduce your drinking, the symptoms improve. In the long term, alcohol can contribute to a variety of problems, including damage to an unborn child, liver disease, osteoporosis (thinning of the bones), pancreatitis, stomach ulcers, infertility, heart disease, raised blood pressure, stroke, dementia and brain damage. It can also lead to an increased risk of a variety of cancers, particularly breast cancer and cancer of the gullet. It is also frequently associated with mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Conclusion:
In conclusion, stopping smoking is the single biggest thing you can do to improve your health, but it’s a difficult task. Smokers who are trying to kick their habit may be disappointed to find there’s no single quit method that guarantees success. The weight of evidence suggests that smokers should set a date to stop, and do their best to quit completely from this point. Research shows that people who take part in a full ‘quit smoking’ program, including behavioral therapies and medication may increase their chance of successfully quitting from about 3 per cent on willpower alone to over 30 per cent.
On average, each cigarette shortens a smoker’s life by around 11 minutes. A single cigarette can reduce the blood supply to your skin for over an hour. The effects of alcoholism which are physical, psychological, and economic can cause many problems that affect your life in all aspects. Alcohol alters your brain, muscles, digestion process, and other disorders that affect your health. It also can cause you depression or changes in your behavior that result in problems with your family, friends, and with yourself. Besides, it will leave you in poverty because it cost a lot. Finally, I invite you to think about it and ask you why drink it?