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Cross Cultural Management Essay Sample

Cross Cultural Management Pages
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Article 1 –
Simulation training methods to develop cultural awareness
This paper aims to review stimulation methods which are available for the training to develop cultural awareness for business people. The paper reviews the methods of training available and cites the advantages, disadvantages and examples of good practice. Paper found that development of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity is of a fundamental importance for those working in international community. The methods described in this paper involve simulation exercises for use at various levels of business training. (Hurn, 2011) Article 2 –

Cross-cultural perspectives for quality training
This report focuses on the training methods opted by organizations to train employees according to different culture and suggest ways to improve the training quality by the analysis of needs within expatriates. It also suggests some countries where these training programs can be done and it matches the indicated needs with global business growth pattern. It also shows a report of survey of trainers and a review of global commerce which reveals a high mismatch between countries identified and emerging global markets. It also cites a strong need for reformulating cross-cultural training strategies and processes. (Grahn and Swenson, 2000)

Article 3 –
Enhancing Managerial Cross-cultural Awareness and Sensitivity: Transactional Analysis Revisited According to the study major problem faced by organizations in today’s world is how to prepare managers to operate effectively within different culture. Many organizations use cross-cultural management training for the managers. New approach has been introduced to enhance the training process. It’s a psychotherapeutic counseling method – Transactional Analysis. Present framework makes sure managers achieve an “adult ego state”. By using transactional analysis it will not only enhance sensitivity and awareness but also lead to greater usage and appreciation for cross-cultural training by organizations. (Park and Kline, 1993)

Article 4 –
Organizational training across cultures: variations in practices and attitudes Purpose of this paper is to provide synthesis based on review of the existing methods of training practices and attitudes across national cultures. To see the difference content analysis technique was adopted to compare cross-cultural training methods adopted by various nations. Study found that HRM/HRD practitioners should consider the complexity of diverse cultural difference while managing the training in culturally diverse settings. (Storti and Hassi, 2011)

Article 5 –
A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs The purpose of this study is to know the best practices of cross-cultural training in terms of what organizations are doing and what they should be doing. Study has also tries to investigate the following questions (a) why is CCT an important research domain, (b) what is the general purpose of CCT, (c) how is CCT designed and delivered, (d) which CCT strategies are organizations currently implementing, (e) what guidelines can be offered to organizations offering CCT and (f) what additional research is needed. The study tries to contribute to the existing cross-cultural training research by providing a condensed set of guidelines instructing organizations on the methods necessary for organizations to maximize their cross-cultural training. (Littrell and Salas, 2005)

Article 6 –
Pre-departure training for international business managers
The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of pre-departure training. The various types of pre departure trainings are considered with their advantages and the need of sufficient time and the need of training. Areas covered include cross-cultural awareness, communication skills, specific country/regional briefing. According to the study there is still a relative lack in pre-departure training for international managers although benefits are now more widely accepted. (Hurn, 2007)

Article 7 –
Cross-cultural training to facilitate expatriate adjustment: it works! This paper studies the effects of different types of cross-cultural training on expatriates adjustment and whether prior international experience and cultural distance have an impact on effectiveness of cross-cultural training. This paper also consists of a sample by sending employees from different countries to India and then examines the effect of international experience and cultural distance. (Waxin, 2005)

Article 8 –
A meta-analysis of the effects of cross-cultural training on expatriate performance and adjustment This study provides analysis of cross-cultural training given by organizations to their managers. Organizations are increasingly relying on cross-cultural training of international managers to reduce personnel costs. Previous researches have shown consistent validity of different training methods. This meta-analysis investigates the methods and recommendations provided by different authors for different organizations in different countries. (Morris and Robie, 2001)

Article 9 –
Cross-cultural training, expatriate self-efficacy, and adjustments to overseas assignments: An empirical investigation of managers in Asia The paper presents the findings of an empirical study that investigated the relationship between cross-cultural training effectiveness, self efficiency and adjustment of expatriate managers in Asia. Study also did a survey among 169 managers from different nations and found that relationship between cross-cultural training effectiveness and adjustment is mediated by an increase in self-efficiency. (Gani, 2009)

Article 10 –
Cross-cultural training and expatriate adjustment in China: Western joint venture managers The purpose of this study was to examine whether western expatriates in joint ventures benefit from cross-cultural training. In order to do the study a mail questioner was formed and was mailed to expatriates appointed by organizations in China. Results showed that training had a week positive association with work adjustment for expatriates in joint ventures but no relationship with work adjustments for western managers in other types of operations. (Selmer, 2005)

References

Park, H. and Kline, J. (1993) Enhancing Managerial Cross-cultural Awareness and Sensitivity: Transactional Analysis Revisited. Journal of Management Development, 12 (3) June, pp. 20-29. Grahn, J. (2000) Cross-cultural perspective for quality training. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 7 (3) August, pp. 19-24. Hurn, B. (2011) Simulation training methods to develop cultural awareness. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43 (4) August, pp. 199-205. Hassi, A. and Storti, G. (2011) Organizational training across cultures: variations in practices and attitudes. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35 (1) January, pp. 45-70. Hurn, B. (2007) Pre-departure training for international business managers. Industrial and Commercial Training, 39 (1) April, pp. 9-17. Morris, A. and Robie, C. (2001) A meta-analysis of the effects of cross-cultural training on expatriate performance and adjustment. International Journal of Training & Development, 5 (2) June, pp. 112-126. Waxin, M. (2005) Cross-cultural training to facilitate expatriate adjustment: It works!. Personnel Review, 34 (1) July, pp. 51-67. Littrell, L. and Salas, E. (2005) A Review of Cross-Cultural Training: Best Practices, Guidelines, and Research Needs. Human Resource Development Review, 4 (3) September, pp. 305-334. Gani, A. (2009) Cross-cultural training, expatriate
self-efficacy, and adjustments to overseas assignments: An empirical investigation of managers in Asia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33 (4) July, pp. 277-290.

Selmer, J. (2005) Cross-cultural training and expatriate adjustment in China: Western joint venture managers. Personnel Review, 34 (1) March, pp. 68-84.

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