The lake is having a total catchment area of 337 km2, out of which Telbal-Dachigham is largest catchment (234 km2), which is further divided into the Telbal-Dara (89 km2) and Dachigham National Wildlife Reserve (141 km2) sub-catchments. While most of the Dachigham National Wildlife Reserve is drained primarily by Dachigham Creek (perennial flows), which splits into smaller streams in its lower reaches: (1) Telbal Creek, (2) Pishpuw Creek, and (3) Meerakshah Creek.These streams enter the Hazratbal Basin of Dal Lake from the north-northeast. Lake Hillside catchment (46 km2) rises from 1582 m to 2924 m above sea level.
High elevations in this catchment are mostly barren, except for sparse stands of Pinus, Deodar and Kail located on ridges and along southern slopes. Its lower slopes are being rapidly developed for residential use, and hotels, restaurants, and shopping malls with associated parking lots have been constructed in riparian areas adjacent to the lake. In comparison, Srinagar Centre (14 km2) and Srinagar North (24 km2) catchments are mostly flat and nearly completely urbanized, being mainly within Srinagar City. Major sections of downtown Srinagar City are within the Srinagar Centre catchment, in which there are negligible areas of undeveloped land. Dal Lake has three outlets, one to the south, and two one to the west. The Dal Lock Gate and Nallah Amir Khan outlets are regulated by a weir system, and flow almost year round, while the Brari-Numbal outflow discharges out water by gravity into River Jehlum.
The lakes are subject to degradation from natural causes such as siltation and accumulation of nutrients brought with the water flowing in to the lake. However, human activity untempered with consideration for the environmental health of lakes has vastly accelerated their degradation. The causes lie both in the catchment as well as inside the lake. It begins with the change in the land use. It results in denudation of slopes of tree cover, expanding the area under agriculture, construction of residential and commercial complexes in the surrounding area with liquid waste being discharged in to the lake.
Diversion of water that would flow into the lake for other purposes such as irrigation and drinking, and encroachment of the lake and conversion of land under water in to dry land by expanding floating gardens are other important causes of degradation. Inside dal lakes people live, carry out cultivation in water and discharge their waste in to the water body. The consequence of these and other activities for the Dal Lake, has been that degradation of varying degrees has set in them. In view of the importance of Dal Lake and increasing threat to its conservation it is necessary to come up with various planning strategies which can help us plan the surroundings areas in such a way that the dal is preserved and restored to its original beauty .
The objective adopted is to prepare a various planning strategies which will help to transform the unplanned into planned is such a way that is Sustainable, Environment Friendly, Cost Effective and improves Ecology with minimum interventions and displacement and serves the diverse interests of various stake holders involved (hotel owners, shikara walas,houseboat dwellers etc) in an optimal manner.
The scope of the thesis has been limited to confines of the actual area of dal includind the floating gardens and its catchment area. An effort has beeb made to study the impact of settlements (in and around) on dal lake and come up with planning strategies for the same. The stress is to identify the main problems and issues due to which dal is deteriorating and come up with possible solutions for that. DATA IDENTIFICATION
Maps- current land use and previous land use(Source: TPO,LAWDA) Population –Tables (source: sda, lawda)
Sources of pollution(point , non point) – maps , tables (source: lawda, ueed) Status of lake area
1-reduction in water channel 2- fresh water inflow – maps , statictical data (source : lawda, tpo)