1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Age, income, length of labor, and number of hours worked per week. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? Descriptive statistics. Length of labor was described in hours. Frequency(30) and mean(14.63) describe the data 3. What other statistics could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale. Another measurement that could have been used is range to measure the length of labor from lowest to highest value. Range could measure the length of labor and what it produces to see difference in the data. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale. They are similar, however the experimental group has slightly higher dispersion (n=30 and SD= 7.78) than control group (N=33 and SD=7.2). 5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale. Yes, the percentages are similar for both the experimental and control groups.

Breast feeding percentages are 40.6% and 41.7% respectively, bottle feeding is the mode for the groups with percentages of 53.1% and 50%, and both bottle and breast percentages are 6.3% and 5.6%. 6. What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status for both groups. Both groups’ marital status modes are married, with 25 out of 32 or 78.1% for the experimental group, and 31 out of 35 or 86.1% in the control group. 7. Could the median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and control groups? Provide rationale.

No. Education is measured qualitatively and would need to be measured quantitatively, for example years of education(10,11,12….) for a median to be derived. 8. Can the findings be generalized to black women? Provide rationale. No, the sample is predominantly white in both groups, therefore would not be a good representation of black women. 9. If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects in the control group, why is the income data only reported for 30 subjects in the experimental group and 34 in the control group? Because of missing data stated by the study. 10. Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide rationale. Yes. All the demographic information that was provided is relevant and impacts study results.

Exercise 16

1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval/ratio

d. experimental

2. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group? 97.12. 3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean depression scores for the experimental group is 14.0 and the Post-test mean depression score is 13.36 indicative of a decrease in depression levels. 4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean baseline and posttest depression score for the control group are the equal. This is understandable because the control group did not receive additional therapy. I believe that these scores strengthen the experiment as the control group shows no deviation before or after, whereas the experimental group’s posttest depression scores decrease. 5. Which groups’ test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The control group has the least amount of variability because of no changes in depression baseline (SD=10.34) and posttest (SD=10.34) level. There was little change in the mean scores, a decrease in self-care/self-efficacy scores, and no change in the depression scores. Since the control group is used to determine if the experiment group has any positive or negative changes, the control group’s scores should have as little change as possible. 6. Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer. The empowerment variable for the experiment group showed the largest dispersion of 6.61. The self-care/self-efficacy group only had 6.14 points of dispersion.

There were more significant improvements in those areas between the experimental and control groups. 7. The mean (X) is a measure of central tendency of a distribution while the SD is a measure of dispersion of its scores. Both and SD are descriptive statistics. 8. What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean severity is 6.74 and the SD is 2.97 and did not vary much between the experimental and control groups. The findings show that the variation of the severity scores showed a positive impact on the ESRD patients.

9. Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer. The Group that was least affected by the study was the depressed group as there were few changes among the experiment and controlled groups, 0.7% improvement in the experimental group, none in the control group and only a 0.32 total mean. The depression variable of empowerment program was least affected and the depression variable of control group are same at baseline and posttests. 10. Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study. Provide a rationale for your results? Yes, it was important to include the total means and SDs to help readers understand the study results because it gives a more complete picture. When you look at a baseline of 98.40 for empowerment and the SD is 9.19, it helps us understand how far from the average person someone in this study is.