(PEDS) in sports is commonly referred to as doping. The word doping is probably derived from the Dutch word dop, the name of an alcoholic beverage made of grape skins used by Zulu warriors in order to enhance their prowess in battle. The term became current around the turn of the 20th century, originally referring to illegal drugging of racehorses. ‘Doping’ however is as old as competitive sport itself. Modern times – In 1904 Olympics marathon runner, Thomas Hicks, was using a mixture of brandy and strychnine and nearly died. Mixtures of strychnine, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine were used widely by athletes . 1928 – The International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF), the governing body for the sport of track and field, become the first international sporting federation to prohibit doping by athletes. Soldiers Use Amphetamines (first ‘effective’ performance enhancing drugs) during WWII. The “Godfather of Steroids,” Dr. John Bosley Zieglar, creates an anabolic steroid called Dianabol. FDA Approves First Anabolic Steroid for Sale in US. 1960 – Danish cyclist, Knut Jensen First Athlete to Die in Olympic Competition Due to Doping. 1967 – British cyclist Tommy Simpson on Amphetamines Becomes First Death Due to Doping in the Tour de France the International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes the Medical Commission to fight against doping in sports.
Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a member of the Swedish modern pentathlon team, was stripped of his bronze medal at the Mexico City Olympics (1968) when he tested positive for excessive alcohol. 1972 – First Full-Scale Drug Testing of Olympic Athletes for Narcotics and Stimulants 1975 – Anabolic Steroids Added to IOC’s Banned Substances List 1976 – Steroid Testing Conducted for the First Time at the Montreal Olympics Nov. 10, 1999 – World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Is Established based on World Conference on Doping in Sport held in Lausanne on 2-4 February 1999 produced the Lausanne Declaration on Doping in Sport. This document provided for the creation of an independent international anti-doping agency to be fully operational for the Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney in 2000. The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) is the independent anti-doping agency for Olympic sports in the United States begins operations Oct. 1, 2000, with full authority for testing, education, research and adjudication for U.S. Olympic, Pan Am and Paralympic athletes 2002 – Dr. Don Catlin, a pioneer of drug testing in sports, identifies norbolethone, the first reported designer anabolic steroid, in an athlete’s urine sample for the first time.
2005-2007 – UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport . It is a practical and legally binding tool enabling governments to align domestic policy with the World Anti-Doping Code (2004), thus harmonizing the rules governing anti-doping in sport. It formalizes governments’ commitment to the fight against doping in sport, including by facilitating doping controls and supporting national testing programs; withholding financial support from those who engage in or support doping; encouraging the establishment of codes of conduct for professions relating to sport and anti-doping; and funding education and research. 2009 -The National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) formed which is the national organization responsible for promoting, coordinating, and monitoring the doping control programme in sports in all its forms in the country. NADA works towards a vision of ‘dope free’ sport in India. Envisaged in the Copenhagen Declaration on Anti-Doping in Sport (2004) Separate Disciplinary and Appeal Panel.
Justice Mukul Mudgal Committee Why do Athletes Take Drugs? Pressure to succeed, either from themselves or coaches/family Belief that their competitors are taking drugs Pressure from governments/national authorities (as occurred in the eastern bloc countries in the 60’s and 70’s) Financial rewards for outstanding performance Lack of access to, or funding for training facilities and additional support (nutrition, psychological support) Community and media attitudes and expectations of success Stimulants: Drugs that boost bodily functions, including heart rate and brain activity. Examples: cocaine, adrafinil Anabolic steroids: This category of steroids stimulates muscle growth and can allow athletes to train harder and recover more quickly. They work like testosterone, meaning that they can cause a deepened voice and increased body hair in female athletes. Some athletes take normal testosterone instead, which has the same effect. Though testosterone is a natural hormone, illegal use of it can be detected. Examples: drostanolone, tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) Narcotics: Painkillers used to control pain from injuries or allow athletes to train for longer. If they are being used in order to ignore an injury, athletes obviously risk doing further damage.
Examples: morphine, heroin Peptide hormones: Naturally-occurring substances that circulate in the blood, and can improve muscle growth, change the balance of other hormones and increase production of red blood cells, which increases oxygen delivery. Examples: insulin, human growth hormone Beta2 agonists: The kind of drug found in asthma inhalers. As in the treatment of asthma, when inhaled they relax the airways, allowing more oxygen to reach the blood. Examples: salbutamol, terbutalene Diuretics: Not performance-enhancing drugs on their own, but used as masking agents to get rid of the traces of other drugs. Diuretics increase the production of urine, and some athletes use them to try to flush out residue from steroids. They can also be used to shed water as a temporary weight loss measure in sports with weight categories (boxing, equestrian sports). Naturally-occurring diuretics include alcohol and caffeine. Blood doping The name of this process is slightly misleading: it should not be confused with ‘doping’ in general. Blood doping may or may not involve a drug. It is the process of artificially increasing the concentration of red blood cells in the blood.
More red cells result in more oxygenated blood reaching the muscles. The red blood cell level, as a percentage of the blood, is called haematocrit. In men the normal haematocrit range is 40-54 per cent, and in women it is 37-47 per cent. In cycling, a sport prone to blood doping, authorities now test haematocrit levels and ban those above 50%. Athletes with naturally high levels must prove it by being tested over several months. There are two main methods of blood doping. An athlete could inject extra red cells, either from a donor or previously harvested from the athlete’s own blood, or take a drug to boost their production. The drug most commonly used to boost red cell production is erythropoietin. Erythropoietin can cause heart attacks or blood clotting if used excessively, and may also damage the immune system (the white blood cells). Urine replacement (whizzinator) Delayed, Random testing (incompetition; out of competition) Diuretics, Masking agents Blood transfusion Novel methods n designer drugs (ex : water-based, injectable steroids)
THE CURIOUS CASE OF LANCE ARMSTRONG July 14, 2004: Armstrong is accused of using performance-enhancing drugs before and during the 1999 Tour de France in a book released just weeks before the start of the 2004 Tour de France, “L.A. Confidential: The Secrets of Lance Armstrong” by Pierre Ballester and The Sunday Times sports correspondent David Walsh. March 31, 2005: Armstrong’s former personal assistant Mike Anderson claims he found a box of androstenone while cleaning Armstrong’s bathroom. Armstrong denied the claim and issued a countersuit. Armstrong and Anderson reached an out-of-court settlement. May 31, 2006: Armstrong is cleared of doping allegations stemming from a drug test in 1999. June 23, 2006: “Le Monde” reports claims made by Armstrong’s former teammate Frankie Andreu and Andreu’swife Betsy that Armstrong admitted in 1996 to having taken the blood-boosting hormone EPO and other banned substances.
Feb. 16, 2011: Armstrong says he will retire from cycling for good. May 19, 2011: Tyler Hamilton, Armstrong’s former teammate, says he used PEDs with Armstrong to cheat in cycling. The future of cheating New ‘undetectable’ drugs New ways to administer existing drugs without being detected skin patches, for example, can deliver a steady dosage of the drug, which is harder to detect Genetic therapy: injecting genes directly into muscles, lungs or other target areas this was achieved some time ago in trials on animals The nature of genetic therapy treatments means they will probably be almost impossible to detect. WHAT CAN WE DO??