The media represents Mexico drug scene as a replica of the Colombian Model. Mexico did not begin to traffic drugs until sixty years ago before the Colombians decided to get into the trade. There are two different political systems in both countries; the history and the structural relationship of the drug traffickers to the political powers in Mexico. Where did drug trafficking begin and exactly where did it come from. Nowadays, all I hear in the news is that the drugs were traffic through the border of Mexico. Everything is always coming from Mexico, not Colombia or Cuba. How do we stop drug traffickers from crossing drugs across the border. The lack of research that needs to be done to stop the drug traffickers is another reason why the Colombians have picked up on what the Mexican drug traffickers have been doing for the past six decades. The concerns in the drug trafficking is the historical sociology of drug trafficking, the drug use, and the relationship between drug traffickers and the political powers in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to show the comprehensive vision of drug related problems in Mexico since the end of the last century.
The nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century drugs such as marijuana, opiates and cocaine were commonly used in Mexico, special opiates such as morphine and heroin were used as basic medical reasons. Pharmaceuticals such as cocaine, coca wine, and marijuana cigarettes were only prescribed by doctors and can easily be obtained by pharmacies. The Mexican authorizes were concerned about the quality of these products and tried to protect the consumers. In the nineteenth century addicts were considered as ill people and not as criminals now in the twenty first century. There were attempts to control the poppy, marijuana and laudanum since the 1870s, but there was no success in controlling the substances (Riley, 2011).
In the first decade of the twentieth century the U.S. government was very active in the international affairs trying to convince other countries to try and control the opium and create a law to punish the offenders. In 1909 was the beginning for the U.S.A. to control opium diplomacy on drugs at the Shanghai Conference (Willoughby, 2003). The Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 was approved in the U.S.A to control the consumption of opium and a reason for the Americans officials to expand the drugs laws worldwide. At that time the Mexican revolution was taking place, but the Mexican revolutionary leaders were more interested in political survival them controlling the drug trafficking.
Poppy culture already existed in Mexico since 1886 in the north western state of Sinaloa. Dr. Jose Ramirez Rodriguez proposed an amendment XVI of article 73 of the Constitution. This amendment gave Congress the power to dictate the laws for a healthier country. The reason for this amendment was the concern about the alcoholism, the selling of substances; which poisoned the individuals and degraded the Mexican race. Dr. Jose Ramirez Rodriguez named opium, morphine, ether, cocaine, and marijuana to stop the abuse of these substances and to bring Mexico to a healthier country (Riley, 2011). Mortality had increased because of the lack of official control on those drugs. The drugs that were mentioned that are banded were only going to be used for medical purposes only. The amendment was approved
Most of the drug trafficking was taking place in Mexicali and Tijuana; the Baja California, that was governed by Colonel Esteban Cantu from 1916 – 1920 and he was a suspect of the American authorities of controlling opium and trafficking it to the United States. The congressman was more concerned about the public health then the revenue of the opium trafficking. Years later, Poppy fields were concentrated besides Sinaloa, north western states such as Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango (Riley, 2011).
Marijuana culture and commercialization was illegal in Mexico in 1920 and poppy in 1926, but the Mexican officials argue that this is race degeneration and it was provoked by these other drugs such as cocaine. The drug use and abuse in Mexico was not wide spread, but the number of people concerned was far from the figure of its northern neighbor. Marijuana use was usually related to soldiers, criminals, poor people; opium smoking to Chinese minorities, morphine, heroin, and cocaine to artist, middle class and bourgeois degenerated individuals. Drug traffickers’ main business was north of the border into the U.S.
The illegal plants cultivated Mexico poppy and marijuana, but coca plantations didn’t exist at that time. Opium trafficking was the main source for decades, but not the only one Mexican traffickers revenue from. In the state of Sinaloa had a name for the opium traffickers known as gomero. In the 1930’s marijuana use was very minimal, but until the 1960’s is when marijuana consumption increased dramatically. The American authorities had to control the marijuana consumption and use in the U.S. and Chief of the Bureau of Narcotic Drugs (BND) Harry J. Anslinger contributed to the Marijuana Tax Act. This act is to control the transportation and selling of the plant was approved in 1937.
In the 1930’s marijuana production was counted in tons in states like Puebla, Guerrero, and Tlaxcala and some alleged owners of the crops living in Mexico City such as Lola la Chata, were suspected of being protected by high ranking members of the anti-narcotics police. At the same time, drug traffickers from the north western region were making fortunes out of opium smuggling developing through Nogales, Mexicali, Tijuana, and Ciudad Juarez. Special Agent Juan Requena to the Mexican Department of Public Health, the most important opium trafficker is the Chinese Antonio Wong Yin, he is a compadre of Governor Nazario Ortiz Garza (Riley, 2011). Others were close to the general Jesus Garcia Gutierrez, he was in charge of the military operations in the state. Other different situations were reported in a less precise way about governors from Baja California and Chihuahua. The perception on controlling the drug trafficking was a need to control and a seriousness of the drug control policy.
A political scandal of unknown proportions exploded in 1947 when General Pablo Macias Valenzuela, ex secretary of War and Navy and the governor of state of Sinaloa and was a suspect of leading a drug trafficking ring or protecting the opium traffickers. The information was posted by a national newspaper such as Excelisor and El Unviersal. After meeting with the President Miguel Aleman with his six day visit in Mazatlan, Sinaloa the scandal cooled off. The Governor finished his term and became the Commander of the 1st Military zone from 1951-1956 (Willoughby, 2003). This was the first time the drug trafficking issued was used to publicly and politically by one power elite group against another.
In 1947, the year the CIA was founded, President Aleman created the Security Federal Agency it’s like the Presidents Political police. The reports to the American Embassy in Mexico to the Department of State of Washington remarked on the unreliable backgrounds of the people put at the head of the DFS, suspected of being involved or controlling drug trafficking. Among them, Senator and Colonel Carlos I Serrano, the real chief and brain behind the scenes, close friend of President Aleman (Economist, 2010).
Since the beginning of the drug business, the best know drug traffickers in Mexico were related in special official reports in Mexico and the U.S.A. to high ranking politicians. These politicians were suspected of being directly involved in the illegal trade and even of controlling it. The political system emerged after the Mexican revolution was a state party system, a social pyramid with the President at the top, concentrating powers over the legislative and judicial branches. The drug trafficking was another profitable business that could be achieved by the powerful members of the revolutionary family; because of the political positions some that occupied by any given moment.
According to the common perception, drug traffickers in Mexico have become so powerful that they have penetrated the protective shield of the official institute whose main purpose is to fight against the drug traffickers. The illegal trade was related to the powerful political agents in the production of drug trafficking regions. The wholesale smugglers were expendable players, but to their success they depended on political protection to help them traffic the drugs.
The political control on drug trafficking has changed throughout the years. Before the 1940’s governors of producing and trafficking states the power to control illegal business within their territories. Cracking down on the drug traffickers and the political power has provoked a cascade effects of different levels of political power structure pyramid. A political pact for a democratic transition would help the negative effects of collapsing the system and increase the probabilities for keeping the social control under different conditions. Drug traffickers are now considering the realistic impossibilities of trafficking drugs from the planet and getting stopped once and for all. This is going to cut the appetite of the human being of the mid altering substance of drugs.
Understanding where the entire drug trafficking came into play has been through Mexico. There were a lot of powerful people involved with drug trafficking for the past six decades that started the drug trafficking plan. The Mexican drug traffickers had a set up that even the Colombians wanted a piece of the pie . Mexican drug traffickers were making so much money that even the powerful politicians and even the President of Mexico was involved in the scheme. I now get a full understanding where it was developed and how it was created six decades ago.
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