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European History Semester Essay Sample

European History Semester Pages
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Pre-Renaissance
* Middle Ages: began around 500 AD and ended around 1450 AD
* Early Middle Ages
* Roman Empire fell, Europe is turbulent and dark
* Europe is being created by Germanic, Roman, and Church * Church
* power founded in papacy
* was political as well as spiritual
* bishop of Rome lead Church
* began the Pope system
* Pope>Archbishops>Bishops>Priests
* to go to heaven, followers had to go through church
* Pope could excommunicate, cutting off people from church and heaven, gave him a lot of power
* Feudalism
* system in which kings gave land to their subject in return for aid
* vassals pledged themselves to their lord for protection
* Kings>Lords>Knights>Serfs
* created relationships between lords and vassals benefiting both, provided military service and protection for weaker people

Renaissance

* Conditions that led to the Renaissance in Italy:
* Because of the Crusades, and the new trade routes, Europeans began to come in contact with other, more advanced civilizations, which influenced them greatly * The Church, due to the scandals that occurred, lost much of its power and people began to doubt its ultimate authority * Due to trade, the middle class grew, and people began to accumulate vast sums of money. They then wanted to enjoy and show off their wealth, which led to a philosophy of enjoying this life instead of simply waiting for the next one * Competition between wealthy people for status led to developments in education and art, since wealthy people, wanting to be respecting, would compete to see who was the most educated or had sponsored the most artists. * Humanism

* began by Italian intellectualists that wanted education to place more emphasis on the classics and helping people lead better lives * wanted to study classics so that they could learn the right way to conduct their lives and the elegance to persuade people to their style of thinking * most humanists read church writings as avidly as pagan writings and believed that values were rooted in religious piety

* Gioto
* painter
* showed a sense of realism, powerful emotion, immediacy that contradicted other artists of his time who painted with formal and restrained styles
* Donatello
* sculptor
* focused on the beauty of the body, distinct concern of the ancients

* Movement in literature:
* Castiglione- The Courtier, taking form of a conversation between the sophisticated men and women of a court, became a manual of proper behavior for gentlemen and ladies * Giovanni Pico- believed that he could reconcile all philosophies and show that single truth lay behind them all * High Renaissance artists:

* Leonardo Da Vinci
* always wanted to find new ways to do things
* unable to resist solving practical problems
* his paintings show marvels of technical virtuosity
* makes difficult angles, tricks of perspective, and bizarre geological formations look easy
* Famous paintings: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper

* Raphael
* used practiced techniques of perspective and ancient styles to produce works of perfect harmony, beauty, and serenity * paintings contained a relaxed style, showed an artist in complete command of his materials and can create sunny scenes that are balanced and at peace * Famous Paintings: The Schools of Athens, is a tribute to the ancients as
well as to other artists of the Renaissance * Michelangelo

* ultimate Renaissance artist in that he was a master in all means of expression: painting, poetry, architecture, and sculpture * constantly sought new effects, no two of his sculptures were alike * Conveys the glory of the human being in his art by depicting unnatural vigor in his The Creation of Adam and The David * He shows the human being as an independant and potent individual

Reformation

* Short Term Causes of the Reformation
* The Avignon Exile and Great Schism were both events that greatly undermined both the power and prestige of the Church, and made many people begin to question its holiness and the absolute power of the Papacy. People realized that the Church was a human institution with its own faults * The Printing Press- before the invention of the printing press in the mid-1400s, many people didn’t have access to information or changes in religious thought except through word of mouth. With the printing press, new ideas, and the dissatisfaction with the church, could spread quickly, and people could read the Bible for themselves * Long Term Causes of the Reformation

* The growth in the power of the secular king and the decrease in the power of the Pope * The popular discontent with the seemingly empty rituals of the church * the movement towards more personal ways of communicating with God, called lay piety * The fiscal crisis in the Church that led to corruption and abuses of power- IMPORTANT! * Abuses of Church Power

* Simony- the sale of Church positions, which quickly led to people becoming Church officials purely for economic motives, and not for spiritual ones * Indulgences- the sale of indulgences was the biggest moneymaker for the Church. When a person paid for an indulgence, it supposedly excused the sins they had committed (the more $, the more sins forgiven) even without them having to repent. Indulgences could even be bought for future sins not yet committed and for others, especially those who had just died, and were supposed to make a person’s passage into heaven faster. * Dispensations- payments that released a petitioner from the requirements of the canon law * Incelebacy- church officials getting married and having children * Pluralism- having more than one position at a time

* Nepotism- control by a particular family
* -Reformation: a split in the Christian faith
* Two major branches- Catholicism and Protestantism

* Martin Luther-
* born into a rich family in Saxony, Germany; studied law for a time; becomes a monk * obsessed with his own sinfulness; tried every means to satisfy his soul * had a religious epiphany where he reasoned that justification in the eyes of God was based on faith alone and not on good works and sacraments * Observed Johann Tetzel peddling indulgences; became so enraged at this that he published the 95 theses in 1517, which stated that the Pope could remit only the penalties he or canon law imposed, and that for other sins, the faithful had only to sincerely repent to obtain an indulgence, not pay the Church.

* Theses made Tetzel and the monk order he belonged to angry, so they published anti-Luther pamphlets; caused Luther to write his own pamphlets which began a pamphlet war for 3 years * Pope cannot ignore Luther anymore, so in 1520 he excommunicates him; Luther responds by calling the Pope an antichrist * Charles V orders Luther to attend the Diet of Worms in 1521 to state his case and if he will repent; Luther attacks Catholicism and will not take back what he has said * Charles is about to kill Luther when Luther is abducted by Prince Frederick of Saxony and taken to the safety of his castle; where he publishes the Lutheran doctrine (Augsburg Confession) * Lutheran Doctrine (Augsburg Confession)

* faith alone justifies the believer in the eyes of God and wins redemption; God bestows faith on those he chooses to save * Bible is the sole source of religious authority; Christians must reject all other authorities such as Church tradition, commentaries on the Bible, or pronouncements of popes and Church councils * only two sacraments are needed, Baptism and the Eucharist, for God to bestow grace; changed the name of Eucharist to communion to emphasize sharing * priests are allowed to marry

* translated the Bible into German, allowing families to read it without priests * Other Forms of Protestantism:
* Zwingli- had beliefs very similar to Luther, except that he believed that none of the sacraments bestowed grace, and that they were purely symbolic. He also felt that for people to lead godly lives, they had to be constantly disciplined and threatened * Radicals-some believed that Baptism should only be administered to adults who asked to be baptized, they were all called the Anabaptists * Calvin- believed in people’s sinfulness, salvation by faith alone, that all people were equal in God’s eyes and that people should following existing political authority, Calvin believed in predestination or the concept that God, being all knowing, already knows if a person is going to go to heaven and become part of the elect or not.Calvinist communities were model places, with very strict moral codes that were imposed. * The Appeal of Protestantism

* Appeal to the peasants
* message of equality in religion, which they extended to life in general * a simplified religion with fewer rituals, which made it easier to understand * Luter rebelled, which inspired many of them to do the same * Appeal to the nobles

* no tithe to pay, so $ stays in the country
* since they are against Charles for political reasons, they can justify it by becoming Protestant
* no more church owned land, so they can get more
* no tithe for peasants, so they can tax them more
* Appeal to middle class
* no tithe to pay, so more $ to them
* now they can read the Bible and interpret it in their own way
* concept of individualism- you are your own priest * Peace of Augsburg (1555)
* at the Peace of Augsburg, each princed allowed to decide whether Lutheranism or Catholicism would be followed in their territory, free cities had to allow Catholicism or Lutheranism to be practiced * Lutheranism spread from Germany to Scandinavia and to England, contained in the Northern Europe area * New forms of Protestantism arise that would spread more widely * Calvinism spread to France ( Huguenots); Netherlands and Scotland (Presbyterians); and England (Puritans) * influenced the growth of capitalism in that people with money were taught to invest in their business * Counter Reformation

* Main Goals
* Stop and reverse the spread of Protestantism in Europe * spread Catholicism with renewed spiritual energy
* Council of Trent: church council that met intermittently during the 16th century to respond to the challenge of the Protestant Reformation * Council of Trent Summary of Provisions
* Clergy should live holy lives (responding to Protestant claim that the Catholic Church officials were living too luxuriously) * sacraments are all necessary for salvation; only priests can administer them * Transubstantiation (belief that the bread and wine in the Eucharist are the body of Christ) is real/valid * Doctrine of Indulgences is valid; however, selling them is wrong * No one can assume that they will reach salvation unless they had a revelation (against predestination) * affirmed doctrine that priests cannot get married

* Priests are necessary, only they can administer sacraments * Main Measures of the Council of Trent
* strongly upheld Catholic doctrine (value of works, sacraments, authority of the Pope, power of priests) * Introduced reforms of corrupt practices (outlawed the sale of indulgences, improved the training of priests and Church organization) * Other Aspects of the Counter Reformation

* The Inquisition- when the Church wanted to purge heresy from their lands by looking for possible cases of heresy, included a supreme inquisitor, tried to censor their faith * Ignatius of Loyola: founded the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), a very intelligent and religious society; four principal functions: preaching, hearing confessions, teaching, and missionary work: high successfully in eradicating heresy because of their intellect and their militaristic setup * Counter Reformation: How Successful?

* Didn’t manage to undo the Reformation
* after the mid 1500s, did slow the growth of Protestantism and even regained some areas that were initially Protestant Monarchs
* Henry VII (England, 1485-1509)
* right after 100 years war
* very few nobles
* Didn’t spend a lot of money
* reduced power of nobles and founded star chambers
* Governmental Organization- Common Law, Parliament
* crushed Scot revolt, ending threat from North

* Louis Xl (France, 1461-1483)
* Limited royal power due to strong nobles
* Gained power over the Church
* Annexed Duchy of Burgundy
* Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)
* increased sales tax
* inquisition tried to root out all heresy and keep Spain entirely Catholic
* Reduced # of nobles, reducing their power
* United Spain from the separate individual provinces of Castile and Aragon
* Finished the Reconquista, fully drove the Muslims out of Spain * Henry Vlll

* more radical measures than his father
* beat invading Scottish army in 1513
* decided to break with the Roman Catholic Church after advice from Thomas Cromwell which:
* stimulated the economy
* strengthened and gave more responsibility to Parliament
* Charles Vlll
* began the invasion Italy which eventually failed
* Habsburgs victory
* provided a distraction for the restless and aggressive nobles * Louis Xll
* began reign after Charles Viii
* made many changes including

* increased the size and complexity of the administration
* adopted the sale of offices (simony) that stimulated mobility and corruption * Henry ll
* French lost the Italian war to the Habsburgs
* The Holy Roman Empire under Charles V
* spent all the money on war
* Philip ll of Spain (1556-1598)
* catholic, self-disciplined, devoted

* built up a vast bureaucracy
* wanted to overcome the Muslims and the Protestants
* tried to prevent Henry lV from inheriting the French throne, but he couldn’t (War of the Three Henrys) England:
* Elizabeth l of England (1558-1603)
* looked frail but had appearance of a role model, dedicated, elegance, and manners- one of the most widely admired and successful queens * protestant, wanted England to remain protestant

* had Mary Queen of Scots executed because she was catholic, possibly next in line
* resented Spanish power
* made amazing armada speech inspiring the people
* The Armada 1588
* Philip tried to end his troubles with Europe- mad at English for interfering with new world and supporting Dutch protestants- a threat to Spain’s plans * sent fleets into England to invade and undermine protestant resistance
* England won dooming Philips ambitions and shifting power to the north Wars of Religion in France & Germany

* France
* Civil war in France
* Henry ll died- last strong king for a generation
* when Calvinism grew in France so did religious conflict, especially under weak French Kings influenced by their mother Catherine de Medici * Catherine was the “puppeteer” of her three sons- behind everything * St. Bartholomew’s day Massacre (1572) Catholics attacked protestants in Paris Catherine supposedly supported it * Three Main People

* Henry (Bourbon of Navarre)
* Extreme Protestant
* Henry (Duke of Guise)
* Extreme Catholic
* Henry lll (King of France)
* Moderate Catholic
* War of the Three Henry’s: all three henrys battling for the throne * Duke of Guise was killed at the order of King Henry lll because he was a power rival * Then radical catholics killed Henry lll

* Resolution- henry lV of navarre (protestant) converts to Catholicism and becomes Henry lV (King of France) * Henry lV granted toleration to the Huguenot minority with the Edict of Nantes * Germany

* The Thirty Years War in Germany (1618-1648)
* Protestant princes vs. Holy Roman Empire led by the Habsburgs
* Phase 1: Holy Roman Empire
* makes protestants angry
* Phase 2: Denmark
* Denmark defeated
* Phase 3: Sweden
* Gustavus Adolphus-

* Battle of Lutzen- protestants win
* Adolphus dies- sweden victorious though war drags on
* Phase 4: France- Cardinal Richelieu
* afraid of being Habsburg sandwich
* Peace of Westphalia (1648)
* The catholic Habsburg family (Holy Roman Empire) suffered a setback: Calvinists gain rights in The Holy Roman Empire (HRE) * Spain declines, France becomes the most powerful country- end of reformation and wars of religion in Europe State Systems: Absolutism & Alternatives

* Louis XlV (1661-1715)
* Henry IV to Cardinal Richelieu to Cardinal Mazarin to Louis XlV
* Foundation figures of Royal absolutism
* Henry IV
* followed policies designed to put war ravaged France back on track
* Central gvt. seen as playing important role in economy (mercantilism)
* gentral gvt. gained power
* issued edict of nantes- granted toleration to Huguenots made Calvinism legal
* Cardinal Richileu
* undercut the power of traditional nobles by granting non nobles bureaucratic positions with real power
* broke political power of the Huguenots by military means and revoked most guarantees of the Edict of Nantes- got rid of fortified towns
* increased the power of non nobles to collect taxes and act as the king’s agent resented by nobles
* he ran while Louis Xlll was too young

* Cardinal Mazzarin
* put down the Fronde a series of uprisings against the French gov. by using threats and force
* french royal absolutism was put on a solid foundation * Louis XlV:
* Advantages:
* centralized bureaucracy by electing officials that were good for the job rather than his family/ favorites
* absolutism could hold the country together
* most powerful regime in Europe

* mercantilism
* built Versailles in order to increase appearance of power
* into culture
* decreased the power of the nobles by distracting them in Versailles- gossip
* decrease parlements
* Disadvantages
* spent so much money on lavish things that he caused peasants to starve and bankrupt France
* moved power away from the people
* fought meaningless wars that didn’t gain him much territory and only bankrupt France further
* revoked the edict of nantes in order to convert the country to one religion- Catholicism, tried to exterminate all the Calvinists- couldn’t Absolutism Austrain, Prussian, & Russian Style

* Prussia:
* Frederick the Great
* enlightened absolutist
* domestic policy
* wanted to justify absolutism and aggression abroad
* religious toleration towards Calvinists
* judicial reform- more power to the king
* Foreign Policy
* securities justify absolutism
* improve security of geographic location by conquering territory
* strengthen borders
* Face other European states as equals
* More power= more territory = security

* Austria:
* Maria Theresa
* Domestic Policy
* put the states interest first- encouraged reform
* abolished clergy’s exemption from tazes
* Foreign Policy
* French declared war on her
* The war of Austrian succession
* led empire to a stalemate with Britan as ally * Russia:
* Peter the Great
* Western Models
* traveled through western nations in order to adapt Russia to compete with European powers
* brought in foreign artists, military personnel, and engineers to help his goal and teach the russians
* Bureaucratic and social order

* controlled social classes by restricting the population into peasants and serfs and the nobility
* Dealing with power rivals
* gave power to the nobility
* nobility had power over serfs
* made religion a branch of gov.
* Military expansion
* latest military techniques from the west
* expand Russia’s frontier south and west
* built Saint Petersburg

* England:
* James l (1603-1625)
* when Elizabeth died James l took over
* from Scotland
* clashes with parliament right away
King James Believes-
* Divine right, absolute monarchy
* King can impose taxes without approval of Parliament
* Anglican Supporter; against Puritanism Parliament Believes-

* No one is above the law- constitutionalism
* only Parliament can pass taxes
* Allow puritans to purify Anglican Church (make more protestant)
* Elizabeth left in him in a lot of debt because of the war with Spain
* Two types of Protestantism were forming
* Anglicanism
* Puritanism- they believed Anglican church was still too close to Roman Catholicism * Charles l
* The Petition of Right
* no forced loans
* no imprisonment without a specific charge according to law (habeas corpus)
* no martial law (military justice) in peace time
* no quartering of soldiers in private homes without consent
* For 11 years ran country w/out Parliament

* Long Parliament- sat for 13 years when Charles finally had to call one
* Triennial Act- Parliament has to be convened at least every 3 years
* No taxes without the consent of Parliament

* Court of the Star Chamber is abolished
* The Petition of Right is valid
* Trial of Charles l- Jan. 1649
* accuse him of not following the law
* he is executed
* Oliver Cromwell (1649-1659)
* Puritan military leader who won the Civil War
* Conquered Scotland and Ireland, treated Ireland very harshly
* Tried to govern England without a King, House of Lords, or the Anglican Church
* First established a republic (commonwealth)

* When that failed, he established the Protectorate (Charles=Lord Protector)
* Basically a puritan military dictatorship
* Takes on more power than any king
* Weary of harsh rule, people were ready to accept a king again Alternatives to Absolutism: England & the Dutch Republic

The Restoration: Charles II (1660-1685)
* Livelier times after a strict Puritan rule (theatres reopened)
* Didn’t try to rule as a divine right monarch; accepted the acts of the long parliament (triennial act)
* Restored the Anglican church in response to Charles’ Catholic sympathies the parliament passed the Test Act (1673) (only Anglicans permitted to take part in government or military)
* Secret Treaty of Dover

* Charles made a deal with France
* He would convert England to Protestantism if France paid them
* They would ally with them
* It didn’t work

* James II (1685-1688)
* Tried to reassert the supremacy of divine right monarchy
* Convert to Catholicism who followed pro catholic policies
* Lost all support
* Charles and his wife had a baby William III- James II’s nephew
* William is Catholic- causes Glorious Revolution
* Glorious Revolution
* After James II lost all support and a catholic succession was feared William of Orange from the Netherlands became king at the invitation of parliament without a fight
* The revolutionary settlement

* He has to agree to
* Bill of Rights- basic civil rights, and legal rights * Act of Settlement- legally guarantees a protestant succession * Toleration act- dissenters (one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.) granted freedom of worship but not political rights. No religious or political equality for Roman Catholics * Parliaments power increased

* King’s power decreased
* Glorious because: parliament supreme, no bloodshed Conflicting Political Philosophies: Hobbes & Locke
* Major Scientists and Their Advances: From Copernicus to Newton
* Copernicus (1543)- On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
* The earth is not stationary- it revolves around the sun
* He was afraid to publish works at first because he thought they would cause controversy and be rejected ( he would later be persecuted)
* His calculations were proved to be right for the most part by successors
* Kepler (1609)- Three Laws of Planetary Motion

* Also believed that mathematics described everything
* Wanted to confirm Copernicus’ sun-centered theory
* Discovered three laws of planetary motion
* Able to prove that the orbits of the planets are all ellipses and that there is a regularity based on their distance from the sun, which determines the movements of all planets * Highly mathematical approach0 use Brahe’s data to support Copernicus * Galileo (1610)- The Starry Messenger

* Believed in the importance of physics
* Approached things the way a modern scientist does * Discovered the principal of inertia: any velocity once imparted to a moving body will be rigidly maintained as long as external forces are removed * Only mathematical language can describe underlying principles of nature * Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician

* Used a telescope-
* Rare at the time
* Used to make observations that supported the Copernicans view
* Faced opposition from many people
* Newton (1687) Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
* Solution to the ancient problem of motion
* Three laws
* In the absence of force, motion continues in a straight line
* The rate of change of motion is determined by the force acting upon it
* Action and reaction between two bodies are equal and opposite
* He defined the concepts of mass, inertia, and force in relation to velocity and acceleration

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