Directions: After our discussion you must use the information below to fill in the Venn Diagram to compare and contrast two foreign policies. Then you will use your Venn Diagram to write a compare and contrast essay. Theodore Roosevelt, Geo politician 1901-1909 Republican
1. Believed that Americans were superior people destined for supremacy in economic and political affairs. In order for this to happen, Americans had to strive for greatness, cultivate mental fitness, build military force, and prepare to fight. 2. International relation expert: understood that U.S. can not rule every portion of the globe through military or economic reforms. Believed in a balance of power among the industrial nations through negotiation rather than war. Such a balance would enable each imperial power to safe guard its key interest and contribute to world peace and progress. 3. Had little patience with claims to sovereignty of small countries or the human rights of weak people. In his eyes, the peoples of Latin America, Asia (with the exception of Japan) and Africa as racially inferior and incapable of self-government or industrial progress. 4. Wanted to dominant Western Hemisphere. Warned European powers from interfering in U.S. interest (Monroe Doctrine).
William Howard Taft, Dollar Diplomat 1909-1913 Republican
1. Had experience in dealing with imperialist rivals such as Japan as Roosevelt’s secretary of war, but lacked Roosevelt’s grasp of balance of power politics and capacity for leadership in foreign affairs. 2. Taft’s secretary of state, Philander Knox lacked diplomatic expertise. His conduct of foreign policy focused on expanding opportunities for corporate investment overseas (Dollar Diplomacy). 3. Taft believed that U.S. investments would effectively substitute “dollars for bullets,” and thus offer a more peaceful and less coercive way of maintaining stability and order. No need to flex military muscle to show off U.S. power like Roosevelt. 4. Try to expand American economic activities in China which encroached on the Japanese sphere of influence which angered them so they signed a friendship treaty with Russia to exclude U.S. goods from Manchurian markets.
Woodrow Wilson, Struggling Idealist 1913-1921 Democrat
1. policy in the Caribbean similar to predecessors, sent troops to put down a revolution in Haiti, troops occupied area for 21 years. Dominican Republic (who shared the island of Hispaniola with the Haitians) refused to accept a treaty making them a protectorate of the U.S. Wilson, forced them to accept the rule of a U.S. military government. 2. To stop German influence in the Danish West Indies, he purchased the islands from Denmark, renamed it the Virgin Islands, and added it to the U.S. Caribbean Empire. 3. He intervened militarily in the Caribbean more often than any American president before him. 4. Showed a concern for morality and justice in foreign affairs. Troubled by a foreign policy that ignored a less powerful nation’s right to determine its own future.
This ideas and beliefs stems from his dealings with Mexico. He wanted U.S. foreign policy to advance democratic ideals and institutions in Mexico. On the one hand, he wanted Mexico to be successful in its efforts to become self-governing, on the other hand, not trusting Mexico to find its way through its own revolution, he felt compelled to show them the way. His repeated changes in strategy seemed to indicate a lack of skill and decisiveness in foreign affairs at first. 5. Wilson recognized something that Roosevelt or Taft had not: that more and more peoples of the world were determined to control their own destinies. The U.S. under Wilson was looking for a way to support these peoples’ democratic aspirations while safeguarding its own economic interests.