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Governance and Development: a Conceptual Framework Essay Sample

Governance and Development: a Conceptual Framework Pages
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Definition of terms
Democracy is a system of running organizations, businesses and groups in which each member is untitled to vote and take part in decision. Government is the way in which a country as governed. Development is a multi dimensional process that involves the re organization and re orientation of the entire social and economic system of a society which involves radical changes in their beliefs, values, taboos and attitudes that are accompanied by economic growth. The World Bank defines development as the ability of a country to generate an economic growth rate between 7-10% per annum. UNDD defines development as the ability to live long and experience lives in the knowledgeable and it has access resources for a decent standard of living. To conceptualualise is to relate ideas and concept formed in the mind and replacing old laws with new within the same conceptual framework .A framework is a particular set of rules ideas or beliefs in which you use to deal with problems or decide what to do. Introduction

There has been considerable progress that has been made across the world in economic, technological and social development with increased cross domestic products (GDP). Information has become more accessible to the people. Global concerns such as human rights, environment and crime has brought people together form diverse background on the social development front, every region in the world reduced adults illiteracy rates from 1990 to 1997, with sub Saharan Africa selling the largest ( albeit still modest) reduction of eight percent however, despite the gains, serious gaps still remain. Although the wealth of the world in general has increased, the gap between the rich and the poor has also increased. Regardless of where the poor live, they are more likely to lack access to goods and services, live shorter lives and even victims of violent. Causes of Human Deprivation in Developing Country

1. Lack of income to obtain basic necessities like food, shelter and health education services 2. For the poor, they lack adequate access to land, irrigation, agricultural extension services and adequate pricing for the agricultural produce 3. For the urban poor living in slums and squatter settlement, regularization of their land titles for their houses and adequate employment opportunities are key constraints 4. Other critical factors are democracy and governance. When governance is democratic there is participation, rules of law, transparency and accountability, it will improve the quality of life and human development of all citizens. Development is not sustainable without transparent and accountable institutions. The evolution of democracy

Democracy is the primary value for the fulfillment of individual aspirations, articulation of interests and the nurturing of civil society. Many political system and cultures adhere in fundamental values of respect for human dignity, justice, equally, participation and accountability that underpin human rights democracy and good governance. As democracy proliferates, its nature and models diversify. In Kenya for example, there has been increased democracy which has led to different political views. Globalization has been an important factor in accelerating democracy. The rapid growth of global development of new technologies and telecommunications, and integration of the world economy through trade and investment, has increased the role of power. Natural environment, crime and human inequality are becoming global issues demanding global responses.

Przeworki found that “it is not time that democracy is more likely to be around and if it has been around a long time”. Rather sustainability is more function of income and human development having improved and the stakes in the process naming raised over time long established democracy face their own unique challenges. Seymour Martin Lipset describes democracy as “minimalist and maximalist” He adopts a minimalist definition, viewing democracy as political system of political rights that specifies how leadership should be designated at the highest national level in a policy .Similarly Joseph Schumpeter defines democracy as that situational management for arriving at political decisions in which an individual acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the peoples role. The concept of governance and globalization

When people hear of governance they think government. Governance is more than just government. It’s a universal force that exists in all societies’. People use governance in their daily lives to manage relationship just as countries as countries use it to manage their activities. Good governance addresses the allocation and management of resources to respond to problems. It is characterized by the principles of participation, transparency, accountability, rule of law, effectiveness, equality and strategic vision. These things translate in the tangible things such as free, fair and frequented elections, a representative legislative that makes laws and produces insight and an independent judiciary that interprets law .They also translate into the guarantee of human rights and the rule of law, and transparent and accountable institutions. Good governance also decentralizes (moving some departments away from the main administrative area or to give more power to local government) cultures and resources to local governments to give citizen a greater role in governance. Finally good governance ensures that civil society plays an active role in setting priorities and making the needs of the most vulnerable people in society known. So governance is good because it supports society in which people can expand their choices in the way live, it promotes freedom from poverty, deprivation, fear and violence as sustains the environment and women’s advancement.

If we speak of the quality of country governance, then we mean the degree to which their institutions (such as parliament and processes such as the role of political parties in election) are transparent, accountable in the people and allow them to participate in decision that affect them lives. It is also a degree to which the private sector and organizations of civil society are free and able to participate. It is when the authority of the government is based on the will of the people and is responsible to them. It is when open democratic institution allow full participant in political affairs and when human rights protection guarantee the right to speak, assemble and descent. It is when the government institutions are pro-poor and promote human development of all citizens Globalization is also placing governments under a lot of scrutiny. In developed countries, globalization has resulted in fever state-supplied services in fovour of private services Democratic governance and development

Different scholars have come up with different answers to the question of whether democracy stimulates economic growth or vice versa. Administration prizewoski and Fedinando Limonngi conclude that they do not know whether democracy fosters or hinders economic growth. On his generation economic development or vice verse prizeworski said that while the jury is still on whether democracies are likely to survive in wealthy societies. Robert Kaplan on the other hand concludes that certain prelinguisties are needed in a society before democracy takes root including a certain level of employment, economic stability and peace. Democratic government was three distinct advantages over authoritarian regimes 1) Democracies are better able to manage conflict and avoid violent political change because they provide opportunities for people to participate in the political process of the country 2) Democracies are able to avoid threats to human survival because the checks by the opposition parties ,uncensored critics of public policies and the fear of being voted out of office 3) Democracies lead in greater awareness of social development concerns including health, primary health care and rights of women and minorities Democratic governance and human development

Human development expands people capabilities and choices that allow them to live long, healthy and creative lives and enable them to participate in decision making affecting their lives. It is characterized by people’s empowerment, equality of opportunities, sustainability and human security and freedom. Also these includes access to services, participation in decision making income disparities, equality of opportunities, level of employment economic growth by community, health and education indicators and human security. Democratic governance is the most human development friendly system of governance. Why does it affect human development performance? If we look at the human development indicators, democratic governance can help increase life expectancy, improve literacy levels (adult schooling) and school enrolment raise per capita income by providing a system of government that responds to the needs of the people. If for example Kenyans desire a better health care (NHIF), education, quality of life, democratic government ensures that elected representatives act according to the will of Kenyans in an accountable way. Benefits of democratic governance

1. If demands participation of citizens in selecting leaders and holding than accountable 2. Provides local governance and civil society mechanism through which citizens access to services, decentralization by providing local government structures and distribution of equal resources 3. It increases citizens access to services, decentralization by providing local government structures and distribution of equal resources 4. It also reduces income disparities and provide equality of opportunities by protecting the rights of the minorities from the tyranny of the majority 5. Increase levels of employment and income

6. Improves a society’s health and education indicators and protect human security because they are more likely to invest in health and education services because it’s the people who lead the development agenda

The what: the how and the why democratic governance
(What)
Institutions,  & processes of (How) Governance, i.e the Quality institutions & Electoral body processes, degree of access, & system participation, accountability Parliament transparency, rule of law, equality Judiciary effectiveness, responsiveness Local Efficiency sustainability Government  Political partie Societies Medical

(Why) Contextual factors that impact content & quality of governance (natural, culture, history, authentic, conflict Civil military, relations donor support level of economic growth, global governance

In conclusion, human development can be enhanced through enhancing the quality of democracy including devolution of powers and resources, protection of human rights, removal of corruption and speeding up of justice. In this environment the poor organizes themselves and develop their capability for growth

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Kaplan, Robert, Was Democracy Just A Moment, “The Atlantic Monthly, December 1997. 2. Prizeworski, Adam, “Democracy and Economic Growth” Unpublished Manuscript, 2001 3. Prizeworski, Adam and Fernando Limongi, Political “Regime and Economic Growth” Journal of Economic Perspective 7 summer 1993. 4. Prizeworski, Adam, Democracy and Development: Political Institution and Men Being in The World 1950-1990 Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 2060. 5. Schumpeter, Joseph, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy .3rd Edition, New York. Harper and Row, 1950. 6. UNDP, Overcoming Human Poverty, New York, 200

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