Nutritional status is the balance between the intake of nutrients by an organism and the expenditure of these in the processes of growth, reproduction, and health maintenance. Because this process is highly complex and quite individualized, nutritional status assessment can be directed at a wide variety of aspects of nutrition. These range from nutrients levels in the body, to the product of metabolism, and to the functional process they regulate. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals as well as for populations.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism. It is concerned with the intake of food, digestive process, the liberation of energy, and the elimination of waste as well as with all the synthesis that are essential for maintenance, growth, and reproduction.
Nutrition is a very special subset of health education and should be considered the most important thought a person’s life. Good health and good nutrition are pre-requisites to the attainment of good quality of life and its sustained enjoyment.”Health is a wealth” is a very old and well known saying among students but of good means to motivate the individuals to understand health and to practice it because it could lead to what we call “wealth” in physical , emotional and mental performance of individual. Definitely the wealth of one nation primarily lies in the health of its people. These are some reasons why health shown to be important things to be considered poor health makes a child create some difficulties with his study. Poor health can cause failure in scholastic achievement. Having a good health condition is important precondition for escaping poverty and because improved health and sanitation contribute to growth, investment in people’s health.
A nutritional status is fundamental to improving country’s general welfare, promoting economic growth, and reducing poverty World Bank, 2003). Meeting primary health care and the nutritional requirements of children are fundamental to the achievement of sustainable development. In the United Kingdom and a number of Western European countries about half their economic growth achieved between 1790 and 1980 has been ruled to better nutrition and improved health and sanitation conditions.(Fogel, 2004). Malnutrition in childhood is known to have important long term effects on the work capacity and intellectual performance of adults.
Health consequences of inadequate nutrition more enormous. It is not due to scarcity of food because our country is rich in vegetable products but due to the wrong intake or improper utilization of food by the body. The study intensifies the important of knowing the effects of nutritional status on the academic performance of the pupils to identify if there is a need different approaches. Proper utilization of this study will help the local government and other agencies concerned to join hands and solve malnutrition in the country. Furthermore, the finding of the study will serve as an essential source of information regarding the health of the pupils.
Statement of the Problem
The study aimed to know the effect of nutritional status on the academic performance of the pupils. It is hope that adequate research exists that is readily available to school and parents so that children have the opportunity to be as nutritionally healthy for improvement of academic performance in school. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions; 1. What are the academic performance of the grade V pupils? 2. What is the relationship between the academic performance and the nutritional status of the pupil? 3. Is there a significant difference on the nutritional status of the children when grouped according to their age?
To know the effects of nutritional status on academic performance, the researcher formulated the following hypotheses. 1. There is no significant differences on the nutritional status of the respondents when grouped according to their age. 2. There is no significant relationship between the academic performance and the nutritional status of the pupil.
Significance of the Study
To the Higher Education
To help them realize the importance of the nutrients from their food intake and the effects on their academic performance. In this way, they look for means to modify their eating habits or overcome the emotional difficulties to further improve their performance in school. To the staff of school canteen
Healthy foods meals should be offered and find ways on how to improve the dietary offerings. To the parents
To provide them an idea on the importance of the quality of food intake and the effects which may affect the academic performance of their children and to discover how they can contribute in improving the student school performance.
According to Brown (2005), in her study entitled “The inside story about nutrition and health”, that the nutrition of a person may affect the function of the different part of the body like the brain. The nutrients from the food one intakes may affect the cognitive and psychomotor ability. In addition, the findings of Belloc(2013), attest that health maybe affected by children’s health practices. The different hygienic practices of a child will determine their health status. Johnson’s Behavioral Theory is another theory used in the study.. Based on this theory, human as a behavioral system tries to achieve stability and balance by adjustment and adaptation that are successful to some degree for efficient and effective functioning. Individual behaviour toward a particular situation will determine one’s ability to maintain health.
The system is flexible enough to accommodate the influences affecting it. Some believes that the patient strives to become person whose behaviour is commensurate with demands and whose behaviour does not give evidence of unnecessary trauma as a consequences illness. In relation with the present study , the researcher aim in to distinguish the behaviour of the people in specifically to reliable information regarding indicator of malnutrition. (Kozier, 2004)
Scope and Limitation
This research study limited itself only on the effects of nutritional status on the academic performance of grade v pupils of Mauban South District.
This study was conducted to the three hundred fifty (350) grade v pupils SY:2015-2016. Academic performance was based on the general average of the pupils.
The bases for analysing the relationship and differences on the variables such as nutritional status and academic performance were through the data collected with the use of Body Mass Index(BMI), by weight and height measurements and the grades of the respondents.
Definition of Terms
The following words are defined operationally for the readers to fully understand the terminologies utilized in the study. Nutritional Status. It is a state of the body or health of person that is influenced by the consumption and utilization of nutrients. Underweight. It means weighing less than what is expected to be healthy person. A person is considered underweight if his/her body mass index(BMI) falls below a certain threshold(body mass index is a measure determined by a person’s age, height and weight. Wasting. It refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscles and fat tissue to “waste” away.
It is sensitive to changes in calorie intake or the effects of food constituents on health. Nutrients. Are the biochemical units of nutrition which are the elements necessary in our body processes and functions thus promoting normal growth, maintenance and repair. Anthropometric indicators. As assessment status which was useful as a parameter in measuring the nutritional status which includes the size, weight, and proportion of the human body. Child Malnutrition. This refers to the current health condition of the child which is result of deficiency of essential nutrients needed by the body. It also pertains to the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions. Family Profile. It contains information regarding the current status of the family which specifically pertains to their demographic, socio economic and environmental.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the materials and sources that will help the reader understand the study better. Drawn for both foreign and local literature and studies, the information contain in this chapter aim to strengthen the discussion and perspective in the study.
Good health is an important aspect of a person’s well being. It is state that seeks to maintain and consider a justifiable expectation in achieving one’s goal, particularly in education, health affects the results of one action. According to Anisha, et al. (2007), a sickly pupil for example will not be able to attend class regularly which result to low economic performance and weak physical appearance. For these reason, with the present study, the researcher would like to find out more on health and academic performance of the respondents.
The indicator that the human body is getting the right nutrients from the food that is taken in is by determining the nutritional status. Nutrition is defined as the study of food and its composition and its relationship to the health of human body for its growth, reproduction, maintenance and repair. keeping the body well with a proper nutrition, optimal health and well-being can be attained(Brown,2005).
Under nutrition and over nutrition are the two forms of malnutrition. They are abnormal condition of the body that results from either a deficiency or an excess of essential nutrients. Malnutrition has the greatest impact on mental development when it occurs during the critical period for brain cell multiplication.(Brown, 2005)
A person who is in good condition has the following characteristics : well-developed body, about average weight for height, muscles well developed, firm skin, turgid and of healthy color, good layer subcutaneous fat, reddish/pinkish lips, smooth and glossy hair, clear eyes without dark circles under them, alert facial expression, good posture, digestion and waste elimination is good as well as appetite and general health is said to be excellent.
On the other hand, a person who is in poor nutrition has the following characteristics: body may be undersized, usually thin small and flabby muscles, loose skin, lacking subcutaneous fat, pale mucus membrane, rough and without luster hair, dark circle under the eyes drawn facial expression, worried and old looking, fatigue posture, irritable, subject to nervous indigestions or constipation, susceptible to infections and lacks endurance and vigor. As stated by Marks, et al, (2005) The human body requires food to provide energy for all life processes and for growth, repair and maintenance of cells and tissues, including those of the brain and other vital organs.(McGovern,2005). Anne Underwood(2006) stated that the brain is an astonishing 60 percent fat and it needs omega-3s fatty acids for optimal functions. Studies suggest it helps build cell membranes, boost level of the brain chemical serotonine and increase the number of connections between neurons. The well being of the brain is manifested on how the students perform in school.
Academic performance can be based on the individual intellectual capabilities of the student that is, the ability to think, evaluate and make complex judgments. Thus activities are activated at the lateral prefrontal cortex of the brain.( Feldman, 2005). To establish a relationship between nutritional status and academic performance, an article by Ruth Floresca(2007), entitled “Foods that Power”, was found to be related in the present study. According to her immediate source of energy before an exam one has to drink a glass of juice . It contains simple sugar that are easily digested and absorbed by the body. Eat a regular meal three hours before the test so there will e an adequate supply of blood glucose for the brain.
Tal Status and Academic Performance of the Pre-School Children in Naga South District, Division of City Schools, Naga City” conducted by Denido, (2002), it was found out that academic performance was significantly related to their nutritional status. It was therefore recommended that the school maintains a nutrition education program that will involve the parents like feeding program.
According to Fonseca, et al, (2008), those with lower value for BMI tend to have poorer body, image, poorer health behaviour and poor social networks with implication for poor perception of academic performance. As children affected by illnesses not only their health is compromised but so also the academic standing and learning.
On the other hand, according to a study made by Bossaert (2011), achievement or academic performance is the outcome of the education. The extent to with a student, pupil, teacher, or an institution has achieved their educational goals. It is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment and does not depend on health.
According to Von Stumm, et al (2011) academic performance is linked to individual differences pertaining to higher mental ability. It only means that the achievement of a child does not only depend on their health alone but from other factor like hereditary.
In a study made by Aranilla (2008), entitled “The Nutritional Status and Stress Level of Higher Education Department of Sacred Heart College” , their effects on the Academic Performance revealed that nutritional had significant effect on the stress level of the students as well as on their academic performance. The previous study was related since the researcher aimed was also to determine the nutritional status.
This chapter presents methods and designs on how the study is conducted in order for the researcher to attain their aim. This method includes the following: research design, locale of the study, research population and sample, research instrumentation, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.
The study is concerned with finding the effects of nutritional status on the academic performance of grade V pupils. To attain this the researcher utilized the descriptive- correlation method. The respondents Nutritional status assessed are weight –for age and height for age and academic performance specifically the first grading period were collected for each teacher and adviser.
The researcher conducted the study at the Grade 5 pupils in Mauban South Elementary School. These school was choosen by the researcher because of the initial data in the gathering the basis of the same locale which was study.
Population and Sample
The respondents were composed of four sections. The study was limited to the grade v pupils of Mauban South District Elementary School. It has a total of 180 pupils for the school year 2015-2016.
A self- made questionnaire was used to gather data. Non standardized question used by the researcher which is followed by performing physical examination through the utilization of anthropometric indicator.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher consulted the theses adviser and statistician regarding the formulation of the questionnaire. Statistical Treatment of Data
In order to solve the problem regarding the variables, various treatments on the collected data was applied. The collected data was analyzed, tabulated, categorized and interpreted by using statistical tables and graphs to briefly present all the information which were gathered from the study conducted. The following statistical treatments were used; percentage, WAM, Mean average and Pearson Product- Moment Coefficient of correlation, Simple statistics for beginners (SSB) computes program was used to facilitate the computation using the following formula. 1. Percentage The BMI distribution was presented using the percentage distribution formula The formula for the percentage is as follows:
Where: P= Percentage
n= number of cases
t= total number of respondents
The scale use for the verbal description in presenting the percentage of the BMI is as follows:
Classifying Height and Weight by Body Mass Index
Severly Wastedunder 18.5
Wasted 18.5- 24.9
Over weight30- 34.9
Mean average was used to determine the average grades of te respondents with the following formula:
Where N- number of respondents
Efx- sum of the products of the frequency
In presenting the percentage of the academic performance, as follows: Verbal DescriptionGeneral Weight Average Excellent95 and above Highly satisfactory90-94
Poor74 and below
Brown, Judith E.(2005)The inside story about nutrition and health and nutrition and physical fitness for everyone, Nutrition New 4th Edition pages 2 of 2, 27 of 11 Renato A. Hernandez(2014)”Nutrition, an essential factor to the wholesome development of a child”p.56 Vicente S. Esmalde (2013)”Does Nutritional Status of Children Affect their Academic Performance” pp.55-56. WHO, 2005”Physical Status”. The use and interpretation of anthropometry. WHO technical report 854(http.www.ATI.gov.ph. accessed date Feb.24, 2012) Elda C. Aranilla” The Nutritional Status and Stress Level of the Students of the Higher Education Department of Sacred Heart College, Their Effects on the Academic Performance”.(2008) Mia Alicbusan “Relationship between Health Hygiene practices, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Academic Performance of Grade V pupils of Lucena West III Elementary School”, 2010 Denido,(2002 )“ Nutritional Status and Academic Performance of the Pre-School Children in Naga South District, Division of City Schools, Naga City” Bossaert G.s, Doumen,E & Buyse K (2011)Predicting student’s academicachievement after the trasition of first grade: A two year longitudinal study, Journal of applied Developmental psychology 32:47-57 Von Stumm, et al, (2011)The hungry mind :Intellectual curiosity is the third pillar of academic performance, Perspective on Psychological Science (6):574-588. Fonseca,et al (2008)Emotional behavioral and social correlates of missing value forBMI, archieves of disease in childhood 2009:104-109(doi10.1136/adc2008.139915 Anisha, et al. (2007)Exercise and intelligence, cognition and academic achievement. Educational psychology Vol.20, 2nd Edition,pp.111-131. Anne Underwood( January,2006) The Nature of Nutrients: Newsweek, p.37-41 Ruth Floresca M.(2007), (February 2007) Foods that Power Health Today Feldman Robert S,( 2005) Understanding Psychology- 7th edition: Boston Mc Graw Hill