1. Columbian Exchange- the exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americans and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyage. 2. Council of the Indies- the institution responsible for supervising Spain’s colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities. 3. Bartolone de Las Casas- a priest who was the most influential defender of the Amerindians in the earl colonial period. He became the first bishop of Chiapas in southern Mexico and he served as the most important advocate of the native peoples. His greatest achievement was the enactment of the New Laws in 1542, which outlawed the enslavement of Amerindians and limited other forms of force. 4. Potosi- located in Bolivia, it is one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. 5. Encomienda- a grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
6. Creoles-in colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. 7. Mestizos- peoples of mixed Amerindian and European descent. This term was given my Spanish authorities. 8. Mulattos- peoples of mixed African and European descent. The Spanish and Portuguese used this term. 9. Indentured Servants- a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from our to seven years. 10. House of Burgesses- A Colonial government that was administered by a Crown-appointed governor and his council, as well as by representatives of towns meeting together 11. Pilgrims- group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1602 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. 12. Puritans- English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth.
They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. 13. Iroquois Confederacy- an alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, the Confederacy dominated the area from western New England to the Great Lakes. 14. New France- French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded in 1608. It fell to the British in 1763. 15. Coureurs de bois- (runners of the woods) French fur traders, many if mixed Amerindian heritage, who lived among and often married with Amerindian peoples of North America. 16. Tupac Amaru ll- member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family.
1. “Old World” refers to the world before Columbus’s voyage. In the “New World,” staple crops introduced from the Americas provided highly nutritious foods that helped fuel a population spurt in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 2. Before the arrival of Cortes, the population size of Mexico was somewhere between 13 million and 25 million. After his arrival, it fell to 700,000. This was caused from Old World diseases overwhelming native populations.
3. Wheat, olives, grapes, and garden vegetables came from southern Europe. Africa and Asia added rice, bananas, coconuts, breadfruit, and sugar cane. Citrus fruits, melons, figs, sugar, onions, radishes and salad greens were also brought from the Old World to the New World.
4. The New World staples introduced to the Old World were maize, potatoes, and manioc. Beans, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilies, and chocolate also gained widespread acceptance in the Old World, In addition, the New World provided the Old with plants that provided dyes, medicinal plants, varieties of cotton, and tobacco.
5. The most striking animal was the horse, which increased the efficiency of hunters and the military capacity of warriors on the plains. The horse allowed tribes to efficiently hunt the vast herds of buffalo in North America and it revolutionized many cultures.
6. The Spanish Empire in America included most of the islands of the Caribbean, Mexico, the American southwest, Central America, the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of South America, the Andean highlands, and the vast plains of the Rio de la Plata region.
7. The Council of the Indies in Spain supervised all government, ecclesiastical, and commercial activity in the Spanish American societies.
8. Silver and gold mines in Spanish America and sugar plantations in Brazil.
10. Under the Spanish colonial mita, one-seventh of adult male Amerindians were compelled to work for six months each year in mines, farms, or textile factories. It was a corrupted version of the Inca-era mita, which had been both a labor tax that supported elites and a reciprocal labor obligation that allowed kin groups to produce surpluses of essential goods that provided for the elderly and incapacitated. In the Spanish mita, few Amerindian workers could survive on their wages