Health Promotion has been defined as the process of enabling people to increase control and improve their health (WHO Ottawa Charter 1986) along with optimizing the quality of life. Ennis et al (2006) has described health promotion as behavioral, cognitive, and an emotional endeavor to promote health and the well being of people. Davis (1995) expresses a greater perspective of health promotion in which social environment, preventive health science, community base units, public health policies, and economic activities are concepts, which were systematically viewed. Health promotion not only focuses on education. Other focuses involve strategy based on evidence and activities that is used by individuals, families, and communities which is designated to protect and promote health. This protection and promotion of health reduces the chances of progressive illness. Examples of evidence-based strategies are counseling programs, encouraging physical activity, improvement of nutritional interventions, and environmental or behavioral modifications that may lead to patients’ compliance. Health Promotions objectively optimizes the awareness of health wellness that should be sustained.
Upon reviewing various nursing literature a particular article was informative (Journal of clinical Nursing: Nurses’ perceptions understanding and experiences of health promotion.) This article expressed health promotion as a process in nursing practice, identifies the role of a nurse with team players and viewed methods, which encompass all areas of nursing. While acknowledging some health perspective levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary) of health prevention were identified. The purpose of health promotion has involved some strategies as first described in Ottawa Charter. These strategies and actions include developing personal skills, involving community interaction and stipulating a supportive environment for health. As the nursing team strengthens their skills and capabilities the health status improves. The purpose can also be effective in identifying preventive measures, interventions and critical care if needed. The enhancement of quality of life leads to a continuing model of prevention, which then leads to an outcome of positive health promotion results. The role of a nurse in health promotion is instituted as having direct and frequent contact with patients.
There is a goal aimed at the client, family, and community to remain healthy as much as possible. Administering goals and care to the well is a productive and imperative role of a nurse. If there is a preservation of wellness, than there is a reduction of admissions to the hospital. Henceforth reducing the cost in the health care arena. Nurses must continue to facilitate the role of teaching. Nurses not only institute hands on skills, but they refer patients to resources that will illicit health and wellness information. There is a constant re-enforcement need to administer immunizations and vaccines to clients (children, elderly, and others with compromised immune systems), counseling on the cessation of smoking, providing nutritional information and instituting educational programs regarding heart related complications which would reflect on a reduction of cardiac issues. The nurses’ role continues to assist clients with information that is suitable for preventions of illness. Educational intervention leads a patient into expanding their knowledge toward specific conditions.
The continuous role of nursing in health promotion is an on going evaluation of health services. The nurse tends to encounter health promotions throughout their practice, which signifies their overall skills. Methods that are used and implementing health promotion in areas of nursing includes educating, providing information, and extending knowledge to clients, noting activities that could prevent disease complications, learning skills, and counseling are instituted as well. Carrying out effective and efficient strategies ensures possible improvements in health care status. A nursing process is one specific method in delivering health promotion. This process includes complete assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementing care, and evaluating the outcome. This nursing process method is used throughout nursing practice in particular stages in the progression of care. Health promotion may not be as effective at times; henceforth the interception levels of preventive health promotion are developed.
Preventive measures can be used to promote health and arrest the disease process. Prevention concept can be best defined in three levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary) Primary prevention is the basic level. Secondary identifies illness. Tertiary prevention level promotes treatment. Primary prevention precedes disease injury and dysfunction and is implied to healthy people. The environment is conducive to health wellness rather than health problems. This level identifies risk factors involving anticipatory planning and action. This concept of positive health encourages the achievement and maintenance of acceptable health levels which individuals need to lead a social and economical productive life. Maintenance factors may include immunizations, use of nutrients, and the protection against occupational hazards. Secondary prevention level identifies damage has already altered the individuals health. This level should be intercepted before further damage occurs.
A change at this phase may prevent health status’ moving to chronic or irreversible stages. Actions should halt the progression and disease to prevent complications. Screening for infectious diseases, mammograms and hypertension, are a few of these actions. This level is more expensive and less effective to comparison to primary prevention. The key factor is early diagnosis and treatment of a disease sets the foundation for a better prognosis. Tertiary prevention promotes treatments, special and self care of chronic conditions or disabilities. A promotion of health with existing factors to enhance the quality of life within disease or its disabilities is a key factor. This level indicates when a disease process has advanced beyond its early stages. The focus here is restoration and rehabilitation with a goal in place for individuals to have optimal level of living. The outcome of health promotion involves actions that include developing personal skills, involving the community interactions, and stimulating a supportive environment for health. The enhancement of quality of life leads to a continuing model of prevention.
1. Journal of Clinical Nursing: The long – term benefits of cardiac
rehabilitation on depression, anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Abebaw M Yohannes, Patrick Doherty, Christine Bundy and Ali Yalfani. 2. Journal of Clinical Nursing: Nurses’ perception, understanding and experiences of health promotion. Dympna Casey BA, MA, PhD, RGN 3. Journal of Clinical Nursing: Partners in care: investigating community nurses’ understanding of an interdisciplinary team – based approach to primary care. Mary O’Neil and Seamus Cowman 4. Journal of Clinical Nursing: Cardiovascular disease in China: an urgent need to enhance the nursing role to improve health outcomes. Yingjuan Cao, Patricia M Davidson and Michelle DiGiacomo. 5. http://academicwritingtips.org/component/k2 item/454- the – role – of – nurses- in – health – promot… 6. www.enotes.com>health>health promotion and education 7. metaot.com/blog/therapy_and health and promotion