The subject of my research paper is about Hospital Associated Infections. This isn’t as general topic as a lot of my classmates picked. Hai’s in the most basic sense is an infection that a patient acquires in a healthcare setting that didn’t have before they entered into the healthcare setting. I work in a hospital and hai’s are unfortunately very common in hospitals and more common than most people realize. I wanted to research this topic because I have seen the impact to patients when their health deteriorates because they have to deal with additional health struggles from picking up an infection. I did not go to a library. I used a search engine for the majority of my research. There is a lot of information about hai’s from government search engines like cdc.gov, who.int, and an online publication called infectioncontroltoday.com. This is a medical publication that is completely research basis. They do not publish opinion or editorial stories. I didn’t call an expert on my topic but I was able to find the written testimony of an expert on hai’s. Sources:
My first source is a basic definition of my topic, hai’s. This will lay the foundation for my topic. The cdc is abbreviated for Center for Disease Control. They are a government agency that is the most informative source for my topic. They are strictly a research based website. They have an incredibly expansive amount of research to use. I will use this search engine multiple times but will add the additional source references that cover the different issues.
“Prevention Of Hospital-Acquired Infections: A Practical Guide- Who/Cds/Csr/Eph/ (2002.12) Chapter V,” Prevention of nosocomial infection This source is a 145 page document written by an entire group of doctors and scientists for the World Health Organization. It breakdowns what hai’s are, how they can be prevented, and how they should be monitored. It is very detailed. There is a lot of scientific data that I do not intend to use in my paper but there is a lot of useful information. I plan on discussing the ways to prevent hai’s in hospitals.
Rutala, William A. Weber, David J. “Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities,” (November 2008). Web. 24 Feb 2012. =Spaulding believed the nature of disinfection could be understood readily if instruments and items for patient care were categorized as critical, semicritical, and noncritical according to the degree of risk for infection involved in use of the items. =Noncritcal environmental surfaces include bed rails, some food utensils, bedside tables, patient furniture and floors. Noncritical environmental surfaces frequently touched by hand (e.g., bedside tables, bed rails) potentially could contribute to secondary transmission by contaminating hands of health-care workers or by contacting medical equipment that subsequently contacts patients =paraphrase- When changes occur in bacterial susceptibility that renders an antibiotic ineffective against an infection previously treatable by that antibiotic, the bacteria are referred to as “resistant.” Smith, James. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow. Demand Media, Inc., 2008. Web. 24 Feb. 2009. The first part in quotation marks is the article title. The second part in italics is the web page title. The next part in normal font is the publisher. The next part would be the date. Next you would write web to indicate how you found it. Lastly you would write your date of access.
#3 http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/articles/2012/02/hand-hygiene-monitoring-goes-hightech.aspx #3 Pyrek, Kelly M. “Hand Hygiene Monitoring Goes High-Tech.” Infection Control Today. Vol. 16. No.2 (February 2012): 8-18. = Direct observation of healthcare workers (HCWs) provides the most detailed information regarding hand hygiene This source will discuss the important of hand hygiene in a hospital setting. I will cover how cross contamination from sick patients to healthy patients is the leading cause of hai’s. Proper hand washing and wearing non-latex gloves have to be strictly followed and monitored in order to be successful.
#4 http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/toolkits/Evaluating-Environmental-Cleaning.html Guh, Alice. Carling, Philip. “Options for Evaluating Environmental Cleaning”. Environmental Evaluation Workgroup, (December 2010). Web. 24 Feb 2012. = (paraphrase) Additionally, there is no standard method for measuring actual cleanliness of surfaces or the achievement of certain cleaning parameters (e.g., adequate contact time of disinfectant) or for defining the level of microbial contamination that correlates with good or poor environmental hygienic practices
Smith, James. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow. Dem and Media, Inc., 2008. Web. 24 Feb. 2009. The first part in quotation marks is the article title. The second part in italics is the web page title. The next part in normal font is the publisher. The next part would be the date. Next you would write web to indicate how you found it. Lastly you would write your date of access.
http://www.cdc.gov/washington/testimony/2011/t20110503.htm Source 5:
Bell, Michael. “Sacred Obligation: Restoring Veteran Trust and Patient Safety.” Testimony Before the Committee on Veterans Affairs U.S. House of Representatives: (May 3, 2011). Web. 24 Feb. 2011. =CDC estimates that approximately 1 in 20 hospital patients have HAIs. These infections are associated with increased mortality and greater cost of care; and can occur in any healthcare setting — hospitals, long-term care, dialysis clinics, ambulatory surgical centers, and even doctors’ offices. =Based on CDC data, the four most frequent infections related to specialized care procedures accounting for approximately three quarters of HAIs are: 1) urinary tract infections; 2) surgical site infections; 3) bloodstream infections; and 4) pneumonia. =Infections caused by lapses in basic infection control are unacceptable. We know how to protect patients from these events; they can and must be prevented. Source #6
Http://Www.Cdc.Gov/HAI/Pdfs/Hai/Scott_Costpaper.Pdf Scott, Douglas R. II. “The Direct Medical Costs Of Healthcare-Associated Infections In U.S. Hospitals And The Benefits Of Prevention”: (March 2009). Web. 24 Feb. 2011.
Applying two different Consumer Price Index (CPI) adjustments to account for the rate of inflation in hospital resource prices, the overall annual direct medical costs of HAI to U.S. hospitals ranges from $28.4 to $33.8 billion (after adjusting to 2007 dollars using the CPI for all urban consumers)