1. Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and Discord
– World Government
– Alliances, coalitions, and international organizations
– Collective security
Managing and controlling conflicts
3. Functional collaboration in specialized agencies
Other international organizations and regimes
In this chapter, the author mainly examine various means of international cooperation; international organizations, alliances, and coalitions. Reaction toward the Iraq’s invasion to Kuwait can be shown as one of examples of international cooperation. Multinational coalition of military force and collective security by different countries against to the threat to the world’s oil supply cost so many lives of soldiers, but still represented as an important precedent of international cooperation.
*Anarchy, Cooperation, Harmony, and Discord
International anarchy makes people of some or all states vulnerable. ( security concern boost economic and military capabilities
Or collaborate with other states for the same goal
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries consists of 11 oil producing states. They coordinate their oil production policies to stabilize oil market revenue. OPEC has been more successful in cooperation than other commodity cartel.
※North America countries international organization
In addition to NATO, the US and Canada collaborated militarily with NORAD organization. Early warning devices against bomb or missile toward Canada or the US have been managed by NORAD. Moreover, commercial cooperation among Canada, the US, and Mexico established NAFTA.
Along the spectrum between complete harmony and discord are seven categories to present the degree of positive or negative interaction across states and NGOs.
Cooperation among states does not always seek ‘the common good’, instead they cooperate to maximizes their benefits. Moreover, it does not necessarily toward positive goal, they sometimes join together to conquer some countries such as the Germans and Soviets or cooperate to exploit some weaker states economically.
International cooperation can be short-term deal or longer effort. In this chapter, the author is interested in repeated long-term cooperation which is defined as ‘ a pattern of behavior that has become formally or informally organized and reflects certain rules and norms of behavior’.
※ Regional International Organization
Europe: the most highly institutionalized set of international organization such as the European Union (EU). The Americas : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Central American Free Trade Agreement, Organization of American States(OAS). OAS is the longest standing and most inclusive of regional international organization. Middle East and Africa : Organization of African Unity(OAU). Given the diversity and often conflicting interest of its members, forging cooperation on many issues has been very difficult stage. East Asia and the Pacific: Much less common in East Asia except ASEAN which was formed in 1967. ASEAN also consults with its 10 dialogue partners including Australia, Japan, China, Korea and etc.
1. World Government
Centralized management of international politics is required to create world government. Centralized law-making, judicial, and enforcement institutions would be established, and states would consent on renounce of their control over some important matters. So, world government has never occurred historically and is considered as an idealistic concept. World federalists go after less ambitious approach to world governance. They pursue central institutions such as international court. Even though it’s small step, this are more practical than larger constitutional plan which try to change world politics in short-term.
2. Alliances, Coalition, and International organizations
Alliance: a coalition of states, mostly formal and long-term commitments (ex; NATO) NATO is more than an alliance and is also an international organization.
Sometime, alliances or coalitions can be offensive such as in WWII alliance of Germany with Italy and Japan. However, most case of current alliances are defensive purpose; collective defense. Defensive alliances try to maintain current stable condition and balance powers of states. It has apparent benefit of decreasing the burden of each states defense cost. Less formal coalition may not have alliance status. For example, the intimacy between the US and Israel maintain an agreement to cooperate on security matters. The US has avoided formally allying with Israel in afraid of diminishing ability of US with Arab states. Other coalitions for security function under the UN charter do not qualify as formal alliances. For example, in 1990 and 1991, the multinational coalition against Iraqi invasion to Kuwait was formed for the purpose of balancing of power, collective defense, and enforcing collective security under UN Security Council.
When alliances are successful, security is the collective good they produce. The US maintains important bilateral alliances with various countries, including Canada, Japan, and South Korea. In this concept, an important part in alliance is ‘who will pay’ or ‘how much should be paid’ for the collective good. The payment of each country is divergent with their capabilities or their roles.
※ Security as a collective good
The free rider problem arises from some countries who make no payment to the collective good can get benefits from the contributions of other few countries. As an example, nonmember of NATO also benefit from the security it brings to the North Atlantic area, even if they contribute nothing. The cost of effort can be asymmetric or uneven.
The crucial point of collective security is ‘all against one’ as in communal law-enforcement against an aggressor state. Unlike an alliance that is directed against an external threat, collective security is regionally or globally oriented. The goal is to restrain any state from violating international law and committing aggression. Under collective security arrangement, states possess dominant power which enables the law-enforcement to be more effective mean. In addition, the scope of collective security can be in global scope or limited to particular region. Unlike many alliances, there is no binding, strong commitment to collective action. Agreements are often decided through negotiations. Although a concert is based on compatible view of member states, competitions still occur.
Several historical examples
①The concert of Europe
As we learned in previous chapters, it lasted from 1815 (Congress of Vienna) to 1854 (Crimean War). Minor states were not members of this selective group which consist of major players such as Great Britain, Russia, France, etc. And its geographic interest was limited to Europe. The underlying consensus was that all members would comply with the territorial settlement of 1815. Collective management of relations could be accomplished by invoking universally accepted legal principles and norms. Therefore, Concert diplomacy can be described as an early expression of collective security.
②The League of Nations
The collective security idea was a root of the new League of Nations established in 1920 after WWI. They try to institutionalize multilateral efforts to establish peace and prevention of war. By 1938, the 57 members joined the League and represented in the General Assembly. The League Council was only limited to great-power permanent members. All of states members were demanded to impose collective economic or diplomatic sanctions against the aggressor. Also, the use of military force was decided by the Council. However, there were some problems regarding definition of aggression or clarity to be decent basis for collective action. In addition, the recommendation had to be agreed on unanimously and each member has veto powers. The League’s incompetency in 1930s toward Axis powers (Germany, Japan, and Italy) led to the demise of the League of Nations and the outbreak of WWII in 1939. The US did not even join the League and not participate in the collective security system.
③The United Nations
The term ‘United Nations’ was first used by President Roosevelt in 1942when 26 states pledged their governments to counter against the Axis powers. The UN Charter was drawn up in UN conference in 1945. The UN was officially established on October of 1945. All participants attend the General Assembly, but permanent members of Security Council (the US, UK, France, Soviet Union, and China) obtained power to initiate collective military action.
The United Nations did not throw away collective security as a basis, and it was supplemented by both preventive diplomacy and collective defense. Preventive diplomacy: prevent conflicts from occurring in the first place Collective defense: supported by legal framework Article 51 of the UN Charter, primarily on balance of power.
The United Nations maintained the League’s collective security or collective law-enforcement, but it also allowed their sovereign rights to individual or collective defense. This significant improvement of the League framework has supported the disappearance of world war since 1945. During high tension period (The Cold War), the Security Council could not reach agreement on many issues, but states could still rely on their collective defense alliances.
Overall, multilateral diplomacy of various international organizations, including UN, has contributed to significant advance in arms control, trade, commerce, human rights and other socio-economic issues. Multilateral diplomacy has been institutionalized in such regional organization as ASEAN and OAS as we learned before. And the creation of Council of Europe made strong economic and political ties among its EU members, and now institutionalized as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Multilateral diplomacy has come a long way from the Concert system. Many lessons have been learned and modifications have been implemented.
⑤ Limitations to collective security
Universal and concert approaches to collective security have at least 6 problems.
– Confusion about cause and effect relationship between collective security and peace
– Gap between states’ expressed commitments to collective security.
– Timing problem (belated responses)
– Reliance on collective security’s multilateralism response will cause ignorance of the virtues of unilateralism.
– Possibility of expansion of a minor war into a major war
– Implication of commitment to the status quo
*Peacekeeping: Managing and controlling conflicts
Peacekeeping can be shown as an expansion of collective security thinking to prevent conflicts that threaten international peace. Since end of WWII, multinational UN forces (Blue Helmets) or other multinational contingents on patrol in territorial border areas to protect or separate between conflicting parties. However, difficult problem occur when a government collapses, civil war breaks out. In such cases there are no parties to agree to a UN presence. ( In 1993, Somalia regime collapsed and domestic disorder broke out. The relief effort gave away to an enforce peace). Efforts have undertaken to extend beyond the more limited peace keeping into include peace enforcement and even peacemaking.
※ Selected peacekeeping and observer missions
The UN and other peacekeeping missions summarized and organized by regions. The emergence of new contingencies and rapidly changing conditions have made peacekeeping highly fluid.
Africa: UN Mission in the Sudan, Democratic republic of Congo, Western Sahara, Sierra Leone, Liberia. Asia : UN Military observer group in India and Pakistan
UN observer Mission in Georgia
UN Mission in East Timor
Europe: UN Force in Cyprus
NATO Stabilization Force
UN Mission in Kosovo
NATO international security force for Kosovo
NATO Albania Force
OSCE Peace Missions
Middle East : UN Truce Supervision Organization
UN Interim Force in Lebanon
*Functional collaboration in specialized agencies,
Other international organizations and regimes
Three approaches to cooperation to build security under international anarchy, consequently remove anarchy;
-World government and related world federalism
-Collective defense in alliances or less formal coalitions
-Collective security through peacekeeping and observer missions
Another approach is to establish concerted multilateral institutions not only for matters of defense and security, but also to perform other important functions. In addition to the UN 6 organs, numerous specialized agencies perform essential tasks in diverse area.
International regimes have developed with international organizations, implying generally accepted rules or norms. How these rules or norms developed is of particular interest of liberals and social constructivists.
Nongovernmental organizations perform both security-related task and human welfare activity. NGOs affect on the agendas of international organization and also monitor closely for their actions in 3 ways; – directly making their positions known to international organizations – indirectly influencing them through their links
– publicizing their views via media
※Applying theory: Functionalism, Neo- functionalism, and Epistemic communities David Mitrany identified certain functions that could not be performed by single state, and were the basis for forming international organizations to perform. (telecommunications, international trade and investment, and disease control) – Functionalism : According to functionalism, international integration – the collective governance and ‘material interdependence’ between states – develops its own internal dynamic as states integrate in limited functional, technical, and/or economic areas. International agencies would meet human needs, aided by knowledge and expertise
– Neofunctionalism : Neofunctionalists focused their attention in the process of integration among states, i.e. regional integration. Initially, states integrate in limited functional or economic areas. Thereafter, partially integrated states experience increasing momentum for further rounds of integration in related areas.
The author identified a spectrum between harmony and discord, and important part was various means by which states cooperate in the regimes and international organizations.
There were 4 approaches addressed to build security and cooperation
– building world governance
– cooperating within alliances and coalitions to meet collective defense challenges
– participating in international law enforcement
– building consensus and expanding multilateral international organizations to deal functionally with the many diverse issues