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Intoduction to Computer and Information Technology Essay Sample

Intoduction to Computer and Information Technology Pages
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To fulfill the purpose we should be a computer literate and information literate

Computer literate

• Must be knowledgeable in how to use a computer

Information literate

• Must be knowledgeable in finding, analyzing and using information • The ability to gather information from multiple sources, select the relevant material and organize it into a form that will allow you to make a decision or take a specific action • Information – computer, other products, finance, travel, weather • Sources – magazine, publication, Internet

• By the use of communication equipment and software, computers can connect with information sources around the world • Up-to-date information, fast, efficient, cost-effective

4 What is a computer?

• An electronic device
• Operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit
• Can accept data (input)
• Process data arithmetically and logically
• Produce results (output)
• Store the results for future use

Computer system – a collection of devices that function together to process data

2. What does a computer do?

Input
• Data given to a computer during the input operation
• Data – raw facts – numbers, words, images, sounds

Process
• Manipulate data to create information
• Information – data that has been processed into a meaningful and useful form • Information processing – production of information by processing data on a computer • Data – arithmetic and logical

Output
• Information created is put into some form (e.g. printed report)

Storage
• Store automatically
• Magnetic – CD, tape, disk
• Paper

The Components of a Computer

• Computer System consists of: input devices, output devices, system units, storage devices and communication devices.

1. Input devices

• An input device is the hardware component that allows a user to enter data and commands into memory of a computer. • Examples: keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC video camera.

2. Output devices

• An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
• Examples: monitor, printer, speaker.

3. System units
• It is a case made from metal or plastic that houses the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data.
• This part is usually connected to the motherboard.
• Two components of motherboard:
• CPU (central processing unit)/processor

The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer

• Memory
• Consists of electronic components that store
instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions

4. Storage devices
• It is a device used to hold data, instructions, and information for future use.
• Storage media: Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored.
• Examples of storage media: floppy disk, hard disk, CD-ROM, USB flash, DVDs and memory cards. • Storage device: Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium.

• Storage devices often function as a source of input because they transfer items from storage to memory. • Floppy disk consists of a thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell. • USB flash drive provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk
but is small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket. • Hard disk provides greater storage capacity than a floppy disk, Zip disk, or USB flash drive. Most are housed inside of the system unit. • A compact disk is a flat, round, portable metal disc with a plastic coating. One type of compact disk is a CD-ROM, which you can access using most CD and DVD drives. Another type of compact disc is a DVD-ROM, some of which have enough storage capacity to store two full-length movies. To use DVD-ROM, you need a DVD drive. • It can be divided into primary storage and secondary storage. ( Primary storage

: It will stores data temporarily and data will lost while the computer is turned off. Example: memory/RAM. ( Secondary storage
: It is a permanent storage area for instructions and data. Example: floppy disk, hard disk, CD-ROM.

5. Communication devices
• Hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information. • Occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other transmission media.

1.4 Why is a computer so powerful?

Speed
• In a computer, operations occur through the use of electronic circuits contained on small chips • When data flows along these circuits, it travels at close to the speed of light

Reliability
• Electronic component in modern computers are seldom fail • Most reports about computer errors are usually traced to other causes, often human mistakes • High reliability enables the computer to produce accurate results consistently

Accuracy
• Computers can process complex data precisely and accurately, and output error-free information • Enables the computer to produce accurate results on a consistent basis

Storage
• Computer can store enormous amounts of data
• Computer can keep data readily available for processing • With modern method, data can be quickly

Communications
• A computer that can communicate with other computers
• share any of the four information processing cycle operations – input, process, output and storage

Connectivity
• Capability to connect a computer to other computers
• Temporary connection – when connected to an online information service provider • Permanent connection – when connected to a network of other computers • Connectivity change the way people use computers

• Before – stand alone devices / hardware limited in that computer
• Internet – a global network of computers
• World wide Web (WWW) , Web Browser program

1.5Categories of computer

1. Personal Computers
– Computers that can perform all of its input, processing, output and storage activities by itself. – They have their own operating systems, software, and devices so that they can be set up and run without any additional equipment.

□ Desktop Computers
• It is designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table.

• Workstation – is an expensive, powerful, desktop computer designed for intense graphics and calculating.

• Stand-alone computer – is a computer that is not connected to a network and has the capability of performing the information processing cycle operations (input, process, output, and storage) by itself.

• Server – is a computer that manages the resources on a network, such as control access to the software, printers and other devices. It is faster and has more storage space.

• Client – is a computer that connected to a server and can access the contents of the storage area on the servers.

2. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
– A mobile computer is a personal computer you can carry from place to place. – A mobile device is a computing device small enough to hold in your hand.

◊ Notebook Computers
• Portable, small enough to fit on your lap
• Also called a laptop computer
• Generally more expensive than a desktop computer
• Tablet PC
• Resembles a letter-sized slate
• Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen • Especially useful for taking notes

◊ Mobile Devices
• Some mobile devices are Internet-enabled, meaning they can connect to the Internet wirelessly. • Users can chat, send e-mail and instant messages, and access the Web. • Handheld Computers

• Sometimes referred to as an ultra personal computer (uPC) or a handtop computer, is a computer small enough to fit in one hand.
• Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people. • Stylus is a small metal or plastic device that looks like a ballpoint pen but uses pressure instead of ink to write, draw, or make selections. • PDA(Personal Digital Assistant)

• It provides personal organizer functions such as a calendar, an appointment book, an address book, a calculator, and a notepad. Most PDAs also offer a variety of other application software such as word processing, spreadsheet, personal finance, and games. • Stylus is used.

• Can have keyboard.
• It is also Internet-enabled so users can check e-mail and access the Web. • Smart Phone
• It is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually also provides PDA capabilities. • In addition to basic telephone capabilities, a smart phone allows you to send and receive e-mail messages and access the Web. • A smart watch is an Internet-enabled watch that automatically adjusts to time zone changes and stores personal information.

3. Servers
– A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data and information. – Servers can support from two to several thousand connected computers at the same time. ◊ Midrange server

• Powerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers ◊ Mainframes
• Is a large, powerful computer that capable of serving hundreds of connected terminals or computer simultaneously. • If compare to PC or minicomputers, it have greater processing speed, greater capacity, a larger variety of input/output devices, support for a number of high speed secondary storage devices and time sharing. ◊ Supercomputers

• Is the fastest and most powerful computer also the most expensive computer. • Generally handle fewer programs at a time but they are used to handle complex, sophisticated functions like weather forecasting, nuclear energy research and petroleum exploration. ◊ Embedded Computers

• An embedded computer is a special purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product. • They can be found at home, in the car, and at work. • We can use embedded computers in the following products:

■ Consumer Electronics
■ Home Automation
■ Automobiles
■ Process Controllers
■ Computer Devices and Office Machines

3 What are the elements of an Information System?

1.Hardware
▪ The hardware must be reliable and capable of handling the expected workload.

2.Software
▪ The software must be developed carefully and tested thoroughly.

3.Data
▪ The data entered into the computer must be accurate.

4.People
▪ Most companies have an IT department. Staff in this IT department should be skilled and up-to-date on the latest technology. IT staff also should train users so they understand how to use the computer properly.

5.Procedures
▪ All the IT applications should have readily available documented procedures that address operating the computer and using its applications.

6. Communication
▪ Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions and information in a network environment.

6. In order to provide accurate, timely and useful information :

• Elements must be present
• All elements must work together
• Equipment must be reliable/ capable of handling the expected workload • Have been developed and tested
• Data entered must be accurate

1.8 How Company uses computers with Information Technology

Accounting
• Information systems capture, organize, analyze, and disseminate data and information throughout modern organizations

Finance
• Information systems turn financial world on speed, volume, and accuracy of information flow

Marketing
• The Internet and the World Wide Web have opened an entirely new channel for marketing and provided much closer contact between the consumer and the supplier

Production/Operations Management
• Every process in a product or service’s value chain can be enhanced by the proper use of computer-based information systems

Human Resource Management
• Employees can handle much of their personal business themselves, and the Internet makes a tremendous amount of information available to the job seeker

Management Information Systems (MIS)
• The opportunities for those planning a career in MIS grows as fast as the adoption of information technologies in organizations everywhere

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