1.1 Identify current legislation, guidelines policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication
Current legislation, guidelines policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication we use is is mainly The Medicines Acts 1968. While we are not expected to have detailed knowledge of the legislation, we do need to be aware of the legal difference between types of drugs and the legal framework that allows them to handle medicines on behalf of the service user. The following is a list of legislation that has a direct impact upon the handling of medication within a social care setting are:
The Medicines Act 1968
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971
The Social Work Act 1968
The Children Act 1989
The Data Protection Act 1998
The Care Standards Act 2000
The Regulation of Care Act 2001
The Health and Social Care Act 2001
The Health Act 200
Health and Safety at Work Act (1974)
The Control of Substances Hazardous to health Regulations (1999-COSHH)
Mental Capacity Act (2005)
Know about common types of medication and their use
2.1 Describe common types of medication including their effects and potential side effects
Some common types of medication we use on a daily basis are:
Analgesics like Paracetamol – Effects these are used to relieve pain – Side Effects service users can become addicted to them if used over a long period of time, irritation of the stomach, and even liver damaged.
Antibiotics like Penicillin – Effects these are used to treat infections – Side Effects service users can experience diarrhoea, sickness, and kidney problems.
Anticoagulants like Warfarin – Effects this is used to thin the blood – Side Effects service users have a high risk of excessive blood loss (as the blood cannot clot easily), pass blood in urine or faeces, easily and severe bruising, and unusual headaches.
2.2 Identify medication which demands the measurement of specific physiological measurements
Medication that is used by my service users sometimes need to be checked before taking it. These include Insulin, blood pressure medication and warfarin. Checks that need to be taken are blood sugar levels for insulin, blood pressure for the blood pressure medication and the warfarin team need to monitor the blood of the service users that take warfarin. All these checks are normally done by the service users family or warfarin team but we need to know they are taking it so we can help make sure they are keeping on top of the checks.
2.3 Describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriate action(s) required
Adverse reactions can happen with and medication and to anybody, common reactions that happen are:
Anaphyactic shock – signs of this is swelling of face, lips or hands, rash, and breathing trouble. If that happens medical professional must be informed immediately.
Allergic reactions – signs of this is skin rashes, itches, and vomiting.
2.4 Explain the different routes of medicine administration
There are several routes of administration they are:
Inhalation – this is a medication that is breathed in and the medication is delivered directly into the lungs. Oral – this is a medication that is taken via the mouth. This can be a tablet, capsule, liquid or a spray. Also there are tablets that you take by placing under the tongue to dissolve quickly this is called Sublingual. Topical – This is a medication that is either a cream, or gel that is applied directly to the affected area of skin. Instillation – This is medication that is either a drop or ointment that is applied to the affected area either via the eye, nose, or ear. Subcutaneous – This is a medication that is injected just below the skin. This is normally insulin and can only be done after being trained by a professional.
Understand procedures and techniques for the administration of medication
3.1 Explain the types, purpose and function of materials and equipment needed for the administration of medication via the different routes
Inhalation – the different types of equipment that is used to administer this type of medication is an inhaler which delivers an instant relief or a nebuliser which is a slow relief over a period of time. Oral – the different types of equipment that is used to administer this type of medication is tablets, capsule, or liquid. Topical – the different types of equipment that is used to administer this type of medication is either cream or gel. Instillation – the different types of equipment that is used to administer this type of medication is either drops or ointment. We dont use seringes we only use medication pots, blister packs or spoons. The distic nurses will use different types of materials for medication.
3.2 Identify the required information from prescriptions / medication administration charts
The information that is required to fill in a mar chart is the service users full name, address, D.O.B, Doctors name and telephone number, the medication that is being administered with the strength, foam and any other special requirements.
Prepare for the administration of medication
4.1 What standard precautions for infection control would you take?
Standard precautions I would take when preparing medication is I would wash my hands, use the no touch technique pack-pot-person and use ppe when applying creams or ointments.
4.2 Explain the appropriate timing of medication e.g. check that the individual has not taken any medication recently
Medication should be taking at set intervals throughout the day and most medications needs at least four hours between doses. Some medication have special requirements which may include being taken on an empty stomach, be taking with, after or just before food. Before the medication is dispensed I would check the mar chart and then ask the service user if they are ready to take the medication.
4.3 How and why would you obtain the individuals consent for the administration of medication? How could you offer support, information and reassurance throughout?
From my service users I would gain consent to administer medication by asking them if they are ready to take the medication. I would do this because the service user has the right to refuse medication and if I have already dispensed the medication I would have to fill in a medication error form, inform the office, place the dispensed medication into a sealed envelope in a safe place where the service user can not access and my team leader will have to come to the service users house and take the medication to be destroyed at the pharmacy.
4.4 How would you ensure that select, check and prepare correctly the medication according to the medication administration record or medication information leaflet?
I would first read the care note book and mar chart to make sure no one has been and administered the medication. I would check each entry in the mar chart checking when it needs do be administered and if it was the correct time I would check to see if there is any special requirements like on an empty stomach. I would then check the name of the medication and the strength on the mar chart, box and on the sleeve the medication is in. I would dispence the correct amount of the medication in to a pot using the no touch technique. And I would give the medication to the client with water and repeat.
Administer and monitor individuals’ medication
5.1 What routes are there for the administration of medication? How do you know that you have selected the correct route? In order to prepare the site for the administration what would you have to do?
Medication can be administered several different ways, normally the types I use are either oral or topical. You can find the route the medication should be taken on the medication label which the pharmacy does. I would always wash an area if I was to apply a cream before apply the cream as a build up of cream can cause more harm than good.
5.2How do you Safely administer medication?
•in line with legislation and local policies
•in a way which minimises pain, discomfort and trauma to the individual
Wash hands, collect the mar sheets, read then, select correct meds, ask them if ready, dispense correct meds, Sat upright preferably in a chair, give with water. Ask if they are alright. Record in care note book with time medication was administered. If applying creams to sensitive areas I would make sure I was as gentle as possible. When leaving I would make sure the care notes are back in the same location.
5.3 Describe how to report any immediate problems with the administration
I would instantly ring the pharmacy for advice about the error, when done what the pharmacy recommends I would inform the office, right it in the care note book and fill in a medication error form at the first convenient point.
5.4 Why and how do you monitor the individual’s condition throughout the medication activity? If there was an adverse reaction, what action would you take?
I would monitor the service users condition throughout taking their medication incase they choke or have an alergic reaction. If they show any signs of an alergic reaction I would ring 999.
5.5 Explain why it may be necessary to confirm that the individual actually takes the medication and does not pass the medication to others
It is important to make sure the service user is ready to take there medication because tablets can be harm full to others, if they are not ready is it safes to keep them in the original box.
5.6 How do you maintain the security of medication and related records throughout the process?
Medication is normally kept safe in the service users house in side a locked cupboard so that no one can gain access to them and the records are kept safe inside the care plan folder, so other cares know where that are located.
5.7 Describe how to dispose of out of date and part used medications in accordance with legal and organisational requirements.
I would inform the office, and my team leader or a family member would collect them from the service user (if it is my team leader that would fill in a medication disposal form) and take the medication to the pharmacy to be destroyed.