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Literature Review Essay Sample

Literature Review Pages
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Abstract
The ever-changing world of recruitment will be discussed throughout this paper. Employee recruitment has changed in many ways for the passed few years. Technology and the changing attitudes of current and future employees, and job seekers, are major factors as to why employee-recruiting methods have been changing. Technology has not only changed the ways in which employers recruit, but also affected the attitudes that employees have during the recruiting process. Technology has also changed the communication process of recruitment in many ways, as well, growing the market and employee equity.

Employee Attitudes
Employee attitudes have changed since the growing job opportunities and technological environment. In many ways jobseekers have become more finicky. Job-hopping has become normal and more acceptable with growing opportunities throughout the job market with employees giving them more choices and more demands. With not only money on the table, as stated by Jennings in Hiring Generation X, “Salary increases of up to 25% are not unusual. In addition, signing bonuses have become de rigueur. Expect to offer up to 10% or more of a candidate’s annual income for low- to mid-level management positions and up to 20% for upper management. Companies offering stock options or employee stock ownership programs have great appeal” (Jennings), employers also have to suit future employees’ lifestyles. “[f]lexible schedules, shorter commuting distance, interesting work culture and prestige. Titles and other amenities, such as offices, in-house gyms and day-care centers, carry a lot of weight as well.” (Jennings).

Job-hopping has become easier, with competitors recruiting current employees of another firm for their firm. Borstoff, Marker and Bennett describe this in Online Recruitment: Attitudes and Behaviors of Job Seekers, “The use of online recruiting may cause companies to lose valued employees. Search engines allow companies to view and evaluate the resumes of individuals at any other company. Online information about both companies and employees allow a recruiter from one firm to search online for candidates from other firms that the recruiter’s firm needs. These resumes can then be used to access a company’s database and find information about all employees.” (Borstoff, Marker, Bennett).

Jobseekers often prove to be more impatient in their technology. If the online recruitment is not technologically up to date, the technologically savvy, it could turn the applicant away. Hoye and Lievens show how important this can be to Human Resource departments, “The speed with which technology is changing presents another challenge with online recruiting. On average, new and faster computer technology appears every six months, causing difficulty for the employer to stay literate on the latest computer software, hardware, and Internet technology. This constant change also requires the HR staff to become more technology savvy or more dependent on the company’s IT department.” (Hoye, Lievens)

Technology
In the passed technology has only allowed employers to do background and reference checks. Clark and Roberts show what was typically used versus what is being used now, “Typically, background checks were reserved for serious candidates and for jobs which had a business necessity for the background information.” (Clark, Roberts) However, the technology industry has been growing and evolving, in turn, evolving today’s employee and jobseeker. Social media, e- recruiting and communicating through the Internet have been a few of the big factors that play a role in the change in recruitment strategies. Social media has not only gotten employers’ information out there, but has also allowed the employer the ability to see the jobseeker’s information as well. “[e]mployers are routinely conducting informal online background checks on people and without applicants’ knowledge. Based on the information they find, employers are making decisions. (Clark, Roberts).

Technology has not only affected the ways in which employers conduct research on employees, but how employees find employers. Employers face many ways in which they can reach jobseekers. Stated by Hoye and Lievens, “Company-dependent sources such as advertising are part of the organization’s recruitment activities and can be directly controlled to communicate a positive message to potential applicants. Conversely, company- independent sources such as word-of-mouth can be influenced only indirectly through other recruitment activities and can contain positive as well as negative information.” (Hoye, Lievens).

Online recruiting is a process where employers recruit through commercial job sites or other sites in order to put out job ads and collect applicant data. In the passed employers were only able to do print ads, employee referrals, or agencies. Now, companies are posting more online, jobseekers are also seeking for jobs more online. “This increasing use of online recruiting and hiring as a business tool has not only changed the way companies recruit employees and how job seekers search for jobs, it has also impacted both parties involved. This research reviews current online recruiting and hiring practices and examines the attitudes and behaviors of online job seekers in their use of company websites and the online job boards.” (Borstorff, Marker, Bennett).

The two most popular tools for online recruiting are Internet job boards and company websites. Borstorff, Marker, and Bennett say, “These websites help companies perform the first two major functions of the hiring process; attracting applicants to the company through the posting of available jobs, and receiving applications and resumes from the internet. Company websites that were originally used as public relations and commerce tools are now creating a virtual labor marketplace.” (Borstorff, Marker, Bennett). Online recruiting has made it easier for employers to reach jobseekers and for jobseekers to become employees quicker.

Employee Equity
Employee equity has gone up because of the increase in evolution of technology. Many more job opportunities open up for jobseekers through the giant Internet recruiting market. Borstorff, Marker and Bennett state, “The use of online recruiting impacts significantly businesses and job seekers who utilize this method in the hiring and job search process. Businesses are finding many favorable reasons to use online recruiting including increasing efficiency, lowering recruitment and hiring costs, attracting more qualified applicants and simplifying the entire selection process. Using online recruiting, a company is able to streamline and increase the efficiency of its HR functions, leading to a decrease in the cost of recruiting and hiring new employees.” (Borstorff, Marker, Bennett). Employers put more of their efforts on Internet recruitment because, that is where they will find the most applicants and the ability to get the most qualified applicants, and the companies’ online job tools have become invaluable to them.

Another major aspect that is giving employees more equity is the competition. Technology has made employee retention more difficult. The ability for employees to find more opportunities and for businesses to attempt to recruit these employees quickly and easily has been the main factor in turnover. Borstorff, Marker and Bennett give an example, “[t]he passive job seeker can be located through information available on the Internet and have offers made to him/her while employed.” (Borstorff, Marker, Bennett). Companies are coming up with ways in which they need to appeal to current employees of competitors and jobseekers. Stated by Hoye and Lievens, “A recruitment message emphasizing the similarities between potential applicants and the organization itself is in line with a person–organization fit perspective, which suggests that potential applicants are more attracted to organizations with characteristics similar to their own.” (Hoye, Lievens).

The Growing Market
Social-Networking sites, Internet job boards, Internet conferences/interviews, and telecommuting have played a major role in making the recruitment market rapidly grow. In the passed it was more common for people to meet face-to-face, or to send a letter. Now, technology has made it easier for employers to reach jobseekers instantly through the web. “Advances in technology have once again shifted how people communicate with each other. Not only has wireless communication made it possible for us to talk to one another when thousands of miles apart, but now we can instantly receive e-mails, send text messages, and ‘‘twitter.’’ (Clark, Roberts). Many methods of interviewing for recruitment are happening through the web, such as chat rooms, blogs, wiki, and Second Life. (Clark, Roberts).

Businesses are becoming more reliant on the Internet to find their employees and are beginning to understand the opportunities that it holds. Online Recruitment: Attitudes and Behaviors of Jobseekers shows, “The use of online recruiting impacts significantly businesses and job seekers who utilize this method in the hiring and job search process. Businesses are finding many favorable reasons to use online recruiting including increasing efficiency, lowering recruitment and hiring costs, attracting more qualified applicants and simplifying the entire selection process. Using online recruiting, a company is able to streamline and increase the efficiency of its HR functions, leading to a decrease in the cost of recruiting and hiring new employees.” (Borstorff, Marker Bennett).

Recruitment is starting to make a shift towards employees recruiting employers. Through the use of Social Networking sites, like LinkedIn, Google+, Instagram, Twitter and Facebook, it is easier for jobseekers to contact employers with their information, and appeal to them. Stated in Online Recruitment: Attitudes and Behaviors of Jobseekers, “[o]nline recruiting exposes the recruiting company to many more applicants searching for jobs. With nearly 200 million people using the Internet.” (Borstorff, Marker, Bennett). In the passed jobseekers had to take what they could get when searching for jobs, so to speak. Jobseekers are now easily able to compare their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA’s) with the KSA’s that the company is looking for and find the best match for them. “On the other side of the search, potential applicants are able to access the job board to view job postings and submit resumes and applications to the companies they would like to work for. Today, there are many job boards excelling in online hiring, such as Dice, Monster, Hot Jobs, CareerBuilder, and Vault.” (Borstorff, Marker, Bennett). With the recruitment market growing so rapidly through technology, jobseekers and employers have been and will continue to communicate quicker and more efficiently.

Conclusion
In summation, the recruitment market is growing and changing with every advance of technology. Jobseekers and employers are finding new, more efficient ways of recruiting and finding jobs. With this new uprising era of technology, the attitudes of employees are changing. Employees and jobseekers are able to find different jobs easier and quicker, giving them more options and more demands. These changing attitudes, with the technology, are giving employees and jobseekers more equity in the job market, causing employers to seek them out with more and more recent methods to find the right employees. This is in-turn growing the job market, as well as the recruitment market; more specifically e-recruitment.

Author’s Opinion
The recruitment process has changed immensely in the passed years, due to new advances in technology. E-recruiting is the new more efficient way of recruiting, and will start to change the way companies not only find their employees, but how they appeal to them and how they retain them. Recruitment is an ever-changing field and companies are struggling to stay on top of it, with the fast technological advances of today’s industry. Technology is changing the work force as well as jobseekers look for new employment. Today’s employees and jobseekers are very picky and are a “take what I want” type of generation. They are looking for what they want and looking for more pros to far outweigh cons in looking for a job. Employees today can also be very difficult to retain.

They are always in search of something better, and if they find it they will take it. With the growing and advancing industry of technology, employee equity is shooting through the roof as well. Companies are striving to find the best means possible to be the best at finding employees and keep them. E-recruitment is becoming the number one way of reaching job seekers from job boards, to Social Network sites and even blogs, eventually, it seems that it will be one of the only ways of reaching jobseekers; leaving all other forms obsolete. This author believes that technology is making recruitment the most important aspect of Human Resource Management. Eventually, recruitment is going to have its own position and more specifically e-recruitment will have its own position within Human Resource Management.

Works Cited

Jennings, A. (). Hiring Generation X. Journal of Accountancy, 189. C. Borstorff, Michael B. Marker, Doris S. Bennett,. (). ONLINE RECRUITMENT: ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS OF JOB SEEKERS. Journal of Strategic E-Commerce, 5. A. Clark, Sherry J. Roberts. (). Employer’s Use of Social Networking Sites: A Socially Irresponsible Practice. Journal of Business Ethics, . Van Hoye, Filip Lievens. (). Investigating Web-Based Recruitment Sources: Employee testimonials vs word-of-mouse. Department of Personnel Management, Work and Organizational Psychology, . Holm, A. (). E-Recruiting: Auf dem Weg zu einem ubiquitären Rekrutierungsprozess und integriertem Bewerber-Beziehungsmanagement.. ,

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