A) What is the break-even point in passengers and revenues per month? Unit CM = $160 – $70= $90

Unit of Sales = 3,150,000 / $90= 35,000 passengers

Unit of Sales = 35,000 x $160= $5,600,000 revenue

B) What is the break-even point in number of passenger train cars per month? Unit of Sales = 35,000/63= 555.5= 556 passenger cars

C) If Springfield Express raises its average passenger fare to $ 190, it is estimated that the average load factor will decrease to 60 percent. What will be the monthly break-even point in number of passenger cars? 90 x .60 = 54

Unit CM = $190 – $70= $120

Unit of Sales = $3,150,000 / $120= 26,250 passengers Unit of Sales = 26,250/54= 486.1 =486 passenger cars

D) (Refer to original data.) Fuel cost is a significant variable cost to any railway. If crude oil increases by $ 20 per barrel, it is estimated that variable cost per passenger will rise to $ 90. What will be the new break-even point in passengers and in number of passenger train cars? Unit CM = 160 – 90= 70

Unit of Sales = 3,150,000 / 70 = 45,000 Passengers Unit of Sales = 45,000/63= 714.2= 714 passenger cars

E) Springfield Express has experienced an increase in variable cost per passenger to $ 85 and an increase in total fixed cost to $ 3,600,000. The company has decided to raise the average fare to $ 205. If the tax rate is 30 percent, how many passengers per month are needed to generate an after-tax profit of $ 750,000? Unit CM = 205 – 85= 120

after-tax profit = 750,000/(1-.30)= 750,000/.70= 1071428.57 205X – 3,600,000 – 85X = 1,071,428.57

(1071428.6+3600)/ (205-85)=8959 passengers

F) Springfield Express is considering offering a discounted fare of $ 120, which the company believes would increase the load factor to 80 percent. Only the additional seats would be sold at the discounted fare. Additional monthly advertising cost would be $ 180,000. How much pre-tax income would the discounted fare provide Springfield Express if the company has 50 passenger train cars per day, 30 days per month?

((((90 x .8) – (90 x .7)) x (120 – 70)) x (50 x 30)) – 180000 = 495000

G) Springfield Express has an opportunity to obtain a new route that would be traveled 20 times per month. The company believes it can sell seats at $ 175 on the route, but the load factor would be only60 percent. Fixed cost would increase by $ 250,000 per month for additional personnel, additional passenger train cars, maintenance, and so on. Variable cost per passenger would remain at $ 70.1.

1) Should the company obtain the route?

No, they would need more passengers and cars to break even each month thus taking them longer to profit. 2) How many passenger train cars must Springfield Express operate to earn pre-tax income of $120,000 per month on this route? 250,000+120,000 / ((.6 x 90) x (175 – 70)) = 66

3) If the load factor could be increased to 75 percent, how many passenger train cars must be operated to earn pre-tax income of $ 120,000 per month on this route? 250,000+120,000 / ((.75x 90) x (175 – 70)) = 53 passenger train cars 4) What qualitative factors should be considered by Springfield Express in making its decision about acquiring this route? There are factors that could be changed to benefit Springfield Express and factors that could hinder their success. From the calculations, I have determined that increasing the load factor would benefit the acquisition of the route. The route would not be beneficial if they kept the same fare for the passengers. If they did increase the fare, the route would be beneficial.