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Marine Protection Essay Sample

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Abstract

Marine Protected Areas have been realized as a useful tool for the protection of marine eco system and biodiversity all over the world. These Marine Protected areas MPAs limit human activity in the conservation regions in order to protect biodiversity and exploited species. Hence they have a direct effect on recreational activities like fishing, bait collection, diver collection etc. The present study has used secondary data from all ready conducted researches on the subject matter and has addressed a lot of questions like the effect of MPAs on recreational activities with focus on temperate waters, the advantages and disadvantages of these MPAs on recreational activities. The Different ways that Recreation fishing can be compatible with MPAs.

In this study, it is also found that there is the possibility that catch and release angling can be compatible with no take marine protected areas MPAs, provided that there is no ecological effect among species. Also, it is suggested that training of anglers, their education should be done in order to make the Catch and release angling compatible with MPAs. From the management perspective, there is a need for identification of benchmarks of success of MPAs. Also, there is a strong need to study characteristics of different species under different MPAs and regions, while formulating strategies. Public opinion and community participation are also important for the acceptability and growth of MPAs. Management of these MPAs must understand the Social Impact assessment while formulating strategies and objectives of MPAs.

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Marine Protected Areas
Marine protection is the initiative of protection of wildlife and the ecosystem in Oceans and seas all over the world. These programs are aimed at limiting and restoring damages caused by human interactions to the eco system of these oceans and seas. These programs also strive to save and protect vanishing and endangered species in the Oceans of the world. Marine protection as a discipline is relatively new. Marine protectionists rely on information gathered from both scientific sources and human factors. The information from scientific sources comes from fisheries science, marine biology and oceanography. In the same way, information from human sources is gathered through marine law, economics and demand of marine resources. Marine protectionist basically combined the information gathered from both of these sources and then formulates ways to save and conserve the marine ecosystem. Marine protected areas receive a lot of attention of the general public and are an ongoing activity in many countries of the world. 1.2 The Need for Marine protection

The decline in production of fisheries all over the world have given rise to the establishment of marine conservation programs that are aimed at reducing and controlling traditional fishing volumes. These programs have lead to the creation of marine protected areas, which are defining as places where the natural resources are given more importance than surrounding waters and the activities of the general public and fishermen is limited. These measures are taken by autonomous bodies in order to achieve a variety of goals like protection of particular species of the oceans, controlling fishing volumes, adequate distribution of resources and overall security and protection of marine ecosystem. The Marine protection authorities use a number of restrictions to protect the marine ecosystem. Some of the restrictions include restrictions on the use of fishing gear types and complete banning of fishing and entry in bay areas.

On the basis, of restrictions imposed the marine protected, areas can be divided into three types, MPAs that allow fishing but protect particular species, MPAs that allow limited volume of fishing and third which restrict all types of fishing and extraction activities. These are also called as no-take reserves NTRs. (Kellner et al., 2007) There also exists a problem with MPAs that allow some fishing, it is often difficult to determine how much extraction should be allowed and at the same time protect marine eco system and achieve marine protection objectives.

The estimation of fishing yield and output is often difficult task and lacks preciseness. (Willis, Miller and Babcock, 2003) The most well known treaty for the protection of marine ecosystem was formed in 1966 called the convention of fishing and conservation of living resources of the high seas. The laws related to marine conservation include the Marine protection act (1972) and the Marine protection, research and sanctuaries act (1972). Quite recently in 2010, the Scottish parliament enforce Marine protection Act which introduced such concepts as the marine planning, fishing licensing and protection of seals act. The Marine protecting activities are aided by new technologically advance programs called turtle excluding devices (Teds), Radio frequency Identification (RFID) and Marine conservation as well. 1.3 Problem Statement

The purpose of the current study will be to investigate how marine conservation efforts affect recreational fishing activities like angling, bait collection, diver collection, hand collection or any other type of recreational fishing activities. This study will investigate if there are
any examples of these MPAs benefitting recreational fishing efforts. Also, this study will strive to study method to best manage recreational fishing activities in relation to Marine protection activities. The focus of the study will be mainly on the management of bait collection within MPAs and evidence for effects on MPAs for particularly important temperate species – e.g. plaice, Pollack, lugworm, razor clams etc.

Chapter 2 Theory and Methods
2.1 Methodology

The data for the study was all secondary in nature, the study used key concepts, theories and results from studied all ready conducted by other researchers, Primarily example and studies were used which were conducted on the marine protected areas, ways of better management of these MPAs, issues and problems in application of MPAs all around the world, the importance public participation in MPAs. Also studies were reviewed in which the interrelationships between recreational activities and method of their co- management were studied. Focus was on temperate regions but tropical region studies were also reviewed. The data was collected primarily from online sources, through websites, journals, newspapers etc. 2.2 Theory

2.2.1 Recreational Fishing Trends
The MPAs and recreational fishing done by the general public, tourists have to on the same line to of marine life successful, but there are always disputes, non compliance in every part of the world. Recreational fishing is one of the favorite pastimes all over the world. According to an estimate alone there are 34 million anglers (age 16 or less), which make up 16% of the population engage in fishing every year in both marine and fresh waters. The average days spent in this activity every year is 16 days. Globally, in 2000 alone nine million anglers visited the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific Oceans and fished approximately 429 million fishes. In the same way in Australia, One quarter of the total population participate in the large chartered recreational sector of the country.

In New Zealand also 400,000 anglers out of a population of 3.7 million people, and this recreational fishing accounts for 35% of the total fish caught every year. As per the marine recreational survey carried out each year, it is evident that recreational fishing trend is growing in the United States and neighboring countries. From 1996 to 2000 the number of recreational trips has risen by 20%, and this rise has resulted in conflicts between the commercial fishing and recreational fishing, owing to depletion of fish stock in the natural waters. 2.2.2 Marine Protection in Temperate waters

Blyth-Skyrme, (2006) studied marine protection and fishery management areas, the study states that Marine protection areas are increasingly working for the protection of marine ecosystems in tropical and reef systems, but little attention has been paid to the effects and benefits of marine protection in temperate waters. The study compares the general trends in sport fishing catches of nine species of fishes commonly found in temperate waters. The study analyzed the catches of trophy fish species from 1973-2002 in the area south coast of Devon (UK). The data was compiled from National federation of sea Anglers (NFSA) and sea Angler magazine (SAM). The study was carried out in an area under the influence of a large (500-km2) towed fishing gear restricted area and surrounding area in which there was conventional marine protection and fishery management controls. The study was carried out in a time series analysis from 1973-2002. Many species of fish were analyzed under the study, one such specie was the trophy fish, and it was found out that the mean weight of trophy fish, which was above average size, having early age at maturity and limited mobility and home range was greatest within the area influenced by fishing gear restrictions. Also, it was found out that the weight of trophy fishes which mature early, also declined more slowly in the area under the influence of fishing gear restrictions.

It was also found out that the mean weight of trophy fishes which mature late, and have extensive spatial movements declined on the same rate in all areas; hence there was evidence that these species required protection and conservation restrictions in areas greater than the already protected(500km2) area. The study also suggested that other fish species, which have a localized existence, and with higher mobility and site fidelity may require additional protective measures to control and prevent any decline in number or sizes of fish species. MPAs can be used as effective tools for safeguarding exploited species in marine ecosystem. The traditional fisheries management has conservation tools for maintain the stock of fishes above a certain limit but these programs have limitations in fully protecting marine ecosystem and maintaining biodiversity. Thus fisheries man management system must include Marine protected areas in their management tools. (Roberts, Hawkins and Gell, 2000)

Marine protected reserves served a important safeguarding tool against specifically the targeted fish breed. They have ability to increase& maintain fish populations, compared to other non protected surroundings. (Cote, Mosqueira and Reynolds, 2005) Nadine, (2011) studied the marine protected area management in the temperate areas of British Colombia, west coast of Canada. The study was carried out because marine protection in the temperate waters had received little attention in the temperate regions. Most studies done in the past have only focused on coastal regions. In the study, the author attempted to study factors related managerial goals, conservation values long with impacts of provincially managed MPAs.

Apart from this other issue related to management of MPAs and method and techniques for improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness of management are discussed. The study also attempted to identify the main benchmarks for effective managerial performance in MPAs. The results of the study indicate that MPA management skills need to improve on all stages beginning from the design of MPAs. There was also strong need for intergovernmental collaborations and the participation of native groups. Te study also pointed out that the benchmarks for successful MPA management are strictly site specific. The Benchmarks indicative and applicable for multiple MPAs were very few, and these were applicable for wider scale of sites. 2.3 Application and Results:

2.31 The effect of marine protection on revival of different species Barrett et al., (2007) studied marine protected areas and its effect on the assemblages on different species of fishes in the Tasmanian marine areas, the author argued that the previous studies done on the effect of MPAs on fish assemblages yield less accurate result, because these studies have been done in the past either as comparisons between fished and unfished locations, or they are studies done over a fix period of time. The author in an attempt to overcome this limitation in the previous studies carried out the study to analyze the long term change in number of marine species over differing long time scales. The study was done along Tasmanian marine reserves at external reference sites, on an annual basis over a period of 10 years in total. The results showed the significance of using long-term data sets to measure the difference in number of fish species over the period of time. The results show that a high percentage increase in abundance of Latridopsis forsteri and other large fishes (>300mm) over the period of time relative to marine protection controls, the results also suggest a large 10fold increase in the number of large fish and double increase in richness of large species per site within the Tinderbox marine reserve areas owing to controls.

The effect of marine controls has different effects on the recovery of different type of species; the results show that short age species react very differently to marine controls compared to long age-term species. The study compares its result with several previous studies and states that studies done in the past suggest that there is no effect of size of MPAs and their duration on the extent of recovery of different species, but the present study explores new phenomenon. The results show that the recovery times can be slow as it is a complex, specie specific phenomenon. Also, the study suggested that local fishing activity has a direct effect on the degree of change in species. Shears and Grace, (2006) studied the comparison of trends between lobster population in partially protected and no-take marine zones. The study analyzed long term data from the year 1977 to 2005, from before and after the establishment of parks. This data was gathered in relation to the population of spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii (exploited specie) from both no-take zones and partially protected or recreationally fished marine parks.

This comparison was done to access the effectiveness of not take zones to partial protection zones. Initially lobster population was compared between both types of marine parks before the establishment of parks; the results showed that there was a mark difference in the population of lobster specie after the introduction of protection. The no take zones had a positive impact upon the lobster population numbers, it was seen that a legally sized lobster was 11 times more abundant, and having 25 times more biomass in no take zones compared to partially protected areas. It was also seen that there was no significant change in numbers of lobsters in partially protected areas. Furthermore, it was found out that there was no difference in number of lobster numbers between the partially protected areas and fully fished sites. The long-term data for lobster population from fully and partially protected areas showed that long term declines in lobster population which is a clear reflection of the regional trends in catch estimates of fisheries.

Hence the study clearly shows that the no take zones have contributed to the revival of exploited species such as the lobster species and also shows that partially protected areas have contributed little to the benefit of endangered and exploited species in the long run. Auster and Shackell, (2000) studied about the effect of marine protected areas on the conservation of endangered species and also its effect upon the biodiversity. The study states that MPAs have the ability to effectively sustain marine life and their support systems at both genetic, landscape and population levels. Also, MPAs have the ability to protect fisheries, by protecting their key breeding and living areas, protect key habitats and protect endangered species. They also have the ability to increase the life span and population of more old aged species. Marine protection activities are specifically carried out to save vanishing and exploited species of marine life and are based upon the responses of the endangered species under consideration. However, it is still difficult to identify and analyze rare highly diversified areas of Boreal and temperate waters in the outer continental shelves.

There is information available from scientific and fisheries regarding the age, life structure and life pattern behaviors of different species, on the physical structure of the marine ecosystem. This vital information can be used to first of all to identify particularly important areas of marine system that are most important to the sustainability of overall exploited species and will also help in maintaining biodiversity in the system. This information can lead to the establishment of networks of MPAs in exploited areas on an experimental basis. This experimental setting will enable the management of these MPAs to change and modify the current model with new information coming in later. These MPA networks can be used for a variety of purposes, some of which are monitoring of effect of MPAs on the biodiversity, population numbers and life span of exploited species. Recreational fishing and natural climate changes have lead to the decreae of many temperate water speices like Lugworm, Razor calms etc.

There is empiral evidence that Fishing has sugnificantly altered the reproductive and biodiversity of marine reserves. (Jennings and Kaiser, 2008) Size of these reserves also matter, through research it has been shown that the size of the Marine reserves also matters, this is because of the interdepedence among marine species and their biological structure, hence size plays an important role in achieving objectives of MPAs. (Halpern, 2002) Attwood and Bennett, (2010) studied the effect of marine reserves on recreational angling. The study was carried out on the lines of effect of marine reserves on yield of fishes usually targeted by near shore anglers. The study was carried out in the marine reserves South-Western Cape, South Africa. The study developed a model which was directed towards three marine regions which are mostly targeted by shore anglers. The study involved three species namely steenbras Lithognathus, Galjoen Dichistius Capensis and black tail Diplodus Sargus capensis.

The movement rates for steenbras Lithognathus & Galjoen Dichistius capensis were estimated through tag recovery data because both species are nomadic. For black tail Diplodus Sargus capensis, which is a resident specie, passive larval diffusion was used from drogue-separations rates. The results showed that marine reserves cannot increase the population per recruit of white steenbras. The white steenbras however, showed positive results to spawner-biomass analysis, meaning the total weight of the specie which can lay eggs and are mature. A recruitment spawner biomass (total weight of the specie which can lay eggs and are mature) was also applied to galjoen and black tail. The results showed that the population and reproduction of galijoen increased manifolds with the increase in protected area. Black tail in relation to the nearby small reserves also showed positive results. The management of the study used a number of combinations of protected are sizes and spacing combinations to test the model.

The model’s different combination satisfied the management’s criteria for the three species of fishes. There also existed a limitation. It was assumed that the coastline would be uniform, and secondly the degree of force displacement of reserves was also unknown. These limitations give the study little external validity. The results however suggest that the management of multispecies by using marine conservation programs is a feasible option. With the condition of availability of data related to specific sites, the model can be applied to test the effectiveness of existing and proposed marine reserves. 2.3.2 Effective management tools for marine protected areas Voyer, Gladstone and Heather, (2010) studied the importance of social participation in the success of marine protection area planning and management. The economic and social assessment consideration is important to the success or failure of MPA management. In effective analysis of the social aspect of MPAs can lead to the alienation of local community and can compromise the success of these programs. The study attempts to critically analyze a very rarely discuss dimension of MPA management .i.e. the social aspect.

The study is carried out on three Australian MPA processes covering three states are reviewed in relation to the jurisdiction both at the state and federal level in how successful they were in incorporating social impacts while forming strategies. The result indicates that social Impact assessment (SIA) is still under its development phase in Australian MPA management techniques. The Australian management uses public participation and economic modeling as substitutes for a dedicated Social Impact assessment (SIA). The Initial assessment is often followed by widely used public survey to gauge public opinion on these MPAs after its implementation and establishment. The evidence that public reservations about the importance of MPAs exists shows that these MPA measures have failed to take into account the social impact of these MPAs in their planning and management.

These perceptions of the general public have great significance in the success and failure of these MPA programs. This will also influence the ability of Australia to meet its international commitments to at least make 10% of its marine habitats as MPAs. Indeed this is seen in two or three cases that these economic and social arguments have been used to block or delay any expansion of MPA networks. Schroeder and Milton, (2002) studied the impact of recreational fishing on marine fish populations in California. The study was conducted on the effect on recreational angling on exploited fish species in California. The study was carried out as a comparative study between three different fished areas in California. Central to the study was the rockfish species concentration in the three areas under study. The three areas were different in the aspect that one area was open to all types of fishing, the second one open only to recreational fishing only and the third one a de facto (no entries, prohibited to entry) marine protected area.

The examination of these three different areas revealed that there were large differences in fish population, size and composition of species in these areas. The examination of species in the three regions showed that the area open to all types of fishing had the highest density of rockfishes (7212 fish/ha). The size in these areas however was dominated by the small size fishes. Similarly for areas opened only to recreational fishing had the lowest rock fish density (423 fish/ha), and the size structure was also dominated by small fishes. The third de facto area had high fish density (5635/ha), but the size of the specie shifted to the largest fishes compared to the earlier two groups. Also, it was found out that two species Cowcod and Bocacio, which were listed by the government as overfished species had different densities in different areas. The two species has 408 higher densities than observed in de facto area compared to 32 fold density in recreational fishing area. It was also seen that the area open to all fishing showed 18 fold higher densities than observe for the two specie type.

The study also compared 17 near shore species in terms of level of activity of recreational anglers and commercial harvesters. It showed that out of the 17 species, the high mortality rate for 16 species was primarily recreational angling. The study also pointed out that the catch and release programs had negative mortality effects on long lived fish populations. The paper recommended that mangers and policy makers involved with conservation activities must realize that it is wrong to assume that recreational fishing had little or no impact on marine ecosystem. Marine reserves have a strong capability of preserving marine life and eco system, these conservation systems have the potential to boost economy and promote and sustain sports fishing in the long run. MPAs are working all over the world to conserve marine life which is being destroyed everyday by increased public activity especially sports fishing. (Garrison, 2010) Cookea et al., (2006) investigated whether catch and release angling technique compatible with no-take marine protected areas.

The study explains the fact that marine protected areas have become a widely used tool for protection and conservation of exploited species important to both commercial and recreational fishing. The study proposes that recreational fishing sector has the capability to be compatible with no-take marine protected areas, provided the catch and release angling in applied. This is because that in the theoretical terms, no fish is actually harvested. Hence this applies that catch and release angling activities do not directly affect the mortality of fish species, their populations, decrease in inhabitants or any other indirect affect against the objectives of MPA. The study basically explored the idea of whether catch and release angling technique can be compatible with some no take MPAs. This presumption is done assuming that there will be no negative ecological effects due to this activity. This means that this can be true provided no negative trends occur due to interdependence of species on each other.

The results of the study state that it was impossible to be fully sure about the proposal. This is due to reason that the mortality rates in different fish species are positively or negatively affected by many factors. These mortality rates range between 0 to 100%, owing to different variable like environmental conditions, fishing gear used, angler’s attitude and the species themselves. However, there is evidence that catch and release angler technique can be compatible with MPAs provided some handling techniques exist. This handling technique can reduce post release mortality rates of different fish species. The handling technique can be improved via proper education and training of anglers. This activity will yield dual benefit by positively influencing mortality rates of species and, on the other hand, promoting sports and tourism in the region. The study recommends further research on contrasting community characteristics of no fish zones and areas which permit catch and release angling.

Also, research needs to be done via mathematical modeling on the effect of population density on the long term survival of species if catch and release angling is allowed. Efforts should also be put in for the education of anglers and providing them with fishing guides. These efforts will surely help in reducing mortality rates due to catch and release angling. The interdependence is also evident in temperate water species in demonstrated in a study done in Houtman Abrolhos Islands, where it was shown that there is interdependence among targeted and non targeted species. Even if some species are non-targeted by anglers & fishermen, their existence might be affected by other targeted species in the same region, hence policy makers must realize interdependence among species while making MPA objectives. (Watson, Harvey and Kendrick, 2007) Davisa and Distellb, (2000) studied the effect of scuba diving in coastal areas of Australia, a recreational activity which is getting very popular all over the world on marine protected areas. The study states that Marine protected areas are known to be very effective in the conservation objectives of marine ecosystem all over the world.

These MPAs are declared to be very effective in maintain biodiversity and maintaining specific environmental standards in areas which have been exploited by human activity. Their acceptance as a useful conservation tool has been accepted and applied in many countries. However, the increase in tourism activities and marine recreational activities rely heavily on these marine resources. Scuba diving is one of these recreational activities receiving much attention and higher participation all over the world. But there is widespread conflict between these recreational activities and management of these MPAs.

This is because scuba diving effects the marine environment in which it is carried out. Mainly Scuba diving negatively reduces the amenity or attractiveness of these MPAs. It has been proven that both biological and social limits exist. If the recreational activity of scuba diving crosses these thresholds, it results in reduction of attractiveness of these sites and also leads a negative effect on the biological resources which is a more serious loss. The study recommends further research into the interrelationship between the biological and social capacities of these MPAs. This will surely help in formulating better strategies and management response to avoid a decrease in value of these MPAs.

Chapter 3 Discussion

Marine protected areas are now a global accepted as a useful tool in conservation of particular exploited marine species. Marine protection restricts the interactions of the general public, tourist with the natural habitats in order to protect the marine ecosystem. The present study concludes that marine protected do affect recreational activities in marine areas. These programs are divided into three types the free fishing zones, the zones where only recreational fishing is allowed and thirdly the no take zones. The MPAs do restrict the magnitude of these recreational activities. One study also showed through empirical evidence that how recreational fishing efforts results in low population density of rockfishes and also negatively affected their mean weight. The reduction in numbers and mass was shown through long term analysis of three types of marine protected areas. The three areas were the de facto region, the recreational fishing zones and the all the region which allowed all types of fishing. It was evident from the results that all fishing allowed zones had the highest fish densities, but comprise primarily of small fishes, the recreational fishing zones had the lowest fish densities and comprise of small fishes only. The de factor zones had a healthy fish density and comprise of large fish species.

Particularly in the present study do recreational activities have been studied, the angling and Scuba diving. Both of these recreational activities are getting popularity all over the world.. There is evidence that these recreational activities do not affect the marine ecosystem and biodiversity if they are carried out within prescribed limits. There are thresholds of exposure of these marine reserves to recreational activities. If these thresholds are surpassed than it results in negatively affecting mortality rates of fish species. Scuba diving in particular has been subject to critique due to its ability to destroy the natural attractiveness of these marine protected areas. The Scuba diving also has its negative effects on the biological resources in the marine ecosystem and this problem is more serious. Same is the case with angling activity. Anglers due to lack of knowledge and training about characteristics of Eco system harm marine life by their increase level of activity. However, some recreational activities under particular conditions are compatible with marine protected areas.

The Catch and release angling can be compatible with no take MPAs, because in theory, no fish species is really harvested. Hence in theory, catch and release angling technique do not directly affect the mortality of marine species, provided that the ecological effects do not come in action. This idea of compatibility of catch and release angling with no take marine protected areas is not absolutely applicable. This is due to the fact that different species of fish, under different environmental conditions react to changes in different ways. There is also issue of angler’s attitude, angling gear and lack of knowledge of different species. But even all this there is still possibility of catch and release angling technique to be compatible with no take marine protected areas. Hence in order to understand how this compatibility is possible, research needs to be done.

This research should be done on education and training of anglers, on bio diversity and reaction in species in different regions. From the management of MPAs perspective it is important to conduct adequate research on the lines of characteristics of different species needs to be done. Further research should be done on different species and on how these species react to recreational activities both in terms of numbers and weight ratio. Also, there should be training, and education of tourist and the general public involve in recreational activities. This will help in the formulation of such strategies that will encourage recreational activities on one hand and on the other hand, it will fulfill all Marine protected areas objectives. It is also seen that marine protection areas have a different effect on different species. The Spawner Biomass analysis showed positively results for some species in marine protected areas. But for some species the Biomass analysis should neutral results. There is room for further research on two lines, the biodiversity of species in different marine regions of the world, secondly the characteristics of each of these species.

Also, all over the world the social impacts of marine conservation programs have been ignored while formulating strategies and objectives. The management and Policy makers of the marine conservation programs must realize that public opinions have great influence of the success or failure of MPAs all over the world. Pubic reservations in many cases have been seen to negatively influence growth of these MPAs. Hence policy makers must involve the general public in these conservation programs. The Social Impact Analysis should be made an essential part of every policy maker’s work description. The management of MPAs must realize that it is wrong to assume that recreational angling, bait collection etc have little impact of the marine eco system.

It is evident from the studies previously done, that over a long period of time recreational activities without proper guidance and training result in high mortality rates of exploited species. Hence the study recommends collaborations between governmental departments, individuals and the general public In formulating strategies for MPAs. There is also a need to form benchmarks for success of these marine conservation schemes, particularly at the strategic management level. There is a need to have clear and understandable objectives and benchmarks for judging the success or failure of these programs.

References:

Alder, J. (1996) ‘Have tropical marine protected areas worked? An initial analysis of their success’, Coastal Management, vol. 24, no. 2, Sep, pp. 97-114. Arlingaus, R., Cooke, S.j. and Layman, J. (2007) ‘Understanding the Complexity of Catch-and-Release in Recreational Fishing: An Integrative Synthesis of Global Knowledge from Historical, Ethical, Social, and Biological Perspectives’, Reviews in Fishery science, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 75-167. Attwood, C.G. and Bennett, B.A. (2010) ‘Modelling the effect of marine reserves on the recreational shore-fishery of the South-Western Cape, South Africa’, South African Journal of Marine Science, vol. 16, no. 1, April, pp. 227-240. Auster, P.J. and Shackell, N.L. (2000) ‘Marine protected areas for the Boreal North West Atlantic: The potential for sustainable Fisheries and biodiversity.’, North Eastern Naturlist, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 419-434. Barrett, N.S., Edgar, G.J., Buxton, C.D. and Haddon, M. (2007) ‘Changes in fish assemblages following 10 years of protection in Tasmanian marine protected areas’, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 345, no. 2, April, p. 141–157. BLYTH-SKYRME, R.E. (2006) ‘Conservation Benefits of Temperate Marine Protected Areas: Variation among Fish Species’. Botsford, w.L., Brumbaugh, D.R. and Grimes, C. (2009) ‘Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas’, Review in Fish Biology and Fisheries, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 69-95. Cookea, S.J., Danylechuka, A.J., Danaylechuka, S.E. and Suskie, C.D. (20006) ‘Is catch-and-release recreational angling compatible with no-take marineprotectedareas?’, Ocean & Coastal Management, vol. 49, no. 5-6, pp. 342-354. Cote, M., Mosqueira and Reynolds, J.D. (2005) ‘Effects of marine reserve characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis’, Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 59, April, pp. 178-189. Davisa, D. and Distellb, C. (2000) ‘Recreational scuba-diving and carrying capacity in marine protected areas.’, Ocean & Coastal Management, vol. 26, no. 1, January, pp. 19-40. Garrison, K. (2010) Marine Protected Areas hold promise for better fishing and economic boost, 31 August, [Online], Available: http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kgarrison/marine_protected_areas_hold_pr.html [31 May 2012]. Gubbay, S. (1995) ‘Marine protected areas — past, present and future’, Conservation Biology Series, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-14. Halpern, B.S. (2002) ‘THE IMPACT OF MARINE RESERVES: DO RESERVES WORK AND DOES

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