1) Historical Demography / Population Studies / Family Reconstitution involves trying to find numbers and figures so we can come up with statistics or trends of the past. The baptism rgisters of porto salvo in valletta have been studied by researchers , and inputting them in progerams that come up with information. This data can tell us how many obys and igrls were obrn over a period, how many were illegitame or legitamate,, if parents were maltese or foreigners etc. Since 1964, a cambridge group has been collecting data from baptism registers and now they have a very huge database – for all of england. Intresting things come out : eg between 1580 and 1837 – the death rate ws highest in march and april, for some reason. It then goes down and normalizes. Why was there a greater chance of dying in march/april? Because food supply was low, nutrition was very low so the young died at a much higher rate because there was no food to go around. 2) Cultural and social approach
This looked at paintngs , trials from law courts, literature etc. “In medieval society the idea of childhood did not exist”; controversy – quote from Aries. This kind of statement has generated alot of debate, critisicms. When looking at the subject at what aries was saying a key point that is dispuded is whether ur looking at childhood or children. Experiences of young childhood, or the theories of childhood?those who criticise aries say that he sis focusing more on the theories of childhood and as a result he missed alot of important imformation – he ended up missing the experiences. Why is he critisiced in this way?when we read his book we see that he bases alot of his assumptions , including his statement,on conduct books ie. How to raise you child books. They said these books do not really reflect the reality of medieval and early modfern childhood.
The books mentioned in handout are books that early modern parents would have raed to swee how to raise their children. We know that parents did look at this kind of literature. Experiences of young people within the order of st.john
To help us understand the experience of joining the order, some extracts can be found in vle. Fra giovanni maria giovanni – his life was church and work. He ran the finances of the order a very imp man. He also wrote alot of works dealing with different aspects of the order. Eg. Treatise of reception – say how order funtcitons and who they accept and etc. Caravita organised these things. Eg. Requirements to enter the order :
1) Illegitamte kids cannot become chaplins, servants or knights. 2) They will only be recieved if they are son/daughter of a king or leader – an absolute prince. …. etc. Other extracts are found on the handout given (L.3) Find out what were the naturali and spuri. ( from extract 1 – no definiton on hadnout) Extract 2 : why is imp for parents to have the right to withdraw their children? The major critisicm of protestatnts was that the church didnt give kids the right to withdraw once they joined a monastery or chose to become to become priests etc – they couldnt leave a religious life even if they wanted to. So , the order gave the parents the right for kids to get out of the situation, even for the kids themselves, especially if they have forceful parennts.