Refers to the internal controllable factors or forces which affects the ability of a company to serve its customers. e.g. the organization, the market, the suppliers, market intermediaries and the marketing mix. The micro marketing environment that surrounds organisations can be complex by nature, however the company has an element of control over how it operates within this environment.
Refers to the external factors or forces which affects the ability of the company to externally and internally serve its customers.eg. Demography, economic, cultural, political, competitors, legal & technology. The macro marketing environment takes into account all factors that can influence an organisation, but are outside of their control. Even though the marketer has no direct control over the macro external environment, a greater understanding and awareness of these changing market conditions can be achieved through external analysis. External analysis will help identify future events, uncover possible threats and realise potential opportunities. Factors of micro marketing
Organization consists of many departments such as production, finance, personnel, marketing etc. This entire department works together so as to achieve its organization objectives. Therefore marketing being one of the departments needs to control and streamline its activities so as to be in a position of achieving its target
b)The market/ customers
The market consists of different customers. e.g. individual customers buy goods for their personal consumption, producers and manufacturers for their manufacturing plant, wholesalers for selling to the retailers. Depending on the analysis of the market the organization can divided its market into segments so as to be able to control the market demand by providing the supplies according to the requirement of different segment.
The suppliers can really influence the ability of the company to serve its customers efficiently; this may be caused by e.g. Delay in delivery of law materials for production thus forcing the company to delay delivering the product or to the customers on time. Thus the company must make policies in regard to delivery of raw materials by its suppliers.
A market intermediary refers to the distributors. A company in order to serve its customers better it needs to control the market by making sales policies. e.g. whether to sell to its consumers directly or through market intermediaries.
Consist of the four elements that is product, price, promotion and place of distribution. The organization has can determine the product, price , plan the promotion and also have its own way of distribution in the market keeping in mind the completion in the market , its customer satisfaction and cost effectiveness. Factors of macro marketing
Involves the study of human population and its distribution structure that is it analysis the population in terms of gender, age, sex, occupation .The analysis helps the company in market segmentation and determination of target markets. E.g. A growing population is indicate growing market particularly for baby products, but a reduction in birth rate indicates a low growth rate in population and therefore low demand for baby product. This helps the managers to predict the demand of its products in future, therefore makes some adjustment to its plans.
Economic conditions greatly affect the marketing plans and programs. e.g. economic conations leading to recession can influence product planning, price fixing , promotion policies of a business enterprise. Therefore marketing makes must be formulated on the basis of economic indices
c)Social cultural environment
The social cultural forces influence the organization in the long run. Society keeps on changing now and then. New demands are emerging and old ones lost, this adversely affects the marketing plans of a business enterprise. There are three aspects of social environment namely: i.Change in life styles and social values. e.g. changing role of women, emphasis on quality of the goods instead of quantity. ii.Major social problems. E.g. concern on pollution of our environment, social responsible marketing, concern of safety in occupation and in products etc. iii.Growing consumerlisation. This is concern with the customer satisfaction. The marketers are now called upon not only to deliver goods of high standards but also assure quality of life of its customers and all citizens.
d)Political and legal forces
The government activities and legal forces affect the marketing activities of an enterprise because a change in law relate to production a certain product forces an enterprise to comply in order to carry out its activities. This means the organizational has to make some adjustment to its marketing which may cause delay of the products to its consumers. eg Anti pollution laws influence marketing plans and policies
e)Science and technology
Relates to the way things are done, the methods, the materials, and techniques used to achieve commercial and industrial objectives. This has brought change in lifestyle due to change in products. This has forced marketers adjust their marketing plans to suit in the new technology.
Competitors considerably influence the marketing strategies particularly in selection of target markets, suppliers marketing channels as well in relation to its product mix, price mix and promotional mix
Key steps in environmental analysis of the macro marketing environment;
1) Audit of environmental influences
2) Assessment of the nature of the environment
3) Identification of the key environmental forces
4) Identification of the competitive position
5) Identification of the principal opportunities and threats (SWOT) 6) Strategic position as a result
•Principles of Marketing ebrary Reader
Author: Hundekar, S.G. Appannaiah, H.R. Reddy, P.N.
•Principles of Marketing
Sherlekar, S.A. Prasad, K. Nirmala Victor, S.J. Salvadore