The Government of India is responsible for ensuring the defence of India and every part thereof. The Supreme Command of the Armed Forces vests in the President. The responsibility for national defence rests with the Cabinet. This is discharged through the Ministry of Defence, which provides the policy framework and wherewithal to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. The Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Defence. The principal task of the Defence Ministry is to obtain policy directions of the Government on all defence and security related matters and communicate them for implementation to the Services Headquarters, Inter-Services Organisations, Production Establishments and Research and Development Organisations. It is also required to ensure effective implementation of the Government’s policy directions and the execution of approved programmes within the allocated resources.
Ministry of Defence comprises of four Departments viz. Department of Defence (DOD), Department of Defence Production (DDP), Department of Defence Research & Development (DDR&D) and Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare and also Finance DivisionHistorical Background A Military Department was created in the Supreme Government of the East India Company at Kolkata into the year 1776, having the main function to sift and record orders relating to the Army issued by various Departments of the Govt of East India Co. The Military Department initially functioned as a branch of the Public Department and maintained a list of Army personnel. With the Charter Act of 1833 the Secretariat of the Government of East India Company was reorganised into four Departments, including a Military Department, each headed by a Secretary to the Government. The Army in the Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay & Madras functioned as respective Presidency Army till April 1895, when the Presidency Armies were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four Commands viz. Punjab (including the North West Frontier), Bengal, Madras (including Burma) and Bombay (including Sind, Quetta and Aden).
The supreme authority over the Indian Army vested in the Governor General-in-Council, subject to the Control of the Crown, which was exercised by the Secretary of State for India. Two Members in the Council were responsible for military affairs, one of whom was the Military Member, who supervised all administrative and financial matters, while the other was the Commander-in-Chief who was responsible for all operational matters. The Military Department was abolished in March 1906 and it was replaced by two separate Departments, the Army Department and the Military Supply Department. In April 1909 the Military Supply Department was abolished and its functions were taken over by the Army Department. The Army Department was redesignated as the Defence Department in January 1938. The Department of Defence became the Ministry of Defence under a Cabinet Minister in August 1947.
Organisational Set-Up And Functions After independence Ministry of Defence was created under the charge of a Cabinet Minister, and, each Service was placed under its own Commander-in-Chief. In 1955, the Commanders-in-Chief were renamed as the Chief of the Army Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff. In November 1962, a Department of Defence Production was set up to deal with research, development and production of defence equipment. In November 1965, the Department of Defence Supplies was created for planning and execution of schemes for import substitution of defence requirements. These two Departments were later merged to form the Department of Defence Production and Supplies. In 2004, the name of Department of Defence Production and Supplies was changed to Department of Defence Production.
In 1980, the Department of Defence Research and Development was created. In 2004, the Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare was created.. The Defence Secretary functions as head of the Department of Defence and is additionally responsible for co-ordinating the activities of the four Departments in the Ministry.Departments The principal task of the Ministry is to frame policy directions on defence and security related matters and communicate them for implementation to the Services Headquarters, Inter-Service Organisations, Production Establishments and Research & Development Organisations. It is required to ensure effective implementation of the Government’s policy directions and the execution of approved programmes within the allocated resources. The principal functions of all the Departments are as follows: (i)The Department ofDefence deals with the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) and three Services andvarious Inter-Service Organisations.
It is also responsible for the DefenceBudget, establishment matters, defence policy, matters relating to Parliament,defence co-operation with foreign countries and co-ordination of all defencerelated activities.(ii)The Department of Defence Production The Department of Defence Production is headed by a Secretary and deals with matters pertaining to defence production, indigenisation of imported stores, equipment and spares, planning and control of departmental production units of the Ordnance Factory Board and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs).(iii)The Department of Defence Research The Department of Defence Research and Development is headed by a Secretary, who is the Scientific Adviser to the Raksha Mantri. Its function is to advise the Government on scientific aspects of military equipment and logistics and the formulation of research, design and development plans for equipment required by the Services.(iv) The Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare is headed by a Secretary and deals with all resettlement, welfare and pensionary matters of Ex-Servicemen.
Reforms In Management Of Defence
The broad array of challenges both existing and potential to the National Security in the fast changing geo-strategic security environment mandate a periodical re-appraisal of our security procedures to cope with them. The Government, keeping this in view, instituted a comprehensive review of the National Security System in its entirety for the first time in the history of independent India. For details see ‘Reforming the National Security System-Recommendations of the Group of Ministers in the NEW ADDITIONS’. The review was carried out by a Group of Ministers (GOM) constituted on April 17, 2000. The GOM consisted of the Home Minister, the Raksha Mantri, the External Affairs Minister and the Finance Minister. The GOM made recommendation regarding reforms in Defence Management. The process of implementation of the recommendations was initiated in 2001. These reforms have brought about improvements in the organizations, structures and processes for the integration of civil and military components. Some of the major reforms are detailed in the following paragraphs.
Integrated Defence Staff: A decision regarding the recommendation of the Group of Ministers for creation of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) has not been taken by the Government as yet pending consultation with political parties. However, with a view to ensure higher degree of jointness amongst the Services and attempt inter-service and intra-service prioritization, the Government has set up the Integrated Defence Staff, headed by the Chief of Integrated Staff to Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (CISC), to support the Chiefs of Staff Committee and its Chairman in the optimal performance of their roles and functions. The CISC supervises the Integrated Defence Staff, chairs all multi-Service bodies and the Defence Crisis Management Group (DCMG) and is also responsible for the coordination of long-range plans, five year plans and annual budgetary proposals of the three Services in consultation and co-ordination with the Integrated Services Headquarters.
The CISC renders advice to the Government on prioritization for developing force levels and capabilities through restructuring proposals, undertakes net assessment comprising the totality of the national capability, formulates joint doctrines in consultation with Service Headquarters, conceptualises policy and programmes on joint planning and military education for personnel of Defence Services, render advice for evolving responses to non-conventional and unconventional threats to national security and proposes measures to be taken for ensuring the required jointness amongst the Armed Forces and enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the planning process through intra and inter-Service prioritization. Defence Intelligence Agency : The Government has also set up the Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) under DG DIA to co-ordinate and synergise the intelligence Wings of the Services. The DIA is responsible for providing integrated intelligence inputs to the higher echelons of Defence Management.
Defence Acquisition Council: The Government has set up a Defence Acquisition Council headed by the Raksha Mantri for decision making in regard to the totality of the new planning process, which inter-alia involves according ‘in principle’ approval of capital acquisitions in the long term perspective plan and according ‘in principle’ approval for each capital acquisition programme. The decisions flowing from the Defence Acquisition Council are to be implemented by the following three Boards:- (i) Defence Procurement Board headed by the Defence Secretary; (ii)Defence Production Board headed by the Secretary, Defence Production and (iii)Defence Research & Development Board headed by Secretary Defence Research & Development. These Boards have been entrusted with specific functions. A Defence Acquisition Wing headed by Special Secretary (Acquisition) has also been created to assist the Defence Procurement Board in its functioning. The new structures are intended to facilitate expeditious decision-making in an integrated manner in areas relating to acquisitions for the three Services while at the same time imparting a higher degree of transparency and cost effectiveness to the process of acquisition of equipment, weapon and weapon systems.
For Defence Procurement Organisation and Defence Procurement Procedures-02 (June 03 version ) please see ‘NEW ADDITIONS’. Defence Technology Council (DTC) : Defence Technology Council has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Raksha Mantri by the Government to provide guidance and supervision of growth and promotion of research, development and production related to Defence Technologies. DTC will assist the Defence Acquisition Council in taking holistic decisions on specific Defence Projects related to long term perspective plans and five year plans. Andaman and Nicobar Command : The first tri-Service Joint Command was established in October 2001 in Andaman and Nicobar under the Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) who exercises control over all force components of the three Services and the Coast Guard located in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The C-in-C, Andaman and Nicobar Command reports to the Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee.Management of Strategic Assets: Keeping in view the nuclear, chemical and biological dimensions of our security environment and in keeping with our commitment to no first use of strategic assets, the Government has approved establishment of requisite structures for administering the Strategic Assets and also set up the Strategic Forces Command.
Delegation of Administrative and Financial Powers : Various administrative and financial powers have been delegated to the Integrated Service Headquarters to impart enhanced autonomy in their functioning. Decentralisation of decision-making powers has strengthened and upgraded the decision-making apparatus in the Services. With higher delegation of financial powers, greater efficiency and cost effectiveness with accountability has brought about the transparency desired in the system of defence related expenditure. HEADQURATERS INTEGRATED DEFENCE STAFF (HQIDS): Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) was created on October 1, 2001 as a sequel to the decision by the Group of Ministers based on Kargil Committee Report. The staff of HQ IDS is provided from three Services, MEA, DRDO, Armed Forces HQ (AFHQ) Civil Services and DoD.
IDS is presently functioning as staff in the advisory mode to the Chairman COSC, and is headed by Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to Chairman COSC (CISC).Jointness within the Services : One of the primary objectives of HQ IDS is to promote jointness within the Services. Jointness is aimed at obtaining optimal operational and cost effectiveness in the current and envisaged future geopolitical environment. It will also enable the services to operate seamlessly with common understanding of missions and joint strategies to accomplish them. This would entail bringing about transformation and reforms within the armed forces. The vertical and horizontal aspects of integration have been identified and are being put into place in an organized and logical manner through the establishment of inter-service committees, functioning in and with HQ IDS. HQ IDS has achieved a number of milestones within a short span in promoting the concept of jointness within the services. Defence Planning Process : The Defence Planning Process is being strengthened as part of the follow up to the Group of Minister’s Report on Security.
As a first step, Draft National Security Strategy has been prepared and forwarded to National Security Adviser. Joint Doctrines: Joint Doctrine for Defence Forces and Joint Amphibious Warfare Doctrine have already been released whereas the Joint Special Forces Doctrine, Joint Psychological Operations Doctrine, Joint Sub-conventional Warfare Doctrine and Joint Space Doctrine are in advance stages of preparation. Defence Space Vision (DSV) 2020: HQ IDS has been nominated as the tri Service single window for interaction in space by all agencies including external ones. An Integrated Space Cell has been established to co-ordinate space issues and formulate a Draft Space Doctrine. Long Term Integrated Perspective Plan (LTIPP): A LTIPP focusing on the Joint Conventional Edge, capabilities to be achieved, aspects of commonality of equipment; inter-Service prioritization and indigenization has been prepared to cover the 11th, 12th and 13th Plan periods.
Integration between DRDO and Services: HQ IDS has carried out analysis of DRDO’s 11th Plan and a sincere effort to synchronise it with the Services 11th Defence Plan has been made. Joint Intelligence Assessments: With the establishment of the Defence Intelligence Agency, integration of service intelligence agencies and a common assessment of strategic intelligence inputs is now available to defence planners.Joint Exercises: A number of joint exercises with other countries have been conducted by HQ IDS. The latest, AMPHEX 07, was a major tri service exercise undertaken to validate the Joint Amphibious Doctrine. Think Tank Organisation: Centre for Joint Warfare Studies (CENJOWS) was inaugurated on August 27, 2007. The main objectives of CENJOWS, which will function under HQ IDS, are conduct of studies and research work in Joint War-fighting, organisation of orientation courses/ capsules for various Ministries/ Agencies connected with HQ IDS/ Services and promotion of Jointmanship amongst Services, Ministries and Intelligence Agencies involved in National Security.
Promoting Jointness: To promote jointness at all levels within the Services HQ IDS has launched ‘The Purple Pages’, its bi-annual magazine on jointness. The magazine aims at providing a forum for all members of the services and the strategic community to share their views on the existing jointness and also propose options for the way ahead.SERVICES HEADQUARTERSThe three Services Headquarters, viz., the Army Headquarters, the Naval Headquarters and the Air Headquarters function under the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) and the Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) respectively. They are assisted by their Principal Staff Officers (PSOs). The Inter-Service Organisations, under the Department of Defence are responsible for carrying out tasks related to common needs of the three Services such as medical care, public relations and personnel management of civilian staff in the Defence Headquarters. A number of Committees dealing with defence related activities assist the Raksha Mantri. The Chiefs of Staff Committee is a forum for the Service Chiefs to discuss matters having a bearing on the activities of the Services and also to advise the Ministry.
The position of Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee devolves on the longest serving Chief of Staff, and consequently rotates amongst the three Services. To facilitate the work of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, a number of sub-committees have been established.The Finance Division of the Ministry of Defence Finance Division in the Ministry of Defence deals with all matters having financial implications. It is fully integrated with the Ministry of Defence and performs an advisory role.To achieve greater efficiency in administration, expeditious disposal and transparency, Ministry of Defence exercises financial powers in consultation with the Finance Division as per the procedure laid down in the Defence Procurement Procedure 2006 and Defence Procurement Manual 2006. The Defence Procurement Procedure deals with capital acquisitions and Defence Procurement Manual deals with revenue procurements.E-Procurements is one of the Thrust Areas approved by the Prime Minister for the year 2007.
Accordingly, steps have been taken to enhance the scope of e-procurement in DRDO. This would facilitate tender inquiries being sent electronically to a bigger than usual set of vendors and improve competition/ transparency as well as cut down delays. Pilot projects for procurement of common user items have been taken up in five administrative units and designated officers have been entrusted with digital signatures.Finance Division prepares and monitors Defence Services Estimates, Civil Estimates of the Ministry of Defence and the Estimates in respect of Defence Pensions. Break-up of the actual expenditure for the years 2005-06 and 2006-07, as also the Revised Estimates for 2007-08 and Budget Estimates for 2008-09 are given as under:Defence Expenditure Service/ Department-wise Break-up of Defence Expenditure(Rs. in crores)
DDP – Department of Defence ProductionDGOF – Directorate General Ordnance FactoriesDGQA – Directorate General of Quality AssuranceDR&D – Defence Research and Development Establishment of Armed Forces Tribunal Armed Forces Tribunal Bill, 2005 was introduced in the Rajya Sabha in September 2005. The Standing Committee of Parliament on Defence examined the Bill and gave its recommendations in May 2006. The Ministry considered the recommendations and moved certain amendments in the Rajya Sabha in December 2007. Both the Houses have passed the Bill in the Winter Session of the Parliament in December 2007. The Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007 has been notified on 28 th December 2007. Necessary follow up action is being taken on priority to set up the Principal Bench of the Armed Forces Tribunal in New Delhi .