When it comes to neurocognitive disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders, reaserchers have been able to diagnose symptoms of a variety of disorders pertaining to the brain and growth development. Once knowing what the symptoms are behaviors become noticed and there becomes a reason for certain behaviors in individuals allowing different treatments for these disorders.. The movement to diagnose neurocognitive disorders upstream reflects on emerging literature that confirms both improvement in early diagnostic determinations and the recognition that the neuropathology underlying this disorder emerges well before the onset of clinical symptoms (Blazer, 2013). Neurocognitive disorders happen because changes in the brain structure occur. It is the internal changes that cause damage to the brain tissue, and others are caused by external influences that involve trauma experiences and any hard blows to the head that repeatedly happen. Neurocognitive disorders are known as psychological conditions.
These changes in the brain can cause behavior to alter, mood swings, and changes in personality. Neurocognitive disorders cause loss of cognitive ability because of brain damage and the disease. Comprehending the brain areas that are affected by neurocognitive disorders involving personality change after brain damage, behaviors, and mood swings gives researchers a better grasp on understanding biological underpinnings of several issues in abnormal psychology. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder is Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is found more in men than women. This disease is characterized by motor symptoms involving rigid movements and resting tremors. Loss of dopamine neurons in a certain area of the brain known as substantia nigra is the cause for rigid movements and resting tremors. An individual is unable to move in a controlled manner and fluid manner when neurons are lost. Over time in this illness cognitive insufficiency can become apparent.
There are several symptoms in Parkinson’s disease that affect behaviors in individuals. The psychological symptoms dealing with Parkinson’s disease are anxiety, depression, apathy, cognitive issues, delusions, and hallucinations. The behavior criteria for Parkinson’s disease can cause an individual to become fearful and overwhelmed causing him or her to break out of a comfortable situation. Also, when anxiety hits, and individual can become angry, depressed, confused, lost, and can even shut down causing them to isolate themselves from others. Another symptom that individuals suffer from is depression.
This is where an individual feels just worthless about themselves. Apathy is another symptom in Parkinson’s disease. This is where an individual just does not care anymore and develops an absence of emotions, excitement, and suppression of passion. Hallucinations and delusions are also symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Hallucinations involve seeing things that are not realistic, but believing that they are, meanwhile they are still able to distinguish that it is not real. When an individual becomes delusional, they are convinced that it is real and true.
When having delusions an individual is not capable of making a distinction between what is realistic and what is unrealistic. Parkinson’s disease has an incidence rate of sixteen to nineteen per one hundred thousand a year making it a total of two million out of six million people that suffer with progressive neurological conditions. Parkinson’s disease can be cause by both genetic and environmental factors. When a parents or siblings are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease his or her chances of developing this disease is four to nine percent higher. This makes his or her chances of developing Parkinson’s disease higher than the general population. When being exposed to environmental toxin or injury. It might lead to Parkinson’s disease because loss of dopamine cells. Factors that involve environmental toxin or injury include well water, manganese, rural living, and pesticides.
Deep brain stimulation and rehabilitation are two types of treatment used for Parkinson’s disease. Deep brain stimulation is the most common method of surgical treatment used for Parkinson’s disease. Deep brain stimulation can provide additional help for selected patients whose symptoms are not controlled sufficiently by medication (Limousin & Torres, 2008). Deep brain stimulation has three components the neurostimulator, electrodes, and implanted pulse generator. The neurostimulator create electrical impulses used to alter neural brain activity. There is also a wire directing impulses to a variety of metallic electrodes near the tip of the lead around the stimulation target. The implanted pulse generator is put under the collarbone while being attached to subcutaneous extension to the lead that extends between the skull and scalp going into the brain where the target of stimulation is.
These three components are known as a brain pacemaker. Rehabilitation involving occupational therapy is also used for Parkinson’s disease. Speech, mobility issues can improve through this therapy. Therapy and light exercising are very beneficial when maintain flexibility, strength, gait speed, and quality of life. Exercising increases the chance of enhancing neuroplasticity. Activities such as complex activities, advance longer structural adaption, intensive activities gets the most out of synaptic plasticity. When activities are rewarding dopamine levels increase which result in an increase of learning and relearning. When exercise is initiated in the beginning of Parkinson’s disease the chances in prolonging this disease highly increase.
Neurodevelopmental disorders affect the development and growth of the brain and central nerve system. Neurodevelopmental disorders interfere with emotions, self control, learning ability, and memory as an individual grows. Neurodevelopmental disorders associated with degrees of difficulty have significant mental, physical, emotional, and consequences pertaining to economic. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder known as ADHD are difficulties interfering with behavior pertaining to children. When attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is involved a child is more likely not to follow directions and fail to respond to demands. Children diagnosed with this disorder are known to have a lower IQ than others. It is usually seven to fifteen points lower than normal.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder creates social issues due to the impulsivity and over activity that a child may have. This ADHD disorder causes children to be socially disturbing and immature. When being judged negatively by peers it results in behavior problems when a child has ADHD. The behavior criteria in this disorder involves not getting along with parents because they do not do what they are told to do, they become easily distractive, they start a task, but is quick to lose focus on what they were doing, has a hard time organizing tasks, misplaces different objects, becomes very forgetful, has a hard time sitting still, talk continuously, and interrupts others.
There are eleven percent of children in the United States ranging from four to seven percent that develop ADHD. That is a sixteen percent increase from 2007. There was huge rise in males who were diagnosed with ADHD. The cause for developing ADHD can be genetic. It is the genes taking control of the levels and functions of specific chemicals within the brain known as neurotransmitters that makes the difference in those diagnosed with ADHD. When a mother is pregnant continuing to smoking and drink alcohol it can lead to the infant developing this disorder. More causes for this disorder are babies who are born with low birth weight, children who have experienced head injuries, but mostly injuries to the frontal lobe, and children who were exposed to pesticides in there early years also have a high risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Stimulant medication is used for children with ADHD. Stimulant medication has been able to control symptoms of ADHD. Seventy two percent of the children with definite ADHD has been treated with stimulant medications (Dershewitz, 2002). These medications are known to be safe for children down to three years old. When taking stimulant medication, improvements are made in sustained attention, reduction of tasks, irrelevant activities, and impulse control. Children taking stimulant medication becomes more compliant with commands, has more cooperative behaviors, and has improvements pertaining to their own self esteem.
There are many disorders that interfere in the everyday life. Through neurocognitive and neurodevelopment there has been success improving individuals’ life’s when having these disorders. Knowing the causes of these disorders can decrease the chances of being diagnosed if taken seriously. Treatments today have the tendency to manage symptoms of disorders and even prolonging certain disorders know as Parkinson’s disease.
Blazer, D. (2013). Neurocognitive disorders in DSM-5. The American Journal
of Psychiatry, 170(6), 585-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1368604136?accountid=458 Limousin, P., & Martinez-torres, I. (2008). Deep brain stimulation for parkinson’s disease. Neurotherapeutics, 5(2), 309-19. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nurt.2008.01.006 Dershewitz, R. A. (2002). More about prevalence of ADHD in children. NEJM Journal Watch.General Medicine, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/JW200204090000006