1.) PowerShell is an object-oriented programming language and interactive command line shell for Microsoft Windows.
2.) Windows 7 editions Windows 7, a major release of the Microsoft Windows operating system, was available in six different editions: Starter, Home Basic, Home Premium, Professional, Enterprise and Ultimate
3.) Default Windows Explorer libraries – contacts , desktop , downloads , dropbox , favorites , links , my music , my pictures , my videos , saved games , searches
4.) Windows Preinstallation Environment (also known as Windows PE and WinPE) is a lightweight version of Windows used for the deployment of PCs, workstations, and servers, or troubleshooting an operating system while it is offline.
5.) User profile In a Windows environment, a user profile is a record of user-specific data that define the user’s working environment. The record can include display settings, application settings, and network connections.
6.) Upgrade Advisor A downloadable Web application that helps Windows users identify which edition of Windows meets their needs, whether their PCs are ready for an upgrade to the next Windows version, and which features of the suggested Windows version will be able to run on their PCs.
7.) The Master Boot Record (MBR) is the information in the first sector of any hard disk or diskette that identifies how and where an operating system is located so that it can be boot (loaded) into the computer’s main storage or random access memory.
8.) Striped Volume Disk striping is used with redundant array of independent disks (RAID). RAID is a storage system that uses multiple disks to store and distribute data. Up to 32 hard disks can be used with disk striping.
9.) NTFS (NT file system; sometimes New Technology File System) is the file system that the Windows NT operating system uses for storing and retrieving files on a hard disk. NTFS is the Windows NT equivalent of the Windows 95 file allocation table (FAT) and the OS/2 High Performance File System (HPFS).
10.) OSI Model Layers The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1. Physical (Layer 1) Data Link (Layer 2) Network (Layer 3) Transport (Layer 4) Session (Layer 5) Presentation (Layer 6) Application (Layer 7)
11.) Subnet mask The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine, server or router. It is matched with the IP address of a packet to determine which network segment the packet is destined for.
12.) APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) The Windows function that provides DHCP auto configuration addressing. APIPA assigns a class B IP address from 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 to the client when a DHCP server is either permanently or temporarily unavailable.
13.) Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be. In private and public computer networks (including the Internet), authentication is commonly done through the use of logon passwords.
14.) User rights govern the methods by which a user can log on to a system. User rights are applied at the local computer level and allow users to perform tasks on a computer or a domain. User rights include logon rights and privileges. Logon rights control who is authorized to log on to a computer and how they can log on. Privileges control access to computer and domain resources and can override permissions that have been set on specific objects. Privileges are managed in Group Policy under the User Rights Assignment item.
15.) Workgroup (computer networking) Workgroup is Microsoft’s term for peer-to-peer local area network. Computers running Microsoft operating systems in the same workgroup may share files, printers, or Internet connection.
16.) Local user profile In a Windows environment, a user profile is a record of user-specific data that define the user’s working environment.
17.) A mandatory user profile is a special type of pre-configured roaming user profile that administrators can use to specify settings for users. With mandatory user profiles, a user can modify his or her desktop, but the changes are not saved when the user logs off.
18.) Brute force When password guessing, this method is very fast when used to check all short passwords, but for longer passwords other methods such as the dictionary attack are used because of the time a brute-force search takes.
19.) Enforce password history option This security setting determines the number of unique new passwords that have to be associated with a user account before an old password can be reused. The value must be between 0 and 24 passwords.
20.) Smart card A smart card is a plastic card about the size of a credit card, with an embedded microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, electronic cash payments, and other applications, and then periodically refreshed for additional use.
21.) Digital certificate A digital certificate is an electronic “passport” that allows a person, computer or organization to exchange information securely over the Internet using the public key infrastructure (PKI). A digital certificate may also be referred to as a public key certificate.
22.) MMC The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an application that provides a graphical-user interface (GUI) and a programming framework in which consoles (collections of administrative tools) can be created, saved, and opened.
23.) Remote Assistance Windows Remote Assistance is a feature of Windows XP and later that allows a user to temporarily view or control a remote Windows computer over a network or the Internet to resolve issues without directly touching the unit.  It is based on the Remote Desktop Protocol.
24.) TCP port 3389 This is a list of Internet socket port numbers used by protocols of the Transport Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity. Process audio on a remote desktop and have the sound redirected to their local computer.
25.) Windows Boot Manager & Windows Boot Loader A boot loader, also called a boot manager, is a small program that places the operating system (OS) of a computer into memory…
26.) System Configuration Tool A system configuration (SC) in systems engineering defines the computers, processes, and devices that compose the system and its boundary. More general the system configuration is the specific definition of the elements that define and/or prescribe what a system is composed of.
27.) Last Known Good Configuration In versions NT and later of the Windows operating system (OS), a copy of a system’s hardware configuration and driver settings taken from the system’s registry when the OS successfully boots. This copy is stored in case a subsequent boot process fails, and the OS can use the record of the Last Known Good configuration to perform a successful boot. If Windows detects a problem in the boot process, it will add the Last Known Good configuration option to the startup menu.
28.) BranchCache BranchCache is a wide area network (WAN) bandwidth optimization technology that is included in some editions of the Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, and Windows 8 operating systems, as well as in some editions of Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7.
29.) Server role SQL Server provides nine fixed server roles. The permissions that are granted to the fixed server roles cannot be changed. Beginning with SQL Server 2012, you can create user-defined server roles and add server-level permissions to the user-defined server roles.
30.) Server core Server Core is a bare-bones installation option for computers running the Windows Server 2008 operating system. The installation results in a server environment that is easy to manage and maintain but offers less functionality than more complex options.
31.) Max RAM supported by Server 2008 R2 Standard Edition Windows Server 2008 R2 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. It was released to manufacturing (RTM) on July 22, 2009 and launched on October 22, 2009.  According to the Windows Server Team blog, the retail availability was September 14, 2009.  It is built on Windows NT 6.1, the same kernel used with the client-oriented Windows 7. It is the first 64-bit-only operating system released from Microsoft. Version enhancements include new functionality for Active Directory, new virtualization and management features, version 7.5 of Microsoft IIS Web Server and support for up to 256 logical processors.
There are seven editions: Foundation, Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web, HPC Server, Itanium and Windows Storage Server 2008 R2 (Essentials Edition).
32.) Windows Update (WU), a service offered by Microsoft, provides updates for Windows components. It can be replaced with Microsoft Update, an expanded version of the service which provides for other Microsoft software as well, such as Microsoft Office, Windows Live Essentials and Microsoft Expression Studio.
33.) Clean installation A completely new installation of an operating system or application on a computer. In a clean install of an OS, the hard disk is formatted and completely erased. In a clean install of an application, the older version is uninstalled first.
34.) Server A server is a computer that provides data to other computers. It may serve data to systems on a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) over the Internet.
35.) Auditing is defined as a systematic and independent examination of data, statements, records, operations and performances (financial or otherwise) of an enterprise for a stated purpose.
36.) System control panel applet The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, and changing accessibility options.
37.) Domain A group of computers and devices on a network that are administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Within the Internet, domains are defined by the IP address. All devices sharing a common part of the IP address are said to be in the same domain.
38.) Network and Sharing Center The Network and Sharing Center window is the main location for nearly all networking operations. To display the Network and Sharing Center window from the Control Panel Home, select View Network Status and Tasks from beneath the Network and Internet heading. From the Control Panel Classic View, open the Network and Sharing Center icon. This window is shown in the following figure.
39.) Device and Printers program Devices and Printers or Device Stage, as called by some, allows you to interact with all the external devices and some of the internal devices connected to your computer (desktop, laptop, tablet, etc), all in one place.
40.) How to Open and Use Event Viewer in Windows 7 – Event Viewer is a tool that displays detailed information about significant events on your computer. Event Viewer can be helpful when troubleshooting problems and errors with Windows and other programs.
41.) Disk Management MMC location – Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is a framework that provides administrators and users with an interface for management, administration and configuration of a system. It is a component of the Microsoft Windows 2000 OS and all its successors.
42.) A RAID controller is a hardware device or software program used to manage hard disk drives (HDDs) or solid-state drives (SSDs) in a computer or storage array so they work as a logical unit.
43.) Event Viewer- Event Viewer is also an invaluable diagnosing tool when programs do not work as expected. Those who have Windows Home or Starter editions, have most of the Local Security Policy settings in place already. Comparing to Windows XP, Event Viewer in Windows Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1 has been much improved.
44.) A DNS server is a server software program that performs Domain Name Services (DNS). This involves taking a full host name such as ‘www.vicomsoft.com’ or a domain name such as ‘vicomsoft.com’ and returning the corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) address such as 220.127.116.11.
45.) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers (i.e., a scope) configured for a given network.