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Person Centred Essay Sample

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1. Promote person centred values in everyday work
1.1 Understand how to put person-centred values into practice in your day to day work
Person-centred is about providing care and support that is centred or focused on the individual and their needs. We are all individual and just because two people might have the same medical condition, for example, Dementia, it doesn’t mean that they require the same care and support.

You will need to develop a clear understanding about the individuals you are working with. This includes their needs, their culture, their means of communication, their likes and dislikes, their family and other professionals’ involvement so you can promote and provide person centred care and support.

Person-centred values provide a foundation on which you can base and build your practice. You need to understand what the values are, how you can promote them and why they are important. A value is simply what is important in the life of the person you are supporting.

There are eight person centred values that support person-centred care and
support. These are:-
Individuality: Assumptions should never be made about an individual. They should never have to fit in with you or your employer. Individuals should be allowed and supported to make their own choices. Care and support needs should be tailored to suit each individual. This shows respect by preserving the individual’s dignity and individuality. Their personal beliefs should be respected.

Independence: Allow the individuals you support to do things for themselves, however small. Being independent does not necessarily mean being completely alone, but being supported to do things for themselves.

Take time to enable the individuals you support to be independent. Don’t do things for them because it is quicker. Support them to do things that they can do or almost do. Independence makes people feel in control of their lives and gives them a sense of self-worth.

Privacy: You will need to understand each individual’s need for privacy and support this in the way you work. The availability of private space will be different in residential care home and home care environments. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 3 of 37

Irrespective of which environment, you should always ask permission before entering an individual’s room. Always knock on their door. All visitors must ask permission before entering rooms irrespective of who they are. Close doors when performing personal hygiene but first check the individual is happy with you doing so. Every individual should have time and spaces to do things in private if they should wish to, for example, meeting friends and family or making phone calls. Partnership: Working in partnership with other professionals, with colleagues, families and carers is an essential part of providing care and support. Person-centred care and support is about a whole range of people working together to improve the lives of individuals. Partnership is all about the individual you are supporting and all of the partners involved will need good communication, sharing appropriate information putting the individual’s best interests at the centre of everything that everyone does.

Choice: Each individual you are supporting should be allowed and supported to make choices. They should be given thorough information in order to make informed choices themselves and you must acknowledge the benefits of their choices. Never take over because you can do things faster or because you think something should be done a particular way. Always involve the individual in decisions about their care and support. Sometimes individuals can be overwhelmed with choice, for example, individuals suffering from Dementia, may respond better if you give them two simple choices but this is much better than giving no choice at all. You will need to be able to communicate and listen well.

Dignity: Dignity is what we feel when we are respected and it is what makes us feel important in society and in our lives. Whether individuals are eating, sleeping, washing, shopping or dying, care and support workers must help them to feel dignified. Be aware of the importance of preserving an individual’s dignity, ask them how they wish to be addressed; try not to rush them and take time to listen; use towels or clothing to cover them up when performing intimate care tasks. It is important not to stereotype or make guesses about individuals and their needs.

Respect: Is showing an individual you will support them in what they believe is important, whatever their age, culture, disability, gender, belief or sexual orientation. When working with other people or professionals, never ignore the individuals you are supporting. Always include them in the conversation, irrespective of the subject? Never use a term of endearment, for example, calling an individual “love” or “dear”, without asking them what name they would like to be called. Some people dislike terms of endearment, others will approve as it is part of their everyday language. Either way, we can never assume it is acceptable and it is essential to always check when you first meet. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 4 of 37

Rights: Individuals you care for and support should continue to have the same rights as when they were living independently. Each individual you support has the right to say no, the right to have a relationship, the right to have a say about how they are supported. They have a right to choose what they eat and when, how they dress and when. They have the right to choose their friends and what they want to do with their time. You may have to make changes to take an individual’s rights into account. You may have to balance an individual’s rights against your responsibilities and consider if either they or you are at risk? If you are concerned or unsure, check with your supervisor or manager. 1.2 Understand why it is important to work in a way that promotes these values when providing support to individuals

Think about yourself. Who are you? Who do you choose to be?
What do you like and dislike?
Do you like to choose what you wear every day?
Why do you wear the shoes you wear?
How are you different to your family, friends and neighbours? Do you have different ethnicity or religious beliefs?
Do you like to eat and drink different things and when it suits you because you are hungry or thirsty?
If you ask your family, friends and neighbours, you would get lots of different answers and this will demonstrate how different we all are, even if there are some similarities. This is what gives you your identity and makes you special, unique and different. You have the freedom to make choices every day about how you live your life. Sometimes your choices are restricted because of your financial situation or because you have to work at certain times or work in partnership with your family to make a contribution towards the support of a family unit.

Your role as a care and support worker is to provide this supporting role to individuals and enable them to live their lives the way they want to. The individuals you support may have different circumstances to you but they still have the same rights as you and your friends and family do, to make the same choices, and do the same things. The only difference is that some individuals will need more care and support than others in order to help them to achieve what they want to achieve. The level of care and support will depend on the level of the individual’s ability and the choices they want to make. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven

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1.3 Understand how to promote dignity in your day to day work with the individuals you support
The Social Care Institute for Excellence (known as
SCIE) is an independent charity, funded by the Department
of Health to identify and spread knowledge about good
practice to the large and diverse social care workforce.
SCIE aim to reach and influence lots of different people who have responsibility for service delivery in adults’ and children’s social care services. On their website SCIE describe dignity as “care that supports and promotes a person’s self-respect”. SCIE says “there are eight main factors that promote dignity in care. Each of these Dignity Factors contributes to a person’s sense of self respect, and they should all be present in care.” These are the eight factors and a brief description: Choice and Control – Enabling people to make choices about the way they live and the care they receive.

Communication – Speaking to people respectfully and listening to what they have to say; ensuring clear dialogue between workers and services. Eating and Nutritional Care – Providing a choice of nutritious, appetising meals, that meet the needs and choices of individuals, and support with eating where needed. Pain Management – Ensuring that people living with pain have the right help and medication to reduce suffering and improve their quality of life. Personal Hygiene – Enabling people to maintain their usual standards of personal hygiene. Practical Assistance – Enabling people to maintain their independence by providing ‘that little bit of help’.

Privacy – Respecting people’s personal space, privacy in personal care and confidentiality of personal information.
Social Inclusion – Supporting people to keep in contact with family and friends, and to participate in social activities.
SCIE have produced a guide to support people providing care and support. The guide includes a Dignity Challenge explaining what people should expect from a service that respects dignity. To find out more and to find lots of other useful pieces of information to support you in your role, visit SCIE’s website:

http://www.scie.org.uk/ CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 6 of 37
2. Working in a person centred way
2.1 Recognise the features of working in a person centred way Person-centred approaches are about the individual being the centre of their care and support plan enabling them to have control over their lives. Person-centred approaches are about enabling individuals to live their own lives and not just providing a service. It is about focusing on the individual person’s needs and not the tasks that need completing.

Person-centred planning is a way for individuals to plan for what they want now and in the future, together with the people in their lives who they like and trust. It is based on the following values:

 Everyone has a right to plan their own lives and be at the centre of any planning that is done for them.
 Everyone has a right to be part of their community.
 Everyone has a right to live their lives as they want, and if they need support to do this for this support to be provided in a way in which they want it. Your employer may use person-centred planning tools, for example, MAPS, PATH, Personal Futures Planning and Essential Lifestyle Planning. All of these tools include the following key features of working in a person-centred way:

 The person is at the centre.
 Family members and friends are partners.
 Reflects what is important to the person and their capacities.  Specifies the support the person needs to make a valued contribution to their community.
 Builds a shared commitment.
 Leads to continual listening and learning about what the person wants to
get from their life.
2.2 Understand why it is important to find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual(s) you are supporting
What is important to individuals? What support do they need and want? What do you know about their history? What are their dreams and ideas for their future? You should always reflect on and celebrate the diversity of the people you are supporting. There are many reasons why individuals think and act the way they do and only by building up comprehensive knowledge about these important things can you help them to fulfil their wishes and needs. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 7 of 37

You can find out about an individual’s history, preferences, wishes and needs by looking at their Individual Needs Assessment. This will look at a variety of different things depending on the individual being assessed, for example, physical, emotional, social, spiritual, communication, support or care needs.

The individual will need to be able to trust the person conducting the Individual Needs Assessment and encouraged to use their strengths to feel confident that the process will lead to positive outcomes for them.

A care or support plan sets out what care or support an individual needs. The Individual Needs Assessment will enable the required care and support to be determined. The care plan will contain lots of information, for example, medical history, family contacts, risk assessments. It is usually written by someone who has specifically been trained to do this. Your role is to make sure you read and work to the requirements of the care or support plan, to record any changes and to report significant changes. You will need to understand the boundaries of your responsibilities regarding the individuals you support. Your employer may have an organisation structure that will help you to determine the lines of accountability.

2.3 Understand how the changing needs of an individual are reflected in their care plan and how this contributes to working in a person-centred way How many times over the period of a few weeks do you change your mind about certain things? Your wishes and desires will change as you gather more information and change your opinions, for example, you might have a favourite food that you decide to eat every other day but a few weeks later, you could be bored with this food and want something different.

Just like your needs and desires change, so will those of the individuals you support. Changes could be from a whole range of aspects of the individual’s life. It is important to recognise that as needs change, how support is provided will also need to be reviewed regularly to see if any changes or adjustments are required. You have a responsibility to listen to individuals, to hear what they are saying, to write down any information about change in the care or support plan and contact your supervisor or manager if this is likely to have an impact on the level or type of care and support that is provided.

Find out if your employer has a process or format for carrying out an Individual Needs Assessment
Talk to your supervisor or manager about the boundaries of your responsibilities regarding the individuals you support CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 8 of 37
2.4 Understand the importance of supporting individuals to plan for their future well-being and fulfilment, including end of life care where appropriate Supporting an individual to plan for their future well-being may include the following, their:  Sense of hope

 Confidence
 Self esteem
 Ability to communicate their needs
 Ability to make contact with other people
 Ability to show warmth and affection
 Experience and showing of pleasure and enjoyment
Fulfilment is about feeling satisfied, pleased, content, a sense of achievement and success. The Department of Health published an End of Life Care Strategy in July 2008 to promote high quality care for all adults at the end of their lives. Below are some extracts from the Strategy that are relevant to your job role:

Around half a million people die in England each year. Almost two thirds are aged over 75. Most deaths follow a period of chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic respiratory disease, neurological disease or dementia. Most deaths occur in hospitals, with around 18% occurring at home, 17% in care homes, 4% in hospices and 3% elsewhere. The cause of death and place of death have changed over the past century. In around 1900 most people died in their own homes. At that time acute infections were a much more common cause of death and a higher proportion of deaths occurred in childhood or early adult life.

Because of these changes, familiarity with death has decreased. Many people do not experience the death of someone close to them until they are well into midlife. Many people have not seen a dead body, except possibly on television. As a society we do not discuss death and dying openly.

Every individual may have a different idea about what would be a ‘good death’, for many this would involve:
 Being treated as an individual, with dignity and respect  Being without pain and other symptoms
 Being in familiar surroundings
 Being in the company of close family and/or friends CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 9 of 37
The End of Life Strategy aims to change things so that individuals can access high quality care for all people approaching the end of life, irrespective of age, gender, ethnicity, religious belief, disability, sexual orientation, diagnosis or socioeconomic deprivation. High quality care should be available wherever the person may be: at home, in a care home, in hospital, in a hospice or elsewhere.

The Department of Health also produced a document setting out what the end of Life Care Strategy means for patients and carers. Use this web link to find out more information about your role in supporting people who are at the end of their lives. http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalasse

[email protected][email protected]/documents/digitalasset/dh_086504.pdf
Advance Care Planning (known as ACP) is a process of discussion between an individual and the people in their support network. It usually takes place when it is expected that an individual’s condition is likely to deteriorate and following serious deterioration, the individual may not be able to make decisions or communicate their wishes. This type of plan must be reviewed regularly and will include the type of care and support the individual requires as things change. An ACP plan and discussion is likely to include:

 Any concerns the individual may have
 Their most important values or personal requirements for care and support  Their understanding about their illness
 Preferences about the care or treatment that may be beneficial and available in future  Where they might want to be at the end of their life
 Whether they need to make a Will
 What arrangements they would like to be made after death, for example, funeral, flowers, gifts, donations
Some individuals will be proactive and feel the need to discuss all of these, whilst others may not wish to discuss it at all.
Individuals can make decisions about medical treatment and procedures which are legally binding, for example, an individual can request that they are not resuscitated if their heart stops.
This will be dependent on the individual’s views and culture and any requirements an individual has must be carefully documented. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 10 of 37
3. Recognising possible signs of dementia
3.1 Be aware of possible signs of dementia in the individuals with whom you work
Dementia is a term used to describe various different brain disorders that have in common a serious loss of brain function that is usually progressive and eventually severe, in an individual previously unimpaired, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. There are a number of different conditions that lead to dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular disease (including stroke) and dementia with Lewy bodies. There are 750,000
people with dementia in the UK

Numbers are set to rise to one million by 2025
Source: Alzheimer’s Society
Each individual will experience dementia differently, but there will usually be:  A decline in memory, reasoning and communication skills.  A gradual loss of the skills needed to carry out daily activities.  Confusion.

Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible and include loss of memory, confusion and problems with speech and understanding. Especially in the later stages of the condition, an individual affected might be disoriented about the following: Time For example, not knowing what day of the week, day of the month, or even what year it is

Place For example, not knowing where they are or getting lost Person For example, not knowing who they are or others around them Here is a description of some of the more common types of dementia together with their symptoms:

Symptoms of Vascular dementia – The symptoms of vascular dementia can develop suddenly and quickly worsen. Or they can develop gradually over many months. Symptoms include:
 Increasing difficulties with tasks and activities that require concentration and planning  Memory loss
 Depression
 Changes in personality and mood
 Periods of mental confusion
 Low attention span
 Urinary incontinence CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 11 of 37
 Stroke like symptoms such as muscle weakness or paralysis on one side of the body  Wandering during the night
 Slow and unsteady gait – the way that you walk
Symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies – The symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies usually develop gradually but get more severe over the course of many years. The symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies include:

 Memory loss
 Low attention span
 Periods of mental confusion
 Delusions – believing in things that are not true
 Difficulty planning ahead
 Muscle stiffness
 Slower movement
 Shaking and trembling of arms and legs
 Shuffling while walking
 Problems sleeping
 Loss of facial expression
 Visual hallucinations – seeing things that are not there. Usually individuals will see other people or animals that are not real
Symptoms of frontotemporal dementia – Frontotemporal dementia is caused by damage to the parts of the brain that help control emotional responses and behaviour. Therefore, many of the initial symptoms of frontotemporal dementia involve changes in emotion, personality and behaviour.

Someone with frontotemporal dementia may become less sensitive to other people’s emotions. This can make them seem cold and unfeeling. They may also lose some of their inhibitions. This could lead to strange behaviour, such as making sexually suggestive gestures in a public place, being rude to others or making tactless comments. Other symptoms of frontotemporal dementia include:

 Aggression
 Compulsive behaviour
 Being easily distracted
 An increasing lack of interest in washing themselves
 Personality changes. An individual who was previously withdrawn may become very outgoing, or vice versa
 Some individuals with frontotemporal dementia also have problems with language, for example, speaking far less than usual, or not speaking at all, having problems finding the right words to express themselves and using many words to describe something simple. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven

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Remember that an individual with dementia is still a unique and valuable human being, despite their illness. If you can understand what the individual is going through, it might be easier for you to realise why they behave in certain ways.

When an individual with dementia finds that their mental abilities are declining, they often feel vulnerable and in need of reassurance and support. The people closest to them, including their care and support workers, need to do everything they can to help the individual to retain their sense of identity and feelings of self-worth.

The National Health Service (known as NHS) has lots of useful information about dementia on their website. Use the web link below.
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Dementia/Pages/Introduction.aspx Another useful resource providing lots of information about dementia is the Alzheimer’s Society. They work to improve the quality of life of people affected by dementia in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/

3.2 Be aware why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia
Becoming forgetful does not necessarily mean an individual has dementia. Memory loss can be an effect of ageing. It can also be a symptom of stress or depression. In rare cases, dementia-like symptoms can be caused by vitamin deficiencies or a brain tumour. If an individual is depressed, he or she will often lose interest in things that they used to enjoy. Depression commonly interferes with work, social and family life. In addition, there are many other symptoms. Some of these are:

Psychological symptoms of depression:
 Continuous low mood or sadness
 Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness
 Low self-esteem
 Tearfulness
 Feelings of guilt
 Feeling irritable and intolerant of others
 Lack of motivation and little interest in things
 Difficulty making decisions
 Lack of enjoyment CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 13 of 37
 Suicidal or thoughts of harming someone else
 Feeling anxious or worried
 Reduced sex drive
Physical symptoms of depression:
 Slowed movement or speech
 Change in appetite or weight – usually decreased, but sometimes increased  Constipation
 Unexplained aches and pains
 Lack of energy or lack of interest in sex
 Changes to the menstrual cycle
 Disturbed sleep patterns, for example, problems going to sleep or waking in the early hours of the morning
The NHS also has lots of useful information about depression on their website. Use the web link below.
http://www.nhs.uk/livewell/depression/pages/depressionhome.aspx 3.3 Understand why early diagnosis is important in relation to dementia These are some of the reasons why early diagnosis of dementia is important:  Find out if other conditions similar to dementia are causing the symptoms as they could be treatable, for example, depression, infections, thyroid deficiencies and constipation can all be treated with medication.

 Ascertain if symptoms are being caused by medication for another condition.  To quickly get advice, information, guidance and support for the individual and everyone involved in supporting the individual.

 To see if medication can be used to treat or improve the condition.  To enable individuals to consider their condition and plan ahead. If you are familiar with the signs and symptoms of dementia, you will be better prepared to raise concerns you may have about an individual as early as possible Compare the symptoms of depression and dementia

and think about why depression, delirium and age
related memory impairment may be mistaken for
dementia. Ask for help if you get stuck CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 14 of 37
3.4 Know who to tell, and how, if you suspect symptoms associated with dementia
If you suspect an individual might have dementia, it is important that you report this to your manager or supervisor as soon as possible.
If you do not have a supervisor or manager, you can seek advice from the NHS or Alzheimer’s Society using the web links above. If you have to share your concerns with the individual’s next of kin (the person named as the closest to them), you will need to be sensitive as this will be upsetting. You should also present to them the facts that led to your concerns. 4. Supporting active participation

4.1 Understand the importance of valuing people for who they are and being nonjudgemental contributes to active participation
Providing individuals with empowerment is important. Empowerment is about enabling the individuals you support to contribute and have an influence over the issues which affect the way they live. When individuals make choices, they have more control and feel valued. It is important that you support empowerment of the individuals you work with. Providing individuals with empowerment to make informed choices enables individuals to maintain their rights of choice, equality and opportunity. Active Participation is a way of working that recognises an individual’s right to participate in the activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible; the individual is regarded as an active partner in their own care or support, rather than just a recipient.

Being part of a community is particularly important to individuals who live on their own and do not work. It means they have relationships and make friendships with other people giving them a more fulfilling life. It doesn’t matter what kind of contribution they make or the type of activities they are involved in, just being part of something will give them a sense of belonging, a feeling of self-worth and independence. 4.2 Know ways of enabling individuals to make informed choices about their lives Your role as a care or support worker is to help individuals to make informed choices about things that happen every day and also in planning for the longer term.

Each time you work with an individual you should be able to give them choices. Individuals’ choices will be different depending on the types of tasks you are doing together and their abilities. Good communication is essential so that you can give choices and individuals can make them. It doesn’t matter what environment you support an individual in, there should always be plenty of opportunity to provide choices. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 15 of 37

Here are some examples:
 When would they like to get up?
 What would they like to wear?
 What would they like to eat and drink?
 What brands would they like to use, for example, shampoo, toothpaste, moisturiser?
 What activities would they like to take part in?
You can support individuals to make choices by giving them encouragement and giving praise when they have made a choice. This will give them the confidence to continue to make choices about other aspects of their lives.

4.3 Be aware of other ways you might support active participation It is useful if you can support the individual to find out about local social and community networks in the areas where the individuals you support live, particularly if the people you support live in their own homes. You can support individuals to get further advice, guidance and information about what facilities are available. Local charities are also likely to run groups, meetings and workshops. You could talk to your friends, family and colleagues to find out what is available locally (without talking about the individuals you work with). You could look in the local paper and use the internet to search local information. Your local authority may be able to provide information.

If an individual identifies a particular hobby or activity they wish to participate in, it might be worth checking if there are local groups or facilities that would be prepared to support the individual to participate.

Assistive technology or adaptive technology is a general term for assistive, adaptive and rehabilitative devices, sometimes electronic, that can enable individuals to live more independently. Sometimes it is significant and can mean the difference between an individual remaining in their own home rather than having to go into a residential home.

Assistive technology can also mean having greater opportunity to participate in community based activities. Examples are electronic light systems, water and gas problem detectors, pressure mats, hearing aids, personal alarms, house adaptations and mobility equipment. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 16 of 37

4.4 Know the importance of enabling individuals to develop skills in self care and to maintain their own social and community networks
Self-care is about individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being. It includes both self-care and self-management. It is about individuals making the most of their lives by coping with difficulties and making the most of what they have. It includes managing or minimising the way conditions limit individuals’ lives as well as what they can do to feel happy and fulfilled to make the most of their lives despite the condition. Your role in supporting self-care is about working in partnership in a process of two-way communication, negotiation and decision making, where you and the individual contribute to the on-going care planning process to achieve the best possible outcomes for the individual; it is not about handing over responsibility to individuals but about partnership and working together.

The ‘Common Core Principles to Support Self Care’ (produced by Skills for Care and Skills for Health in partnership with the Department of Health) aims to help health and social care to give individuals control over, and responsibility for, their own health and well-being. This is part of the personalisation agenda, by putting individuals at the centre of the planning process and recognising that they are best placed to understand their own needs and how to meet them.

There are seven principles which are underpinned by an explicit value base: Principle 1 Ensure individuals are able to make informed choices to manage their self care needs
Principle 2 Communicate effectively to enable individuals to assess their needs and develop and gain confidence to self care
Principle 3 Support and enable individuals to access appropriate information to manage their self-care needs
Principle 4 Support and enable individuals to develop skills in self care Principle 5 Support and enable individuals to use technology to support self care Principle 6 Advise individuals how to access support networks and participate in the planning, development and evaluation of services

5. Supporting an individual’s rights to make choices
5.1 Be aware of ways of enabling an individual to make informed choices In order to enable an individual to make an informed choice, both you and the individual first need to think about what all of the available options are. You then need to look at what are good and bad about each option. Health and safety are important factors and must be put first for you, the individual and anyone else involved.

You will have already learnt about the Mental Capacity Act in other Standards. It provides the legal framework for capacity and decision making about health and social care and financial decisions. It applies to everyone aged over 16. You will need to consider whether the person you are supporting has capacity to make informed decisions or whether you need a formal mental capacity review.

It is important to note that a person is assumed to have capacity unless it is proved otherwise. There is a four-step way to test for capacity: A person must be able to: 1. Understand the information relevant to a decision

2. Retain the information
3. Use the information as part of the decision making process 4. Communicate their decision
In supporting a person to make a decision, you have a duty to assist the person in all four of these steps. For example, using appropriate communication methods to help the person to understand and communicate.

Capacity is assessed specific to each decision and each occasion. For example, a person may have capacity to make a decision in the morning about what to wear, but not later that day in deciding if they want to move home.

If someone is assessed as lacking capacity, any decision taken on their behalf must be in their best interests and you must consider if there are less restrictive options. For example, if a decision can be delayed until a person is less distressed this is the best course of action.

However, if a person does have capacity
this over-rides what you may consider as an unwise decision. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 18 of 37
5.2 Understand how you can use agreed risk assessment processes to support the right to make choices
Each individual should have a formal risk assessment as part of their care and support plan.
The risk assessment should contain information about the individual and the type of care and support they need. It will provide the most appropriate options for keeping the individual and anyone else involved as safe as possible. It will also tell you how to do some tasks where these tasks have been risk assessed and the best option has been established.

For example:
A particular way of moving and handling is recommended for Mr X because he has health issues that mean he or she can only be moved in a particular way. Mr X doesn’t like being moved this way and asks to be moved another way.

You should always follow the risk assessment. You should report Mr X’s request to your supervisor / manager. If you are appropriately trained in risk assessment and moving and handling and the change Mr X requires is minor, you may be able to make this change. You should never make changes unless you are trained or your supervisor or manager confirms you can make the change. You should always record any changes in Mr X’s wishes and in the way you perform tasks.

Every effort should be made to support Mr X to be moved in the way he wants to be moved. He has the right to make this choice but an appropriately trained person will need to review the risk assessment first and work out if it is safe for all involved for Mr X to be moved in the way he wishes.

5.3 Know why your personal views should not be allowed to influence an individual’s choices
When an individual has made a decision which you feel is risky, you need to make the individual aware of any consequences involved in the decision; however you should not try to influence the individual with your views and opinions. It is the individual’s freedom of choice to make decisions about their own future and support. Providing they have the right information (including the advantages and disadvantages) to make an informed choice and have the capacity to understand their choice; it is part of your duty of care to enable them to do so. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 19 of 37

Referring back again to Mr X in 5.2 above, you might not approve of or like the choice he has made. You might need more moving and handling training, perhaps for a specialist piece of equipment. However, the choice is not yours and you are not allowed to influence Mr X. In supporting Mr X to make his decision, you need to listen to him and put his wishes and best interests first. He is the customer and you are providing a service. This means the service must be provided in the way Mr X would like, as long as it is safe and approved through care and support plans and risk assessments. This is because the choices belong to Mr X, not to you. He needs to make his own decisions in order to feel he is in control of what happens to him. This leads to positive feelings around dignity, pride and satisfaction.

5.4 Be aware that there may be occasions you may need to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others If a relative or friend has made a decision about an individual’s care, support or life that the individual is not happy or comfortable with, you may need to support the individual to question or challenge the decision.

It is important that you obtain and understand the facts and reasons surrounding the decision so you can make sure the individual has a clear understanding. If the individual remains sure that he / she is not happy with the decision, once he / she has this information, you can work with the individual to support them to challenge the decision. Any changes that are made as a result of this challenge must be safe for you, the individual and anyone else involved. You should never make changes unless you are trained to do so or your supervisor or manager confirms you can make the change. You should always record any changes in individual’s wishes and in the way you perform tasks. It is essential that you understand the Mental Capacity Act and how to work within it’s requirements every day with every individual

6. Promoting spiritual and emotional well-being
6.1 Be aware of how individual identity and self esteem are linked with spiritual and emotional well-being
Spiritual well-being is an integral part of mental, emotional and physical health. It can be associated with a specific religion but does not have to be. It is about an individual’s own journey to discover things of importance in their lives and enabling them to find purpose and meaning in life. The effects and impact of spiritual well-being is determined by each individual and can make a huge impact in their lives. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 20 of 37

Through spiritual well-being, individuals can become empowered and realize that even though they have issues, stressors, and challenges, they are not defined by their circumstances. In realizing this individuals gain greater peace, better freedom of selfexpression, increased manageability over the healing and support process and higher self-esteem. A few of the numerous benefits of spiritual well-being include:  Feeling content with your life’s situation

 Making time to spend alone and find inner peace
 Taking time to reflect and resolve life’s issues
 Finding satisfaction in a job well done
 Taking part in an active lifestyle rather than merely standing by and watching life as it passes
 Maintaining balance and control of life
 Building relationships
 Feeling purpose and meaning in life
 Accepting and growing from the challenges of life
Emotional well-being is based on how individuals feel about themselves. Someone who is emotionally healthy:
 Understands and adapts to change
 Copes with stress
 Has a positive outlook on life and themselves
 Has the ability to love and care for others
 Can act independently to meet his or her own needs
Everyone, including people who are emotionally healthy, have problems. If something or someone threatens our happiness or wellbeing, we would feel uncomfortable emotions such as anger, sadness or fear. When we experience something that enhances our situation, we feel emotions such as joy, satisfaction or a sense of achievement. The way we’re brought up and our culture have a great influence on how we feel. They help us to form ideas and decide what we care about. Everyone deals with situations in life differently. What may seem unimportant to your closest friend might be upsetting to you. Sometimes an individual’s self-esteem (the way they feel about themselves) can become so low that everything seems a lot harder to cope with compared with when they are feeling confident.

Being emotionally healthy doesn’t mean that you feel happy all the time. That is impossible. Good emotional health is about having lots of different emotions, and being able to accept them and talk about them. Signs that individuals are not coping well emotionally might include having a lack of self-confidence, having trouble with relationships or feeling unhappy a lot of the time. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 21 of 37

6.2 Be aware of attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote spiritual and emotional well-being
Because we are all so different and diverse, we have different and diverse views about every subject. You may not approve of or agree with the views of the individuals you support but your role is about working with them in ways that support their views.

The best way to find out about an individual is to ask questions that are not threatening but show you have a genuine interest in the individual. By encouraging them to talk about themselves and listening to their views, you will learn a great deal about the individuals you work with. Through this learning, you will be able to meet their needs in ways that are sensitive and supportive of their views making individuals feel valued. Your role is to support individuals to feel emotional well-being and to feel emotional wellbeing, individuals need to feel:

 Appreciated, cared about and loved
 Safe and secure
 Extra supported when they feel sad, depressed or lonely
 That they are not a burden but an important priority
 Listened to and respected
 Satisfied with relationships
 Independent and in control of their lives
 That they have a purpose and meaning to their lives
You will need good communication skills and be able to listen but also to encourage individuals and show understanding and support for what is important to them in life. You could suggest that the individual (or a person on their behalf) organises for someone from their faith or community group to visit them at home, or support the individual to be able to attend their faith or community group. It might be possible for someone from the group to organize travel and support arrangements whilst the individual attends the group. 6.3 Know how to support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self esteem

Each individual’s spirituality is greatly impacted by the community they are a part of and the relationships they take part in. Spiritual wellbeing is not a practice of isolation but rather of affecting and involving the people around the individual. CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 22 of 37

Spiritual well-being groups and sessions could provide an open and safe environment to explore, learn, practice, support and heal. This safe-haven offered in such a group is important to individuals who experience difficulties in their lives. Individuals may be able to find spiritual well-being programs in their local area. These may include group exploration and experiential practices on the topics of meditation, prayer, forgiveness, personal values, purpose in life, the role of self-esteem in spiritual connection, healthy relationships, and developing an authentic relationship with a Higher Power, God, or Spiritual Dimension.

6.4 Know how to contribute to an environment that promotes spiritual and emotional well-being
By promoting an individual’s spiritual and emotional wellbeing, you can help improve their self esteem and make them feel valued and remain their own person.
Building an individual’s self esteem is a first step towards the happiness and emotional well-being of the individuals you support. Focussing on what they can do rather than on what they can’t do, will encourage their independence and feeling of self worth.

It is also important to help individuals to deal with stress. Changes in situations and in their ability to do things can cause stress. However, by providing encouragement and positive support you can improve their inner self and quality of life. By providing emotional support, understanding and good quality care, you can improve an individual’s confidence, promoting spiritual and emotional well-being. Think about the individuals you work with and how

your attitudes and approaches affect
an individual’s emotional well-being CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 23 of 37
Questions
Person centred support
1.1 Understand how to put person-centred values into practice in your day to day work
In the first box of each value, explain what the value means in relation to the people you support, then provide three examples of how you could do this in your role: Individuality:

1.2 Understand why it is important to work in a way that promotes these values when providing support to individuals
Why is it so important to work in a way that promotes these values when providing support to individuals?
1.3 Understand how to promote dignity in your day to day work with the individuals you support
Give 4 examples of how you can support individual’s dignity: 1
2
3
4 CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven
Page 26 of 37
2.1 Recognise the features of working in a person centred way Describe what person-centred means:
2.2 Understand why it is important to find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual(s) you are supporting
Why is it important to find out about each individual’s preferences, wishes, history and needs?
How would you obtain this information (especially if the individual is known to have a condition such as Dementia)?
2.3 Understand how the changing needs of an individual are reflected in their care plan and how this contributes to working in a person-centred way What should happen if an individual tells you their needs have changed? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 27 of 37

2.4 Understand the importance of supporting individuals to plan for their future well-being and fulfilment, including end of life care where appropriate Why is it important to support individuals in planning for their future? What is End of Life Care?

What is Advance Care Planning and what is the discussion likely to include? An individual you have been visiting once a week for the past 6 months to take them out food shopping has had a stroke. They are now unable to use one side of their body and their speech is slurred. They now require 3 visits a day, which include washing and dressing and meal preparation and the individual is finding it hard to adjust to their new situation. How would you remain focussed on providing a person centred approach in this situation? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 28 of 37

3.2 Be aware why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia
Why might depression, delirium and age related memory impairment be mistaken for dementia?
3.3 Understand why early diagnosis is important in relation to dementia Why is it important that you are familiar with the signs and symptoms of Dementia? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 29 of 37

3.4 Know who to tell, and how, if you suspect symptoms associated with dementia
What would you do if you thought an individual you support might be displaying signs of Dementia?
Who would you tell if you thought an individual you support is displaying possible signs of Dementia and how would you tell them?
4.1 Understand the importance of valuing people for who they are and being nonjudgemental contributes to active participation
What is Active Participation? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 30 of 37
How can you value people for who they are and be non-judgemental? 4.2 Know ways of enabling individuals to make informed choices about their lives How can you enable the individuals you support to make informed choices? 4.3 Be aware of other ways you might support active participation How can you support the individuals you work with in active participation? Explain what assistive technology is and give 3 examples:

CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven
Page 31 of 37
It is Bingo afternoon in the day centre you are working in. This is a game
where numbers are called out and people match the numbers with numbers on their card. Bill does not want to join in but the agency carer who is in charge of Bingo is trying to get him to take part. You know that Bill does not like Bingo and never joins in. What would you do? 4.4 Know the importance of enabling individuals to develop skills in self care and to maintain their own social and community networks

CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven
Page 32 of 37
Why is it important for individuals to have their own social and community networks? A woman you support is insisting she is going to catch the bus into town on Saturday morning alone to go to the local market. She used to go regularly until Multiple Sclerosis began to affect her mobility. She can walk with a walking stick but needs to rest regularly and sometimes loses her balance. She is mentally able but physically weak. What would you do?

5.1 Be aware of ways of enabling an individual to make informed choices How can you enable individuals to make informed choices?
What is the Mental Capacity Act and why is it important in making informed choices? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 33 of 37
5.2 Understand how you can use agreed risk assessment processes to support the right to make choices
How can you use the agreed risk assessment processes to support individuals’ rights to make choices?
5.3 Know why your personal views should not be allowed to influence an individual’s choices
Why must your personal views not influence individuals’ choices? 5.4 Be aware
that there may be occasions you may need to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others If an individual tells you they are unhappy about a decision made by another person about their care and support, what would you do? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 34 of 37

A man you support takes regular medication to lower his cholesterol and to thin his blood. His brother has decided that he does not need to take this medication and has told you to stop his medication because he believes there is nothing wrong with him. Should this decision be challenged and if so, how would you do this?

6.1 Be aware of how individual identity and self esteem are linked with spiritual and emotional well-being
What is spiritual well-being?
What is emotional well-being?
How is individual identity and self esteem linked with spiritual and emotional well-being? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 35 of 37
An elderly female has recently been widowed. She is in very low spirits and extremely lost and lonely without her husband. What could you do to build her self-esteem and emotional well-being?
6.2 Be aware of attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote spiritual and emotional well-being
What attitude and approaches do you need to use to promote spiritual and emotional wellbeing for the individuals you work with?
6.3 Know how to support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self esteem
How can you support an individual to promote a sense of identity and self esteem? CIS Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 36 of 37
6.4 Know how to contribute to an environment that promotes spiritual and emotional well-being
How can you contribute to an environment that promotes spiritual and emotional wellbeing? You have noticed that morale between individuals in the residential care home you are working in is low and pretty disheartening. How could you contribute to promote spiritual and emotional well-being? CIS
Assessment Induction Workbook – Seven Page 37 of 37

Shall we find out what you have learnt?
Now that you have completed this section you can have a go at the online assessment for Common Induction Standard 7.
To do this you will need to visit www.cis-assessment.co.uk and log on by entering your username and password in the boxes provided.
You will then be able to select Common Induction Standards then Standard 7. Don’t forget to read the instruction page before you start.
Once you have completed this assessment and had a discussion about the results with your line manager, you may want to do a little more learning and / or return to your results and record additional evidence .

You can also print out the results pages (which include any additional information you have added) for your Induction Folder and CPD Portfolio.
http://www.cis-assessment.co.uk
Copyright note for Managers and Employers
The workbook(s) can be completed online or on a printed copy. You can make any changes, deletions or additions to suit your circumstances. You can personalise the workbook(s) by adding your organisation’s name and logo. Please make sure that CIS-Assessment is credited for putting the workbook(s) together and providing them without charge. You cannot copy, reproduce or use any part of the workbook(s) for financial gain or as part of a training event that you are profiting from.

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