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Project Management Life Cycle Models Essay Sample

Project Management Life Cycle Models Pages
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Before I start discussing the five project management life cycle models, it is very important to understanding below project management landscape and its four Quadrants: Quadrants 1: Contains Traditional Project Management (TPM), this approach has a clear project goal and clear project solution. Quadrants 2: Contains Agile Project Management (APM), this approach has a clear project goal and not clear project solution. Quadrants 3: Contains Extreme Project Management (xPM), in this approach both project goal and project solution are not clear solution. Quadrants 4: Contains Emertxe Project Management (PMx), this approach has not clear project goal and clear project solution.

According to (Wysocki, 2012) there are five Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) models that can be used to manage and execute different types of projects. Each PMLC model has different project management approach in the sequencing of the five process groups; scoping, planning, launching, Monitoring & controlling, and closing. The five PMLC models are: 1)Linear

2)Incremental
3)Iterative
4)Adaptive
5)Extreme

Below are the five PMLC models and potential risks and failures associated with each model and its mitigation strategies:

1)Linear PMLC:
This model is the simplest PMLC model, it is based on the TPM approach. In the linear model the relationship between the five process group is follow the sequential style. The sequential relationship means that the planning process can not start before the completion of the scoping process, the launching process can not start before the completion of the planning process, the monitor and control process can not start before the completion of the planning process, and the closing process can not start before the completion of the monitor and control process.

Risks, failures, and mitigation strategy:
According to (Wysocki, 2012) below are the risk and mitigation strategy for this model:
•One of the major risks related to linear PMLC is that linear PMLC does not accommodate changes to the scope. Since there is a big possibility to have changes in most of the projects, it is very important to have the capability to accommodate those changes. To mitigate this risk, project manager should develop a methodology to manage and control changes. •Linear PMLC is costly and this high cost is a result of the client’s late review and comments. To mitigate this risk, project manager should have proper planning for client’s review, comments, and testing. •Linear PMLC takes too long before deliverables are produced. This risk is a result of late client’s review and comments which will require additional time and budget to review, evaluate, and incorporate the client’s comments or changes. To mitigate this risk the project manager should consider those late change requests in his cost and schedule management plans

2)Incremental PMLC:
‘Incremental model approach is also based on TPM approach, it consist of multiple dependant increments that are completed in a prescribed sequence. Each increment includes a lunching, monitoring and controlling, and closing processes group for the functions and features in that increment only. Each increment integrates additional parts of the solution until the final increment, where the remaining parts of the solution are integrated’ (Wysocki, 2012).

Risks, failures, and mitigation strategy:
According to (Wysocki, 2012) below are the risks and mitigation plan for this model:

•The team may not be intact between increments. The long time between increments will cause losing some of the project team members. Example: if a design engineer completed his design and sits doing nothing, there is a big possibility to move him to another project. This will result to bring another design engineer to the project and this new design engineer may not be familiar with the initial design strategy. To mitigate this risk we should develop a proper plan of project task and associated team members. This plan should keep the project team members busy all the time even between increments. •The Incremental PMLC model takes longer than linear PMLC model which increase the cost, time, and effort required to execute the project. To mitigate this risk we should have a powerful monitoring and control tools. Those tools should help to keep the project on track with respect to project scope, budget, and schedule.

3)Iterative PMLC:
This model follows APM approach. According to (Wysocki, 2012) ‘ An Iterative PMLC model consists of a number of process groups that are repeated sequentially within an iteration with a feedback loop after each iteration is completed. At the discretion of the client, the last process group in an iteration may release a partial solution’.

Risks, failures, and mitigation strategy:
According to (Wysocki, 2012) below are the risks and mitigation plan for this model:

•The client involvement in this model is more than linear and incremental PMLC models. If the required degree of client’s involvement and ownership is not available then the project will be on risk. To mitigate this risk we should have a clear definition of the client’s roles, responsibilities, and availabilities. •The Iterative PMLC model requires co-located teams. This is very difficult requirement because most of the projects have design offices and project consultants all over the world and the co-located teams are not possible. To mitigate this risk a well defined communication plan must be established to provide the required communication channels among project stakeholders.

4)Adaptive PMLC:
‘An Adaptive PMLC model consists of a number of phases that are repeated in cycles, with a feedback loop after each cycle is completed. Each cycle proceeds based on an incomplete and limited understanding of the solution. Each cycle learns from the preceding cycles and plans the next cycle in an attempt to converge on an acceptable solution. At the discretion of the client, a cycle may release a partial solution’ (Wysocki, 2012). It follows the agile project management approach.

Risks, failures, and mitigation strategy:
According to (Wysocki, 2012) below are the risks and mitigation plan for this model:

•This model requires meaningful client involvement. If the required degree of client’s involvement and ownership is not available then the project will be on risk. To mitigate this risk we should have a clear definition of the client’s roles, responsibilities, and availabilities. •Another risk related to adaptive PMLC model is that it cannot identify exactly what will be delivered at the end of the project which will result to approve not enough project budget or not realistic project schedule. To mitigate this risk a high level budgetary estimate and high level schedule should be developed at the planning phase to provide the client with a clear picture about required budget and schedule to achieve the project objectives.

5)Extreme PMLC:
‘The extreme PMLC model consist of a sequence of repeated phase based on a very limited understanding of the goal and solution. Each phase learns from the preceding ones and redirects the next phase in an attempt to converge on an acceptable goal and solution’ (Wysocki, 2012).

Risks, failures, and mitigation strategy:
According to (Wysocki, 2012) below are the risks and mitigation plan for this model:

•May be looking at solutions in the wrong places which means the project’s money will be spent without finding the proper solution. To mitigate this risk the solution development plan should be based on the experimental approach. •No guarantee that any acceptable business value will result from the project deliverables. To mitigate this risk the project scope and objectives should be clear, well defined, and have sufficient business values. Also the proposed solution should be within approved budget.

Reference:

Wysocki, R.K. (2012) Effective Project Management: traditional, agile, extreme.6th ed. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.

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