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Sustainability of several bed brands Essay Sample

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Research has shown that sustainability becomes more and more important in the hospitality. The aim of this research is to understand more about sustainability in the hospitality and to evaluate which hotel brand is the most sustainable. Starting with analyzing sustainability and how this can be implemented in the hospitality. Later on the three dimensions are analyzed on which indicators companies needs to take actions to become sustainable. Different bed brands are evaluated about how sustainable they are. This research is focused on the three bed brands Auping, Lavital and Coco-mat. Research on their webpages and contact with the organizations has been made to fill out the evaluation tool and grade them on the three dimensions of sustainability.

The results has shown that Coco-mat is the most sustainable bed brand. However Coco-mat did not score any points on the profit dimension, because they are expensive whether Auping is very cheap, but score lower on the people and planet dimension. It can be conclude that is the choice of the customer to buy a cheap bed with less focus on the people and planet dimension or an expensive bed with a high focus on the people and planet dimension. 1. Introduction

1.1 Topic Description & ContextNowadays, sustainability is a more important trend in the hospitality industry. Think of paper waste, lights, but also the towels in the hotel rooms. The hotels can get certified by sustainable organisation, for example the green key or green globe, who works hard on sustainable dimensions. In The Netherlands there is a gradual increase of hotels. According to the Rabobank numbers and trends, The Netherlands currently have approximately 3,250 hotel rooms, with more than 115,000 hotel rooms, with a total amount of 240,000 hotel beds (Rabobank, 2014). According to the better sleep council, matrasses should be replaced every 5 to 7 years, which means there is a lot of waste, only for the hotel beds (Mattress journal, 2014). Rationale The students have chosen for this topic, because this is an instructive subject for hotels and for sustainability.

A bed consisting of bedframe, matrasses, pillows and sheets is important for a hotel, because guests want to have a good night rest. As mentioned above sustainable become a more important trend for the world as for the hotels. Therefore, it is important that there is focus on this subject.Personal aimThe students aim is that the more hotels will be aware of these wastes and make a change to sustainable beds. Furthermore, to gain more knowledge about sustainability and how to apply this in the real business world when the students have a manager function in a hotel itself. Another research aim of the students is that this research have a worth full value for companies in the hospitality industry. Through this research the hotels has already information about this topic. Professional aimThis research provides information about which brand of bed consisting of the bedframe, matrass, sheet and pillows is the most sustainable choice for hotels based on research and interviewing several bed stores. This is an advantage for hotels who are working with a sustainable environment, because it saves time to investigate it by themselves.

The students goal is providing better work conditions, that the employees working in a safer environment with natural products without chemicals. Also it is an advantage for the bed factories, because the employees working with natural products without chemicals. Academic aimThis research is an added value for the academic world as well. Multiple researches are done within the topic of sustainability, but the information about the sustainability of beds is very limited. The students aim is that other researchers can use this information to continue with researching the sustainability of beds. Another aim of this research is to examine which brand is the most sustainable, and to gain the information how to improve this. It is important to know where to look for and where you have to focus on. 1.2 Problem statementEvaluate which brand of hotel beds existing of bedframe, matrass, sheets and pillows can be seen as the most sustainable bed brand on the three dimensions of sustainability which are planet, people and profit? Research QuestionsWhat is sustainability?

How can sustainability be implemented in hotel rooms.
What are the three dimensions of sustainability and what do they entail? On which performance indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the planet dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? On which performance indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the people dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? On which performance indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the profit dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? What does the concept cradle- to cradle mean?

What is the difference between sustainable and cradle to cradle products? Which brands of beds can be considered as most sustainable when evaluating against the three dimensions of sustainability? 1.3 Literature review

In this part, several topics will be discussed regarding the sustainability concept within the hospitality industry, beginning with the description of sustainability, followed by the sustainability in the hospitality, sustainable hotel beds and at least the cradle to cradle concept. The discussed topics which will be covered in the literature review are based upon earlier researches. Sustainability The definition sustainability has developed in the past few years. According to Marsh, ‘’sustainability is based on a simple and long-recognized factual premise: Everything that humans require for their survival and well-being depends, directly or indirectly, on the natural environment’’(Marsh, 1864, p.15). However this definition of sustainability is expanded in the years to a more up to date definition with different aspects (planet, people and profit) in it which are called the three dimensions of sustainability.

Currently, the widely accepted definition of sustainability is; ‘’securing a better quality of life for all, both now and for future generations, by pursuing responsible economic growth, equitable social progress, and effective environmental protection’’(Cavagnaro & Curiel, 2012 , p.1). The three dimensions of sustainability are illustrated in the TLS framework. The TLS framework exists out of three triangles the sustainable society, sustainable organization and leadership for sustainability triangle. A sustainable organization strives to create value on the three dimensions: profit, people and planet. Those three dimensions are in line with the three dimensions of sustainable development at the levels of society: economic, social and environmental value creation (Cavagnaro & Curiel, 2012). The three dimensions correspond to the dimensions at the level of organization and society. The message is that organizations who are able to develop the three care dimensions will be in a better position to lead the organization with clear principles of a sustainable society(Cavagnaro & Curiel, 2012).

If a company wants to become sustainable, the company needs to take actions on the three dimensions of profit, people and planet. Sustainability in the hospitality industryIn 2007, the United Nations made an announcement about global warming which was the fault of the people. (Micioni, 2003). This scared the people and this was a big warning that is needed for companies to start taking responsibility and initiative within their own industry. More and more companies realized this problem and took the initiative to become and work sustainable. According to Sloan, Legrand and Chen, The hospitality industry have increased their involvement in becoming more sustainable during the past decade. Because of high energy costs, regulatory constraints and public scrutiny, hotels are motivated to improve their image while they are doing something good for the planet as well(Sloan, Legrand & Chen, 2013). Mister Boley conclude as well that the importance of sustainability in the hospitality industry is growing.

This has shown in an increased pedagogical discussion about how to involve sustainability into the undergraduate curriculum (Boley, 2007). To become a sustainable hotel, the hotel needs to take actions in creating programs to be integrated in reducing waste, water and electricity usage and offer sustainable choices to the guests. This programme can provide a significant competitive advantage for the business. (Green Hotels & Responsible Tourism Initiative, 2010). According to Kumar and Putnam; ‘’ Hence , currently most sustainable organizations apply a sustainable concept, entailing waste preventions and reductions and an increased care of earth’s natural resources’’ (Kumar& Putnam, 2008). As mentioned before if a company wants to become sustainable, the company needs to take actions on the three dimensions of people profit and planet. According to Slaper and Hall, John Elkington developed a new framework called triple bottom line or TBL during the mid -1990s in corporate America to measure sustainability (Slaper & Hall, 2011).

There is no standard method for measure the TBL (Slaper & Hall, 2011). There are several methods which can be used to evaluate sustainability. One of those methods is the value scale. According to Butter ; ‘’ The value scale is not an abstract model but a concrete tool for planning and design as well as evaluation and comparison of projects. In contrast to existing assessment tools, it operationalizes the concept of sustainability in its full sense’’ (Butter, 2004). The social dimension in the way corporate social responsibility and corporate governance are defined and implemented within the company. An example of this is the sponsorship of the Ronald McDonald houses in the Netherlands, but also a special project outside the Netherlands, where the jute producers and their workers in Bangladesh were helped with clean water and a medical clinic. (Architecten web, 2015)To evaluate the people dimension it is important to take a few working conditions into consideration. According to the Eurofound’’ working conditions are conditions in and under which work is performed as regards the work environment and the time, place and organization of work’’.

Examples of working conditions are working hours, salary, awards to stimulate the motivation of the employees, offering health assistance, education and providing the employees with trainings and Fair trade. In the Dutch CAO is written that all employees may work a maximum shift of 12 hours per shift and a maximum of 60 hours per week. (Rijksoverheid, 2014). According to Stichting Max Havelaar ‘’ Fairtrade helps acquire farmers and workers in developing countries a better place in the supply chain, so they can live from their work and can invest in a sustainable future. Fairtrade is both a mark as a global movement.’’ ( Stichting Max Havelaar, 2013). Another way to stimulate the people dimension is to support local communities, sponsor and give donations to organizations & communities. The planet dimension of sustainability concerns an organization’s impacts on living and non-living natural system, including ecosystems, land, air and water. Environmental indicators cover performance related to biodiviserty, environmental compliance and other relevant information such as environmental expenditure and the impacts of products and services (Global reporting initiative, 2015).

Examples of indicators to measure the planet dimensions could be ; cradle to cradle, waste management, energy usage, water usage, ISO guidelines and transportation. The energy usage is of high importance in a sustainable organization. The organization can reduce the energy usage on different ways. The organization can have renewable energy by installing solar panels or installation for wind energy. Also the handcrafted method helps the company to reduce the energy reduction, because less machines are needed so less energy. ISO International Standards ensure that products and services are safe, reliable and of good quality. For business, they are strategic tools that reduce costs by minimizing waste and errors, and increasing productivity. (ISO, 2014). ISO 14001 is an internationally accepted standard that indicates what a good environmental management system should meet. If desired, an environmental management system can be certified according to this standard (ISO, 2014). The profit dimension of sustainability is about the organizations impacts on the economic conditions of its stakeholders on economic systems at local, global and national levels.

The profit indicators illustrate; a flow of capital among different stakeholders and main economic impacts of the organization throughout society. (Global reporting initiative, 2015). Appropriate profit dimension indicators for the customers perspective for this research is the comparison in the price and lifespan of the beds. Sustainability of beds consisting of the bedframe, matrass, sheets and pillows.When a hospitality company wants to become more sustainable there are many possibilities to change or develop within the company. In this research the sustainability of hotel beds will be discussed. According to Jessica Alexander of The Sleep Council: ‘’What hotel guests seem to want most of all from their hotel stay is to have a good night’s sleep and a decent bed is key. Beds should be the star of the bedroom. Selling the bed, its features and its quality is a potentially potent message for guests. Most hoteliers don’t get further than a ‘double or king size’ message’’ (Alexander, 2012). However, evidence showed that environmentally unfriendly, cheap beds with short lifespan are the most popular choice in the market and as well for hotels. A standard hotel bed exist of non-renewable resources with a large amount of waste and has high carbon cost associated with the production and deliver (Chik, 2012).

According to the Rabobank numbers and trends, The Netherlands has approximately 3,250 hotel rooms, with more than 115,000 hotel rooms, with a total amount of 240,000 hotel beds(“Rabobank numbers and trends,” 2014 , p.5). According to the FIRA international ltd organization; a double mattress has an average carbon usage of 79 kilograms of CO2 and this is much higher after delivery and packaging. In addition, a mattress requires over 20 cubic feet of landfill space and it will take more or less 10 years to decay. (FIRA, 2012). Waste is not the only problem. It is possible that few products are made under bad working conditions. Another issue in producing beds is the chemical substances. Foam or Latex was originally a natural product, but is has produced along a chemical way from Naphtha (Healthfoam, 2014). Since sustainability becomes more and more important in hospitalities, more sustainable products including beds are produced.

According to Chang; ‘’sustainable hotel beds should exist of only natural materials from renewable sources, such as coco fiber, natural rubber, wool, cotton, sea weed, horsehair, silk, linen and wood, with no toxic chemicals or retardants’’ (Chang, 2013). The IBIS world report about mattress manufacturing in the UK calculated the sales at £552m across 108 businesses in which 10 hospitality businesses. The total amount of beds and matrasses that are purchased, used and thrown away is high. long lasting environmental friendly beds would make a significant positive impact on the environment. Despite the costs of investment of the eco-friendly beds will be higher, the eco-friendly beds will have an ROI (return on investment) than cheaper standard beds(Mattress Manufacturing Market Research Report, 2013). After all, given their limited lives, cheap options are not only impractical and wasteful, but they usually also represent poor value for money versus longer-lasting eco-friendly alternatives.

Cradle to cradle conceptto entail the waste preventions and reductions and to increase the care of earth’s natural resources a new concept has been introduced which called cradle to cradle (C2C). C2C is a new approach to sustainable product and system design (Bjorn & Standesen, 2011). Walter R. Stahel invented the phrase ‘’cradle to cradle’’ in 1970s. Walter R. Stahel defines cradle to cradle as ‘’reusing, repairing, re-manufacturing and re-marketing goods and components in an industrial context’’. According to Heney; ‘’C2C involves breaking down a product at the end of its useful life into the product’s raw material and rebuilding that raw material back into the same or new product’’ (Heney, 2009).Companies can achieve cradle to cradle certificates. The cradle to cradle certified products program is expanded and more strict. Companies needs to think of how a product is designed and produced, what it contains, how the products are made, and where the products goes after its used.This program leads to new and innovative products with a high quality and beauty of products which can be recycled easily.

The products are analyzed and judged by assessors which are part of the Institute. After this assessment, the institute awards the product an overall score. The company can achieve a basic, bronze, silver, gold or platinum certificate. Bronze certificate means that the company need to have renewable energy and carbon management and overall certification level. Silver certificate means that the company needs to have the points which are mentioned in the bronze certificate plus material reutilization and water stewardship. The gold certificate means that the company needs to have the points which are mention in the bronze and silver certificate plus material health and social awareness and if the company continuous improve the assessor can decide to certified the company with platinum. This program encouraged continual improvement (Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute,2011).The bed brand Auping is the first bed firm that achieved a silver cradle to cradle certificate for their bedframes which consist at least of 50% or more re-useable materials or recyclable materials (Auping, 2014).The results of a recent report about the impacts of a cradle to cradle certification showed that it has an positive impact on the businesses.

The cradle to cradle certification resulted several benefits on the business, environment and the social aspect. The benefits for the business are reducing costs, improved product value, new revenue streams and avoided risks. The largest carpet manufacturer called Shaw Industries, received a cradle to cradle certificate in 2007. Shaw Industries has cut costs in water and energy savings. In 2012 Shaw Industries equated to a costs saving over 4 million dollars. A cradle to cradle certificate brings also benefits for the environment. Negative impacts will be reduced to use alternative choices with safer ingredients. The business Ecover, developed social fairness activities that supports local communities and social projects and ecological projects.

Those projects are important for the company to move toward a socially positive entity, creating an environment capable of minimizing negative impact for its workforce and progressing towards bringing value and benefit to the wider community and individuals outside the workspace (Luther, 2014). The overall findings conclude that the persecution of cradle to cradle products optimization and a cradle to cradle certification helps companies to become The overall findings reveal that the pursuit of cradle to cradle product optimization and certification helps companies to become a front-runner relative to the competition.

Explanation conceptual model
According to Fisher, The conceptual model puts all gathered information of the literature review together (Fisher, 2007). The conceptual model which is illustrated above gives an overview of the research. When a hospitality company wants to become sustainable, the company needs to take actions upon the three dimensions of sustainability which are people planet and profit. Implementing sustainability leads to reducing in the costs, for example by reduce in electricity and water costs. By implementing sustainability the organization will receive more recognition and can receive awards for the implementations. Overall leads this to a good brand image. 2. Method2.1 Type of researchThe research type is descriptive, because different brand of beds will be compared and evaluated. This will be evaluated with use of an evaluation form, where the three dimensions of sustainability will be evaluated.

2.2 Instrumentation The instrument is based on the qualitative research method and is an evaluation of the several beds. Qualitative research is chosen, because this research is based on evaluation, rather than statistical data. This research is a broad research with less existing knowledge. The instrument which is used for the qualitative research is the evaluating method to evaluate the three bed brands. Different evaluation tools are used, which is shown in the appendix. Appendix 2 is the report of the interviews that the students did with the companies. This information and further information is filled out In appendix 3 which is the evaluation scratch sheet, the three dimensions with their indicators are listed on the left side. The answers which were given on the indicators are written down on the right side of the evaluation tool. The answers or information has been conducted by contacting Auping, Coco-Mat and Latival bed stores or factories and retrieving information from internet sites and contact with the employees via phone.

The information which is retrieved from the webpages is reliable, because the information which is used is from their own websites or the information which is found is confirmed by contacting the companies. In appendix 4, the three bed brands (Auping, Coco-Mat and Lavital) are scored on the three dimensions of sustainability which are people, planet and profit. On the top of the paper the name of the bed brand is listed and on the left side can be found again the three dimensions with their indicators such as working hours, price, use of natural products etc. If the company have or implemented the indicators, the YES box is coloured which is 1 point and if not the NO box is coloured which is 0 points and in some cases excellence or other boxes can be coloured which indicates higher points. This information can be found back on the evaluation sheet. Then the total points will be calculated which gives a total score. A maximum of 22 points can be reached. Those final scores are listed in a clear overview which can be found in appendix

5. 2.3 SamplingTo receive knowledge for this research, a non- probability sampling has been used. Not randomly companies are selected, but only specific companies. The samples are three bed stores, which are Auping, Coco-Mat and Lavital. The amount of three is chosen to give the research significant differences. Those bed brands are chosen by doing research about few bed brands who are expressing that they are sustainable, because they have cradle to cradle certificate or only working with natural materials etc. The duration of the sample size will take a week. This is included the research the students do to receive knowledge. The bed brands will be compared and conclusions can be drawn about which brand is the most sustainable.

2.4 Data collection This research is done through a desk research. The students collected information by visiting several websites and contacting several companies about the sustainability of beds, namely; Auping, Coco-Mat and Lavital. As mentioned in the sampling those bed brands are chosen by doing research about few bed brands who are expressing that they are sustainable. The information is collected by contacting the bed factories or stores and retrieving information from their own website. Only reliable information is used. To confirm the reliability of the information on the websites the bed brands were contacted to inform if the information is correct. The information is filled out in an evaluation form, which is attached in the appendixes. In the evaluation form the three brands which are Auping, Coco-Mat and Lavital are evaluated and scored based upon the three dimensions of sustainability (people, planet and profit). The explanation of the evaluation forms can be found in the instrument part of the method.

The duration of the collection is 4 days and has been done on 23rd, 24th and 27th December 2014 and the 3rd of January 2015. 2.5 Data analysis The data is analyzed in different steps and with the use of different coding methods. First of all the data is sorted in the evaluation scratch sheet which can be found in appendix 3. The data is sorted in the three dimensions of sustainability which are planet, people and profit which was made beforehand. As second step to analyze the data the students checked the relevance of the data if it could answer the main question. The data which was not relevant was deleted from the scratch sheet to make a clearer overview. The third step was to label all the data with the use of the coding systems. The first stage of the labelling process is the open coding method. In the open coding method all data was checked on their originality and relevance which has been explained. After the open coding process the axial coding process was applied to categorize the data.

The information was categorized in the three dimensions of sustainability which are planet people and profit. Afterwards, the information is categorized in the different indicators, which belongs to the people, planet and profit dimension. In the last stage of the labelling process the selective coding system is applied to give a clear overview of the important codes and their relations between other codes to give a clear answer on the research question. This is proved in the interview report. The students labelled the categorized on dimensions by color. The color green indicates the planet category, the color purple indicates the people category and the color blue indicates the price category. This gives a clear overview about where the companies are focusing on. 3. ResultsThe data is gathered with the use of the evaluation tool which can be found in appendix 3 and 4. This evaluation tool is relevant to answer the research question and problem statement.

The duration of the data collection took 4 days which were on 23rd, 24th and 27th December 2014 and the 3rd of February 2015. Information was gathered to do research on the companies webpages and contacting the companies. The brands are evaluated on the three dimensions of sustainability which are planet people and profit. Those dimensions are divided into indicators and the results of those indicators is shown underneath and will be discussed in the discussion part. People dimensionThe people dimension is divided into 7 indicators which could be answered by the companies. The indicators are: sponsorship and donations, working hours, safety award, health care, rewards, Fairtrade and education and job training. The tables below shows the scores on the indicators of the people dimension of the bed brands Auping, Lavital and Coco-mat. -63309523812500Table 1: Scores people dimension Auping

Auping scored 4 out of the 7 points. Auping supports communities by sponsorships and donations, offers health care, education, training and the working hours are according to the Dutch CAO. Auping does not have a fair trade certification or safety awards and Auping does not offer awards to stimulate motivation. -83375426797000Table 2: Scores people dimension Lavital

Lavital scored also 4 points of the 7 points like Auping did as well. Only Lavital scored on other indicators. Lavital has a fair trade certification and offers health care, trainings and education for their employees. As you can see in the table above Lavital does not support the communities, does not offer awards to stimulate motivation and Lavital does not have a safety award.

Coco matt scored 6 out of the 7 points. Auping only does not have a fair trade certification Overall Out of the 7 points which could achieved on the people dimension Auping scored 4 points, Lavital 4 points and coco matt 6 points.Planet dimensionThe planet dimension is divided into 7 indicators and 9 points can be achieved for this dimension.The 7 indicators are: cradle to cradle certificate, use of natural products, supports and cooperate with environmental organizations, renewable energy, handcrafted made products, iso 14001 or iso 26000 guidelines and the recycling percentage will be scored. -77660520891500Table 4: Scores planet dimension Auping

Auping scored 4 points out of 9 points which could be achieved. Auping scored 2 points on their cradle to crade certificate, 1 point on the implementations of the renewable energy and 1 point on their recycling percentage. Auping does not support and cooperate with environmental organizations and they do not use natural materials. Their products are made with the help of machines. -81343518796000Table 5: Scores planet dimension LavitalTable 5 shows the results of the planet dimension of Lavital. Lavital scored 5 out of the 9 points which could be achieved. Lavital use natural materials for their products and produce all the products without machines. Lavital Implemented the ISO 26000 guidelines and has a recycling percentage of 90% or higher. Lavital did not score on the renewable energy, cradle to cradle certificate and Lavital does not support and cooperate with environmental organizations. Table 6: Scores planet dimension Coco-mat

-7575558890000Table 6 shows the results of the planet dimension of Coco-mat. Coco-mat scored 7 out of the 9 points. Coco-mat supports and cooperate with environmental organizations, they use natural products, renewable energy and all the products are made without machines, but they are handmade. Also coco-mat implemented Iso 14001 and coco matt has a recycling percentage of 100 % which is 2 points. The only score they did not get was for the cradle to cradle certificate. Coco- mat does not have a cradle to cradle certificate. Profit dimensionTable 7: Scores profit dimension Auping

Table 7 shows the score on the profit dimension of the bed brand company Auping. Auping scored 4,5 points out of the 6 points. The outcome of the formula was € 235 per year which means that this amount is in the category of 200-250 euro. For this category Auping scored 4.5 points. Table 8: Scores profit dimension LavitalTable 8 shows the score on the profit dimension of the bed brand Lavital. Lavital scored 2 points out of the 6 points. The outcome of the formula was € 454 per year which means that this amount is in the category of 450-500 euro. For this category Lavital scored 2 points. Table 9: Scores profit dimension Coco-mat

-2469557481000
Table 9 shows the score on the profit dimension of the bed brand Coco-mat. Coco-mat did not score on this dimension. The outcome of the formula was € 666 per year which means that this amount in in the category of 650-700 euro. For this category Coco-mat scored no points. Table 10: Overall results on the three dimensions of the bed brands Auping, Lavital and Coco-mat Product Sustainability Indicator AupingLavitalCOCO-MAT People 4 4 6

Planet 4 5 7
Profit 4.5 2 0
Total score
(max = 15) 12.5 11 13
Table 10 shows an overview of the scores on all dimensions on the three bed brands which are Auping, Lavital and Coco-mat. In the last row the total score is resulted. Auping achieved 4 points for the people dimension, 4 points for the planet dimension and 4.5 points for the profit dimension which comes to a total of 12.5 points. Lavital achieved 4 points for the people dimension, 5 points for the planet dimension and 2 point for the profit dimension which comes to a total of 11 points. Coco-mat achieved 6 points for the people dimension, 7 points for the planet dimension and 0 points for the profit dimension which comes to a total score of 13 points. 4. Discussion

In this part of the research the findings and results of the evaluation research will be discussed. The problem statement “Evaluate which brand of hotel beds existing of bedframe, matrass, sheets and pillows can be seen as
the most sustainable bed brand on the three dimensions of sustainability which are planet, people and profit?” will be answered with help of the nine research questions: What is sustainability?

How can sustainability be implemented in hotel rooms.
What are the three dimensions of sustainability and what do they entail? On which indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the planet dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? On which indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the people dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? On which indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the profit dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? What does the concept cradle- to cradle mean?

What is the difference between sustainable and cradle to cradle products? Which brands of beds can be considered as most sustainable when evaluating against the three dimensions of sustainability? According to the literature review sustainability means ‘’securing a better quality of life for all, both now and for future generations, by pursuing responsible economic growth, equitable social progress, and effective environmental protection’’(Cavagnaro & Curiel, 2012 , p.1). This statement will be compared and discussed with the companies and the students’ knowledge that is gained out of this research. When doing research about the sustainability in the three companies, all three companies have a different view of the sustainability aspect. An important aspect for Auping is the price. When comparing the three bed brands, Auping is the cheapest bed brand relating to the price.

The company also have as only brand the cradle to cradle certificate, which is an advantage for the company. Also the company is currently renovating the factory in a sustainable way, like using renewable energy (Solar Panel energy). But this does not mean that the company is more sustainable than the other three bed brands, because Auping scored less on the people and planet dimension. Lavital mentioned that they are the most sustainable bed brand, because they are focused on their handcrafted products and natural materials which are from locally resources. An example of this is that they bought the “Gooische” sheep’s which means that the sheep’s have a very luxurious live. However Lavital scored very low on the people dimension and the beds are more expensive that the beds of Auping. Coco-mat focuses on the people and planet dimension and less on the profit dimension.

Coco-mat wants for their employees to have a safe, healthy and good environment to work. They only use natural materials which are hand made without the use of machines. Comparing Coco-mat and Lavital to Auping, Auping do not have handcrafted products at all and using machines to produce the beds. When research is done, all three companies have a different view and opinion about sustainability. Auping focuses more on the price dimension, Lavital focuses more on the planet dimension and Coco-mat also on the planet dimension. The student’s opinion about sustainability is that a sustainable company have to put their focus on all three dimensions and do not put the focus on one aspect. People Concerning the employees, all three companies making an effort.

Coco-mat has a score of 6 points, and Auping and Lavital a score of 4. Coco-mat and Auping supports communities by sponsorships and donations, Lavital do not. Also an is important aspects is that all employees work in a safe environment. Coco-mat received an safety award through the safety environment procedures. Auping and Lavital did not receive a certificate or award for their safe environment. The only thing Lavital has and Auping and Coco-mat not is the fair trade certificate. Overall Coco-mat has the highest score on the people dimension. Compared to Auping and Lavital, coco-matt focuses more on their people dimension by providing a health and safety working environment with a lot of benefits for their employees. Planet

As mentioned in the literature review, a part of sustainability is the effective environmental protection. Auping uses machines for the production which means that this production process is not very effective for the environmental protection. Also is the company Auping Silver certificated for cradle to cradle , whether the other two brands do not have a Cradle to cradle certificate at all, because they do not like or not trust the concept. In comparison with the cradle to cradle certificate which Auping has, received Lavital and Coco-mat higher scores for the percentage of the recycling. The recycling percentage of Lavital and Coco-mat is higher than the recycling percentage of Auping. The products of Coco-mat and Latival are all handcrafted. This is a protection for the environment, which is one of the aspects of sustainability. Auping mentioned that their brand is sustainable, but after research the brand is not as durable as the company mentioned. In some aspects the company can be considered as sustainable, such as the company renovate their factory, and deliver more sustainability. Auping reuse the energy, using solar panel energy. Also is the company Silver certificated.

Overall Coco mat has the highest score on the planet dimension. Coco-mat scored 7 out of the 9 points. This is because they only does not have a cradle to cradle certificate, because the owner does not trust the concept. Compared with the other companies, Coco-mat is focussing more on the planet dimension. Coco-mat implemented a lot of new procedures to protect the environment. Profit When comparing the profit dimension, Auping has the best score for this dimension. The thought of sustainability is among other things a responsible growth in the economy. But the beds of Coco-Mat are very expensive. On the other hand the products are all handmade, so the question is where are you choosing for as a company. It depends also from the customer whether they choose rather a more expensive bed or less expensive. An important difference between the lifespan and price between Coco-mat and Lavital is that Lavital has a lifespan of 10-12 years, for a price of € 5000, – and Coco-mat has a lifespan of 8-10 years, for a price of € 6000,-. This is an advantage for Lavital.

The research has shown that Coco-mat is the most sustainable bed brand of the three bed brands (Auping, Lavital, Coco-mat). But this does not mean that the customer always choose for Coco-mat, because they scored the highest points. Coco-mat scored 13 points. Auping finished at position two with 12.5 points and Lavital finished at position three with 11 points. Coco-mat has the highest score on the people and planet dimension. On the profit dimension coco-mat scored zero points, where Auping has a score of 4,5 points. Overall, the difference between Coco-mat and Auping is that Coco mat scored higher on the people and planet dimension and Auping scored much higher on the profit dimension. For some customers the profit dimension is more important whether for other customers the people or planet dimension is more important. 4.1 LimitationsIn this research three bed brands were compared and evaluated. The research took place during the Christmas holiday, which means that during the public holidays the companies or factories where closed.

Therefore, a delay in retrieving the results started to exist. To receive all the answers. it was quite busy on the phone line after the days when the companies were closed. The employees had not that much time to answers the questions for this research. Also is it easier to meet in person, instead of via phone. When meeting in person, questions will be answered more clearly and the employees put more time in the research. Another limitation was the evaluation tool. The evaluation tool took a lot of time and was difficult to measure. It was difficult to find out which indicators were important to measure for the research. 4.2 RecommendationsRecommendations for the business practice and educationIn this section the student will recommend the organizations what to do or leave in order to be more successfully. Lavital has the lowest score on sustainability. Lavital focus mostly on the planet dimension about how natural materials they use and that they are all hand made, but they do not consider the profit and people dimension that much.

The students recommendation for Lavital is to become more aware of the full definition of sustainability which also includes profit and people and not only planet. Auping ended on the second place. Auping is mostly focusing on the price dimension how cheap they are in comparison with the other beds. Also auping has to be aware of the full definition of sustainability. The recommendation for Auping is to improve the indicators of the planet dimension. For example Auping does not use natural products and they make their products with machines instead of handcrafted like Coco-mat and Lavital does. Coco-mat has the highest score of the three bed brands. However Coco-mat is more expensive and a shorter live span than for example Lavital. The students recommendation for coco-mat is to become more aware of their competition , what type of products they offer for which prices.

Recommendations for further researchThat what we confronted with was the indicators of the dimensions. Which indicator is more important? For further research the indicators should change to the same size to make the measurement more fair. For example one company has a cradle to cradle certificate and the other company has no cradle to cradle certificate, but the recycling percentage is higher how do you compare this with each other. This research was based upon 3 bed brands. The recommendation for further research is that the research can be done on a larger scale to get more and significant differences. Research on a larger scale entails as well interviewing the bed brands. Furthermore the research can be done more in dept also with the help of interviewing to receive more details about the indicators. The results shows that Coco mat is the most sustainable bed brand comparing with the other bed brands.

However Coco matt did not receive any point for the profit dimension, because Coco matt produces expensive beds. Compared with coco-mat, Auping produces very cheap beds, but they scored low on the planet dimension. An interesting further study would be what customers founds more important. Do they found the people, planet or profit dimension more important. Will a customer choose for Auping (cheaper, but less aware for the people and planet dimension) or for coco-mat (more expensive, but with a high aware for the people and planet dimension. 4.3 ConclusionTo conclude the entire research, a recap on all research questions will be made to answer the problem statement. What is sustainability?

After analysing different theories, practises and opinions out of books, reports and from the employees of the bed brands it can be conclude that sustainability entails more than one dimension. The widely accepted definition of sustainability is; ’securing a better quality of life for all, both now and for future generations, by pursuing responsible economic growth, equitable social progress, and effective environmental protection’’(Cavagnaro & Curiel, 2012 , p.1). in this research it means that the company should be aware on all the three dimensions and implement rules and new procedures to become sustainable on all the three dimensions. How can sustainability be implemented in hotel rooms?

To implement sustainability, the company needs to take actions on the three dimensions. The hotel can not only place a sustainable bed in a hotel room and then consider themselves as sustainable, but the hotel needs to be in general working on sustainable by reducing waste an energy, offering a good, safe and health working environment, proper price and quality scale. Etc. What are the three dimensions of sustainability and what do they entail? The three dimension of sustainability are people, planet and profit. the conclusion about what they entails is described in the research questions 4, 5 and 6. On which indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the planet dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? The planet dimension of sustainability concerns an organization’s impacts on living and non-living natural system, including ecosystems, land, air and water. Environmental indicators cover performance related to biodiviserty, environmental compliance and other relevant information such as environmental expenditure and the impacts of products and services (Global reporting initiative, 2015).

According to the literature, previous researches and recommendations of teachers and staff members of the bed brands, examples of indicators to measure the planet dimensions are ; cradle to cradle, waste management, energy usage, ISO guidelines and the production process type. On which indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the people dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? The people dimension in the way corporate social responsibility and corporate governance are defined and implemented within the company. (Architectenweb,2015) Indicators to measure the people dimension are proper working conditions such as health and safe workplace, education and job training, rewards and also supporting communities, working hours according to the Dutch CAO and fair trade certification.

On which indicators has the bed brands to focus on concerning the profit dimension in producing beds which includes the bedframe, matrass, pillow and sheets? Repeating this out of the literature review the profit dimension of sustainability is about the organizations impacts on the economic conditions of its stakeholders on economic systems at local, global and national levels. Appropriate profit dimension indicators for the customers perspective for this research is the comparison in the price and lifespan of the beds. What does the concept cradle- to cradle mean?

Cradle to Cradle means when a product will not be used anymore, the product will be break down in its raw material and rebuild that raw material into the same or new products. For this concept the company can get certified. What is the difference between sustainable and cradle to cradle products? Sustainable products are focussed on all the three dimensions which are people, planet and profit. A sustainable bed has a good and fair price/quality scale, good, safe and healthy working environment with good working conditions, and a good value for the nature to reduce waste, recycling, water reduction, support communities etc. cradle to cradle products are products which were used before and on their end of their lifetime they were broke down and rebuild to the same or new product. Which brands of beds can be considered as most sustainable when evaluating against the three dimensions of sustainability? At the beginning of the research the students came to the conclusion that the most sustainable bed brands where; Auping, Lavital and Coco-mat.

This because on all three webpages was found a lot of information why they are considered as sustainable. Problem statement: ‘’Evaluate which brand of hotel beds existing of bedframe, matrass, sheets and pillows can be seen as the most sustainable bed brand on the three dimensions of sustainability which are planet, people and profit?’’ Presented in the chapter results, the most sustainable bed brand is shown. The results indicate that Coco-mat has the highest score and is therefore the most sustainable bed brand. Coco-mat is especially focussing on the people and planet dimension and therefore they sell their products for a high price. Auping which ended on the second place is very focused on the price which is very low and less on the people and profit dimension. As a result on the discussion it is on the end the choice of the customer for which brand he or she will choose. If the customers have more value for the planet or people dimension the customer will chose for Coco-mat, but if the customer is more price conscious the customer will chose for Auping.

5. References

Bjorn, A., Strandesen, M., (2011). The Cradle to Cradle concept – is it always sustainable?, pp.10. Boley, B., (2011). Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education. Sustainability in hospitality and tourism education: Towards an integrated curriculum. 23, pp.30 Butters, C. (2004). A Holistic Method of Evaluating Sustainability. Norwegian architects for sustainable development. Retrieved from http://www.universell-utforming.miljo.no/file_upload/idebank%20article%20chris%20butters.pdfKumar, S., Putnam, V. “Cradle to cradle: Reverse logistics strategies and opportunities across three industry sectors.” Elsevier,
2008: 11. Luther, B. (2014, June 24). Study looks at business benefits from cradle to cradle certification. Guardian Professional . Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/cradle-to-cradle-certification-benefit-business-study. Micioni, C, W. (2009). Going green in the hospitality industry. UNLV Theses, paper 642. Slaper, F., Hall, J. , (2011). The triple bottom line: What is It and how does it work?.), pp 8. Retrieved from http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/ibr/2011/spring/pdfs/article2.pdf. Books

Cavagnaro, E., Curiel, G. (2012). The three levels of sustainability. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing. Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program, Policy and Global Affairs, & National Research Council. (2011). Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, Washington: National Academies Press. Marsh, G.P. 1864. Man and Nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of of Harvard University Press. Rogers, P.P., Jalal, K. F., & Boyd, J.A. (2008). An Introduction to Sustainable Development. UK & USA: Earthscan. Sloan, P., Legrand, W., Chen., C. (2011). Sustainability in the hospitality industry: Principles of sustainable organizations. New York, USA: Routledge Strange, T., & Bayley, A. (2008) Sustainable Development: Linking economy, society, environment: OECD publications. Websites

Alexander, J. (2012). The sleeping council. Retrieved from http://www.sleepcouncil.org.uk/2012/02/searching-for-sleep/, 08-10-2014. American Literature students of Taipei Adventist Preparatory Academy. (2013). Child labor in South Asia. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/a/tapa.tp.edu.tw/modern-day-slavery/child-labor/child-labor-in-south-asia. 08-10-2014. Auping. (2014) Auping products awarded with Cradle-to-Cradle award. Retrieved from http://www.auping.com/aboutauping/cradle2cradle/cradle2cradle.html. 08-10-2014. Chang, E. (2013). Coco-Mat Mattress – The Most Eco Friendly, Safe And Comfortable Mattress On Earth. Retrieved from http://inhabitat.com/get-a-great-nights-sleep-on-an-ultra-comfy-sustainable-coco-mat-mattress/, 08-10-2014. Chik, R. (2012). What lies beneath – mattress waste in the hotel industry. Retrieved from
http://www.greenhotelier.org/our-themes/what-lies-beneath-mattress-waste-in-the-hotel-industry/, 08-10-2014. Coco-mat. (2012) CSR Report. Retrieved from https://www.unglobalcompact.org/system/attachments/16086/original/CSR_REPORT_2012.pdf?1340604399, 08-10-2014. Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center. (2005). Responsible Conduct in Data Management. Retrieved from http://ori.hhs.gov/education/products/n_illinois_u/contactus.html, 09-10-2014. Fairtrade Max Havelaar The Netherlands. (2015. Wat is fairtrade?. Retrieved from http://www.maxhavelaar.nl/34/wat_is_fairtrade, 31-10-2014. Get Cradle to Cradle Cetified. (2015). 5 levels of certificating. Retrieved from http://www.c2ccertified.org/get-certified/product-certification-levels, 31-10-2014. Glion Institute of Higher. (2012).Sustainability in Hospitality and Tourism. Retrieved from http://www.glion.edu/glion_education/en/en-en/home/about-glion/sustainability/, 19-09-2014. Global Reporting Initiative. (2014). The three dimensions of sustainability. Retrieved from https://www.globalreporting.org/Pages/default.aspx, 19-09-2014. Green Hotels & Responsible Tourism Initiative (2010). How to increase your bottom line by going green. Retrieved from http://green.hotelscombined.com/Gyh-The-Business-Case-For-Sustainability.php, 08-10-2014. Healthfoam (2014) Matrasses and bedframes. Retrieved from http://www.healthfoam.com/kwaliteitsverschillen.php 08-10-2014. Heney, P.J. (2009) Sustainable and cradle to cradle flooring options are hot. Retrieved from http://www.hotelmanagement.net/sustainable-and-cradle-to-cradle-flooring-options-are-hot, 18-09-2014. IBIS World. (2013). Mattress Manufacturing in the UK: Market Research Report. Retrieved from http://www.ibisworld.co.uk/market-research/mattress-manufacturing.html, 08-10-2014. Lavital. (2014) Duurzaam en comfortabel slaapcomfort nu ook voor uw hotel. Retrieved from http://lavital.nl/betaalbaar-duurzaam-hotelbed/, 29-10-2014. Mattress Journal. (2014) How often should you replace your mattress. Retrieved from http://www.mattressjournal.com/how-often-should-you-replace-your-mattress/, 31-10-2014. Rabobank. (2014). Rabobank cijfers en trends. Retrieved from https://www.rabobankcijfersentrends.nl/index.cfm?action=print.printPdf&id
=69189901-5dc3-4960-8f71-8f7e177a0550, 17- 09-2014. United States Environmental Protection Agency.(2012). Sustainable hospitality. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/region4/p2/sustainablehospitality.html, 18-09-2014. Appendix 1: Planning-85280560543500

The students will work together on each assignment or topic what is listed in the planning. Appendix 2: Interview reportInterview with Auping: Jolanda van Wietmarschen, Auping ZwolleInterviewer: Maxime den Houdijker During the research, the students had spoken with an employee of Auping to gain more information. Several questions were asked to Jolanda van Wietmarschen (Auping, Zwolle). Jolanda gave critical answers to the questions. According to Jolanda, 85% of the beds from Auping are recycled.In 2013 Auping decided to renovate the factory, which means sustainability become an important aspect as well. The company works with renewable energy, which is one aspect, the students’ are measuring for the research. The factory uses Solar Panel energy, to re-use the energy. With the renovation of the factory, Auping supports the sustainability of their products. When comparing the bed prices, the students take the size 1.60 by 2 meter. According Jolanda, the average bed price of a bed is € 2000,- with a life span of 7-10 years.

Interview with Coco-Mat: Mr. Van Dijk, Coco-Mat ArnhemInterviewer: Maxime den HoudijkerDuring the research, the student had spoken to Mr. Van Dijk to gain more information about the several indicators that are measured. For rewards of personal achievements, the company offers continuous training and rewards, such as salary bonuses. The company works with many natural products, such as natural rubber, cotton and wool. According to Mr. van Dijk all Coco-mat sleep products are handmade at their company in Xanthi, in Northern Greece. The average price of a 1.60 by 2 meter bed is € 6000,- with a life span of 8-10 years. Interview with Lavital: Frans Segers, owner Lavital Interviewer: Sharon BuisDuring the research, the student had spoken to Frans Segers.

Frans segers is the owner of Lavital.Mr. Segers tried to convince the interviewer that Lavital is the most sustainable bed brand. Lavital produces all the products with the hands and use only locally natural materials. An example of this is that they get the material wool from the ‘’gooische’’ sheep’s . Lavital bought the ‘’gooische’’ sheep’s . This means that those sheep’s are living as kings in the luxurious place “t’Gooi”. Mr. segers gave only short answers to the questions without any other information and started directly to convince the students with repeating the same story that they are the most sustainable. The average price of a 1.60 by 2 meter bed is € 5000 with a life span of 10-12 years. Appendix 3: Evaluation scratch sheets

Bed brand: AUPING People dimension
The company supports communities by sponsorships and donations ‘SOS kinderdorpen’, ‘Koninklijke Auping bv’ supports yearly a charity. The choice for a new charity is made: choose from 2013 Auping ‘SOS-Kinderdorpen as a partner for a period of three years. (http://www.auping.nl/web/over-auping/sponsoring) Work hours according to the Dutch CAO Yes, (‘Auping suppliers provide for reasonable daily and weekly working hours. Overtime will be compensated. Employees may not be obliged to work more than 60 hours per week, including overtime. Exceptions to this are only allowed with permission of the employee.’) http://www.auping.com/aboutauping/aupingpreferredsupplier/codeofconduct.html Safety award No

Health care for employees The employees get 9% discount for the ‘collective’ health insurance by Salland and CZ Rewards of personal achievements No Education/ Job training Yes, Drivers of Royal Auping follow in the Truck simulation center training programs in the area of ‘the new drive’. (Source: http://www.vtl.nl/Opleiden-ontwikkelen/Trucksimulatietrainingen/Referenties/Koninklijke-Auping) Fair trade No use of Fair trade

Planet dimension
Cradle to cradle certificate Silver certificated (Source: http://mariannelamers.nl/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/P+-Schone-slapers.pdf) Recycling percentage Yes 85%of the beds are recycled (Source: Jolanda van Wietmarschen, Auping Zwolle) Supports and cooperate with environmental organizations No

Use of natural products No, because on the website is written that the synthetics materials ventilate almost as good as natural materials which means that they do not use natural materials. (Source: http://www.auping.nl/web/klantenservice/aankoopadvies/matras) Renewable energy Yes, the factory uses Solar Panel energy. (Source: Jolanda van Wietmarschen, Auping Zwolle) Handcrafted made products No, Auping working with their own machines. (Source: http://www.auping.nl/web/over-auping/rijke-historie) ISO 14001 and ISO 26000 No use of ISO 14001 and 26000

Profit dimension
Average price of beds Average price: € 2000. Size: 1.60 by 2 meter. (Source: Jolanda van Wietmarschen, Auping Zwolle) Lifespan 7 till 10 years
Bed brand: LAVITAL People dimension
The company supports communities by sponsorships and donations No, Mr. Segers does not trust such sponserships. (source: Frans Segers, owner Lavital) Safety award No, Lavital does not have any safety awards

work hours according to the Dutch CAO Yes (everything is produced and made in the Netherlands and the working hours are according to the CAO). (Source: Frans Segers, owner Lavital) Health care for employees All employees could produce a bed for themselves of 10.000 and they had only to pay the cost price. This bed is a benefit for the health of the employees. (Source: Frans Segers, owner Lavital) Rewards of personal achievements No, in his opinion is this sarbonation. (Source: Frans Segers, owner Lavital) education and job training Yes, personal development and trainings on the job and support and education (source: http://lavital.nl/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Bijlage-3-issuematrix_R-S-P-LAVITAL.pdf) Fair trade certification Lavital does have a Fairtrade certificate. Fairtrade-certificating ( source: http://www.havenaer.nl/nieuws/fairtrade-bedden.html) Planet dimension

Cradle to cradle certificate No, Mr. Segers, does not believe in the cradle to cradle concept, because in his opinion it is all a lie and sustainable at all. (source: Frans Segers, owner Lavital) Recycling percentage 100% (source: Frans Segers, owner Lavital) Supports and cooperate with environmental organizations No, he does not trust such organizations. (according to Frans Segers, owner Lavital) Use of natural products We choose pure materials, that have not been sprayed, like fair trade and organic cotton, organic wool, horse hair, camel wool and hemp, produced in netherlands(source:http://lavital.nl/) Renewable energy No (source Frans Segers, owner Lavital)

Handcrafted made products Every product is handcrafted (source: http://lavital.nl/) ISO 14001 & ISO 26000 Yes ISO 26000 (source: http://lavital.nl/lavital-tekent-iso-26000/) Profit dimension

Average price of beds € 5000 (source: Frans Segers, ower Lavital) Lifespan 10-12 years (source: http://nl.scribd.com/doc/115314074/matrassen-onderzoek#scribd) Bed brand: COCO-MAT People dimension

The company supports communities by sponsorships and donations Coco-mat support communities by sponsorships and donations. Coco-mat gives donations to organizations that protect children reinforce company’s social contribution and demonstrate its profound. Coco-mat supported ‘’Kivitos tou Kosmou’’. This company helps children experiencing abandonment, racism and social exclusion. They do this by providing products with a total value of € 50.000. Also Coco-mat supports the Christian house of girls and offered te school 20.000 school bags. Working hours according to the Dutch CAO Yes

Safety award Prize, “SAFE”, Public Health & Safety in Working Areas and installations Health care for employees COCO-MAT pays attention to the health of its employees through the assistance of a pathologist who periodically measures the blood pressure and heartbeats of the workforce. Figs, nuts, fruits of the season and freshly squeezed orange juice are offered to COCO-MAT employees every morning. Rewards of personal achievements Employees receive a number of benefits such as continuous training, recognition and reward of personal achievements (in the form of salary bonuses, promotions and gifts) and recreational activities including Sunday excursions, football games etc. Education & Job training Employees receive a number of benefits such as continuous training, recognition andreward of personal achievements (in the form of salary bonuses, promotions andgifts) and recreational activities including Sunday excursions, football games etc. Fair trade Coco-mat announces together with the charity WorldGranny their new product line COCO-MAT by WorldGranny. The products are fair trade, 100% PIMA cotton and knitted by elderly sustainable from Peru, which are supported by this social project. http://www.coco-mat.com/?i=coco_nl.nl.news&id=1078 Planet dimension

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