Is any action that could cause a person to die, such as taking a drug overdose or crashing a car on purpose.
* A completed suicide means the person has died. It is important not to use the term successful suicide; the goal is to prevent suicide and provide treatment. * A suicide attempt involves a serious act, such as taking a fatal amount of medication and someone intervening accidentally. Without the accidental discovery, the individual would be dead. * A suicide gesture denotes a person undertaking an unusual, but not fatal, behavior as a cry for help or to get attention. * A suicide gamble is one in which patients gamble their lives that they will be found in time and that the discoverer will save them. * A suicide equivalent involves a situation in which the person does not attempt suicide. Instead, he or she uses behavior to get some of the reactions that suicide would have caused.
Classifications/Types of Suicide
* Individuals who wish to end their own lives may enlist the assistance of another party to achieve death. The other person, usually a family member or physician, may help carry out the act when the individual lacks the physical capacity to do so alone, even if supplied with the means. * Murder-Suicide
* A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself. The motivation for the murder in murder–suicide can be purely criminal in nature or be perceived by the perpetrator as an act of care for loved ones in the context of severe depression. * Suicide Attack
* is an act in which an attacker perpetrates an act of violence against others, typically to achieve a military or political goal, which
simultaneously results in his or her own death. Suicide bombings are often regarded as an act of terrorism by the targeted community. * Mass Suicide
* Some suicides are performed under social pressure or coordinated among a group of individuals. Mass suicides can take place with as few as two people, often referred to as a suicide pact. * Suicide Pact
* A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed upon plan. The plan may be to die together, or separately and closely timed. Suicide pacts are generally distinct from mass suicides in that the latter refers to a larger number of people who kill themselves together for a common ideological reason, often within a religious, political, military or paramilitary context.
* Defiance or Protest
* Suicide is sometimes committed as an act of defiance or political protest such as the suicide of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia whose treatment at the hands of the authorities led to a revolt that overthrew the ruling regime and touched off the Arab Spring. * Dutiful Suicide
* Dutiful suicide is an act of fatal self violence at one’s own hands done in the belief that it will secure a greater good, rather than to escape harsh or impossible conditions. It can be voluntary, to relieve some dishonor or punishment, or imposed by threats of death or reprisals on one’s family or reputation. It is a traditional practice in some cultures, such as the heavily ritualized Japanese custom of seppuku. * Escape
* In extenuating situations where continuing to live would be intolerable, some people use suicide as a means of escape.
Causes of Suicide
* Mental disorder
* Bipolar disorder
* Autism spectrum disorders
* Drug abuse
* Stress factors
* financial difficulties
* troubles with interpersonal relationships
* Over one million people die by suicide every year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that it is the 13th leading cause of death and the National Safety Council rates it sixth in the United States. It is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under 35. * At least one Filipino commits suicide every day due to depression, according to a study by the Natasha Goulbourn Foundation (NGF), a non-profit, non-government organization that promotes an enhanced and better understanding of depression through purposive advocacy. * The rate of suicide is far higher in men than in women, with males worldwide three to four times more likely to kill themselves than females. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide.
* According to the World Health Organization, the Philippines has a relatively low suicide rate. Based on a study conducted by WHO in 1993, an average of 2.5 males and 1.7 females among 100,000 Filipinos commit suicide. This is also shown in the 2000 Philippine Health Statistics from the Department of Health (DOH). The DOH reported that only 1.8 per 100,000 people have inflicted harm on themselves. * The rate of suicide is far higher in men than in women, with males worldwide three to four times more likely to kill themselves than females. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide. * On the other hand, European countries had the highest figures which ranged from 30 to 42 per 100,000.
Methods of Suicide
* Suicide by exsanguination involves reducing the volume and pressure of the blood to below critical levels by inducing massive blood loss. *
* Wrist cutting is sometimes practiced with the goal of self-mutilation and not suicide; however, if the bleeding is copious and/or allowed to continue unchecked, cardiac arrhythmia, followed by severe hypovolemia, shock, circulatory collapse and/or cardiac arrest, and death may ensue, in that order. * Drowning
* Suicide by drowning is the act of deliberately submerging oneself in water or other liquid to prevent breathing and deprive the brain of oxygen. * Suffocation
* Suicide by suffocation is the act of inhibiting one’s ability to breathe or limiting oxygen uptake while breathing, causing hypoxia and eventually asphyxia. * Hypothermia
* Suicide by hypothermia or by cold, is a slow death that goes through several stages. Hypothermia begins with mild symptoms, gradually leading to moderate and severe penalties. * Electrocution
* Suicide by electrocution involves using a lethal electric shock to kill oneself. * Jumping from Height
* is the act of jumping from high altitudes, for example, from a window (self-defenestration or auto-defenestration), balcony or roof of a high rise building, cliff, dam or bridge. This method, in most cases, results in severe consequences if the attempt fails, such as paralysis, organ damage, and bone fractures. * Hanging
* When hanging one’s self, the subject uses some type of ligature, as in a rope or a cord, to form a noose (or loop) around the throat, with the opposite end secured to some fixture. * Firearm
* the bullet will be aimed at point-blank range, often at the head or, less commonly, into the mouth, under the chin, or pointed at the chest. Worldwide, firearm prevalence in suicides varies widely, depending on the acceptance and availability of firearms in a culture. * Vehicular Impact
* Suicide is accomplished by throwing oneself directly in front of an oncoming train, or driving a car onto the tracks. * Metro Systems
* This is most likely because trains traveling on open tracks travel relatively quickly, whereas trains arriving at a subway station are decelerating so that they can stop and board passengers. * Traffic Collisions
* Some car crashes are the deliberate result of suicides. This especially applies to single-occupant, single-vehicle accidents. * Poison
* Suicide can be committed by using fast-acting poisons, such as hydrogen cyanide, or substances which are known for their high levels of toxicity to humans. * Pesticide
* When access to the chemical was restricted, other methods replaced it, leading researchers to conclude that restricting certain suicide methods does little to impact the overall suicide rate. * Drug Overdose
* Overdose is a method of suicide which involves taking medication in doses greater than the indicated levels, or in a combination that will interact to either cause harmful effects or increase the potency of one or other of the substances. * Carbon Monoxide
* A particular type of poisoning involves inhalation of high levels of carbon monoxide. Death usually occurs through hypoxia. In most cases carbon monoxide (CO) is used because it is easily available as a product of incomplete combustion; for example, it is released by cars and some types of heaters. * Immolation
* Suicide by fire
* A hunger strike may ultimately lead to death.
* Death from dehydration can take from several days to a few weeks. This means that unlike many other suicide methods, it cannot be accomplished impulsively. Those who die by terminal dehydration typically lapse into unconsciousness before death, and may also experience delirium and deranged serum sodium.. * Explosion
* Another method is death by explosion
* Suicide Attacks
* A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker (attacker being either an individual or a group) intends to kill others and intends to die in the process of doing so. * Indirect Suicide
* Indirect suicide is the act of setting out on an obviously fatal course without directly committing the act upon oneself. Indirect suicide is differentiated from legally defined suicide by the fact that the actor does not pull the figurative (or literal) trigger.
Risk Factors of Suicide
1. Medical Conditions – In various studies a significant association was found between suicidality and underlying medical conditions including Chronic Pain, Mild Brain Injury, (MBI) or Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). 2. Mental Disorders – are often present at the time of suicide. It is estimated that from 87% to 98% of suicides are committed by some people with some type of mental disorder. 3. Perceived Burdensomeness to Others – Several studies have found perceived burdensomeness to others to be a particularly strong risk factor. It also differentiates between attempted vs. completed suicide and predicts lethality of suicide method unlike feelings of hopelessness and emotional pain. 4. Substance Abuse – is the second most common risk factor for suicide after major depression and bipolar disorder. Both chronic substance misuses as well as acute substance abuse are associated with suicide.
5. Problem Gambling – is often associated with increased suicidal ideation and attempts compared to the general population. Early onset of problem gambling increases the lifetime risk of suicide. However, gambling-related suicide attempts are usually made by older people with problem gambling. 6. Media Coverage – Various studies have suggested that how the media presents depictions of suicide may have a negative effect and trigger the possibility of suicide contagion also known as the Werther effect, named after the protagonist in Goethe’s The Sorrows of Young Werther who committed suicide.
According to Alex Lickerman:
* In general, people try to kill themselves for SIX REASONS:
* They are depressed.
* They are psychotic.
* They are impulsive.
* They are crying out for help.
* They have a philosophical desire to die.
* They have made a mistake.
How To Prevent Suicidal Thoughts?
1. Don’t think that suicide is the answer to everything.
2. Don’t be afraid to ask for help.
3. If the cause of your thoughts is from a relationship, do not attempt to make the other person feel bad by saying that you want to commit suicide.
4. Put yourself in other people’s shoes
5. Try to be accepting.
6. Think of what others would feel if you actually went through with what you were thinking.
7. Try to find ways to distract yourself from thinking these thoughts.
8. Be patient.
Are There Warning Signs of Suicide?
Warning signs that someone may be thinking about or planning to commit suicide include: * Always talking or thinking about death
* Clinical depression — deep sadness, loss of interest, trouble sleeping and eating — that gets worse * Having a “death wish,” tempting fate by taking risks that could lead to death, such as driving fast or running red lights * Losing interest in things one used to care about
* Making comments about being hopeless, helpless, or worthless * Putting affairs in order, tying up loose ends, changing a will * Saying things like “it would be better if I wasn’t here” or “I want out” * Sudden, unexpected switch from being very sad to being very calm or appearing to be happy * Talking about suicide or killing one’s self
* Visiting or calling people to say goodbye
There are multiple evidence-based psychotherapeutic talk therapies available to reduce suicidal ideation: 1. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) – for which multiple studies have reported varying degrees of clinical effectiveness in reducing suicidality. Benefits include a reduction in self-harm behaviours and suicidal ideations. 2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP) – is a form of DBT adapted for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts.