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The Effect of Team Building on Self Esteem and Decision Making Essay Sample

The Effect of Team Building on Self Esteem and Decision Making Pages
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The study was conducted to determine the effect of team building on communication skills and group decision making skills of youth organizations. Experimental design particularly one group pre- test post test design was used. The independent variable was team building intervention and the dependent variables were communication skills and group decision making skills. The researchers used a non- probability sampling design, specifically purposive sampling. The participants of the study consisted of 45 youth organization members from We are Anime Club and Youth Ministry of San Agustin Church. Based on the results gathered, there is a significant difference on the group decision making skills and communication skills of the selected group before and after the team building activity.

A group is defined as the process of coming together, building and maintaining the relationship, and strengthening this relationship in order to achieve the set goals of a group. In order to guide a group into becoming a team that works productively, an intervention, such as a team building program may be administered. Team-building programs utilize an action-learning format that involves participants in a variety of creative exercises. Each of these activities requires the use of constructive team-based behaviors to be successful. Participants learn by doing. Each activity is discussed on completion with a trained facilitator who gives focus and direction to an analysis of what happened and why it happened. This time of discussion is where learning occurs – behavior modification based on experience. This will allow a group of people to interact and create a harmonious atmosphere (Ortigas, 1997). Since groups are being utilized more, research surrounding these groups and the decisions they make is very important to the communication discipline.

Looking at how members of groups participate and their feelings about the group’s work is an important part of the research that needs to be conducted on these groups. To be able to understand how a team building module could help a faction of people, the essence of a group should first be discuss in detail. A group consists of individuals joined together by a common goal or set of characteristics. They work together as a team in order to achieve these goals. Levi (2007) described the group as more than just a collection of people. He stated that it has distinguishing characteristics and it exists for a reason or purpose and has a goal that is shared between the members. The people in a group are connected to one another. They recognize this connection, and it binds them together so that they collectively share what happens to fellow group members. In order to attain the objectives of a group, each member must interact with one another. Through effective communication and proper dissemination of ideas, flow of instruction may be put in an orderly manner, accurate and precise instructions may be given and fewer mistakes maybe committed. Communication, as a main key in good management and leadership, entails factors that need to be considered in order to be effective (Levi 2007).

These factors may include the barriers of communication which hinders a person to fully share his ideas and the other to grasp the information being sent. According to Levi (2007), central to any group’s actions is communication. Another essential ingredient of building an effective group is for them to understand the value of having a strong group decision making skill. Making a decision follows a pattern; which is, defining the problem, identifying the criteria, developing alternatives, allocating weights to the criteria, evaluating the alternatives and selecting the best alternative (Manohar, 2008). Accordingly, Zander (1994) as cited by Levi (2007) said that, group decision making has motivational effects on group members. Being part of a group encourages members to try to make good decisions and to perform better. The teams also benefits by learning to make decisions. Over time, a team can become more efficient at decision making, thereby reducing many of the problems of group decision making.

In relation to Social Psychology, team building includes members involved in a society which is composed of different people interacting with one another. Overtime, particular ways of interacting between a team and work group are developed. To sight an example, each member of the group influences the perception of the individual towards the society. For certain reasons, individuals involved in a particular group tend to behave differently to conform to their different opinions (Wagner, 2009). Based on an interview with the University’s student affairs coordinator, most of teambuilding they facilitated in the locale focused on leadership only and there was no specific activity that focused on communication, group decision making, group cohesion etc., and are held only every fifth month of the year. Most of the time, they facilitated teambuilding to leaders and to those who won the elections for the next school year. These facts motivated the researchers to conduct a study wherein group dynamics will be used in a form of team building. This is to determine its effect on communication skills and group decision making skills.

Youth Organizations have been chosen as the respondents to determine if it would result to significant information in the field of psychology specifically in group process which can also help the psychologist, psychiatrist, counselors and even psychology students in finding deeper meaning on the said field. In several literatures that where included in this research, it is said that communication and decision making can affect team building and vice versa. Team building is a sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness (Wood & Chapman, 2004). Team building, as described by Brilhart (2001), is used to improve group decision making and help members learn more effective ways of handling conflict, increase creativity and improve communication skills and different group throughout processes. Team building develops among an individual his sense of responsibility, commitment, independence and accountability among the members.

The team members not only share expectations for accomplishing group tasks, but trust and support to one another and respect to other’s individual differences. The role of a team builder is to lead the team towards cohesiveness and productivity. According to Levi (2007), team building is also an important factor in any environment; its focus is to specialize in bringing out the best in a team to ensure self development, positive communication, leadership skills and the ability to work closely together as a team. Team building helps team members in motivating to achieve goals and a climate of cooperation and collaborative problem-solving. Team building exercises consist of a variety of tasks designed to develop group members and their ability to work together effectively. Communication is one of the aspects that should be developed within a group. It is defined as imparting or exchanging of information in such a way that the receiver can comprehend or grasp mentally to be able to act on that information and provide feed back that the message received is the message intended. It is all about conveying the messages to other people clearly and unambiguously.

It’s also about receiving information that others are sending with as little bend as possible. It should convey thoughts and ideas effectively in order to get the message successfully. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that is actually send do not necessarily reflect what it thinks, causing a communication breakdown and creating roadblocks that stand in the way of the goals – both personally and professionally (Steele, 2009). According to Gamble (2002), communication is at the core of our humanness. How we communicate with each other shapes our lives and our world. We all rely on our communicative skills as we confront events that challenge our flexibility, integrity, expressiveness and critical thinking skills. A number of important communication skills are useful for groups to learn and perform. Asking open- ended, non- threatening questions fosters better group interactions. Active listening helps clarified the communicator’s meaning and acknowledge the importance of the message. Groups can be disrupted by emotions; learning how to process emotion in a group is an important skill (Levi 2007). In order to better understand the communication process, there were two types of communication theories; according to Hybels and Weaver (2004), the intra personal communication theory and interpersonal communication theory.

The first theory seeks to explain how individuals process information and create meaning. It emphasizes the theory of mind. It refers to our ability to infer other people’s mental states like their thoughts, beliefs, desires, and intentions. It also considers the ability to use these insights to interpret what people say, make sense of their behaviour, and predict what they may do next. The second theory seeks to explain how two individuals interact and influence each other. It highlights the cognitive dissonance theory. It states that it is the psychological discomfort we feel when there is a discrepancy between what it already know or believe, and any new information that people can receive which challenges our knowledge or beliefs (Hybels & Weaver, 2004). In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to struggle, unable to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively – whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to compete effectively in an organization (Levi 2007). In understanding group behavior, one of the factors that should be considered is group decision making.

According to Reddy (2004), group decision making is an activity based on the old adage that “two heads are better than one”. It permits many persons simultaneously to interact and to arrive at a decision. It is also referred to as problem solving, a process of recognizing a problem or opportunity and finding a solution to it. In making decisions within a group, it is made by everyone involved. In group decision making, there can be either consensus among the members of the group or the decision can be arrived at through simple majority. Consensus implies that all members must agree to the proposed decision, whereas majority votes implies that it is enough for the majority of the group members to agree on the decision arrived at. In any organization, individuals make many decisions without taking the help of the group members while group makes more decisions (Reddy, 2004). Group decisions take in a strong sense of team spirit among the group members and help the group to think together in terms of success as well as failure (Satterwhite, 2009). According to Levi (2007) groups are imperfect decision makers and do not always fully used their collected knowledge and skills.

Group decisions may be disrupted by personal bias, distorted by the desire to maintain good relationships and impaired by the desire to make decisions quickly. Groups often become prematurely committed to the first acceptable solution instead of taking a structured approach to problem solving. The process of decision-making takes place in all types of organizations and the role of communication in these situations is very important. Organizations often put together teams or groups to address issues they face rather than trying to gather input from all members of the organization. This process of organizations using teams or groups to make decisions is becoming a more common practice (Satterwhite, 2009). Rozell, Salas, Mullen, & Driskell (1999)and his colleagues, in their study on the effects of team building on performance suggested that examination of the specific components of team building revealed that interventions emphasizing role clarification were more likely to increase performance, whereas interventions that emphasized goal setting, problem solving, or interpersonal relations were no more likely to render an increase or decrease in performance.

On the other hand, Hall in 1990 stated that, group dynamics training was used in improving the decision making of all male participants. Based on the results of both performance and process criteria, the trained groups consistently performed more effectively than untrained groups on measures of decision quality, utilization of superior resources, and creativity. In this study, the participant’s group decision making was measured through their performance. Also, Rothwell (1998) in his research done concerning gender says that within groups, men participate in instrumental communication such as expressing opinions and suggestions while women are seen as supporters of communication within groups by agreeing, indicating the interest of others, and encouraging participation within group discussions. According to Tannen (1990), men and women clearly have different communication goals. While women seek to connect through communication, men seek to establish independence.

In a group situation, men are more likely to participate and offer suggestions and opinions whereas women, when they do participate, will encourage participation from others and seek to establish a connection with group members. According to Rothwell (1998), research has shown that the decisions made by groups/teams are superior to those made by individuals. This may be explained by an effect called synergy, which says that the performance of a group is of higher quality than would have been predicted based on the input of its individual members (Salazar, 1995). In other words, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In summary, the previous studies conducted by Rozell, Salas, Mullen, & Driskell (1999) about team building revealed that there was no significant effect of team building on performance. However, the effects of team building varied as a function of the type of operationalization of performance: On objective measures of performance, there was a non significant tendency for team building to decrease performance, whereas on subjective measures of performance, there was a significant, albeit small, tendency for team building to increase performance.

Examination of the specific components of team building revealed that interventions emphasizing role clarification were more likely to increase performance, whereas interventions that emphasized goal setting, problem solving, or interpersonal relations were no more likely to render an increase or decrease in performance. This study focused on the technical aspect and more on the improvement of team’s performance, and not on other factors that can be improved like communication skills and group decision making. The researchers considered these variables to address this gap in research between very broad studies into a more specific study about team building. Some of the studies regarding team building were done in foreign settings and focused more on establish industrial organizations. Example of which were the studies done by Rothwell (1998) and Tannen (1990). In the present study, it focuses on the effect of team building module on the level of communication and group decision making skills of newly formed youth organizations in which these were not addressed on previous studies.

These previous studies relied primarily on observation as research methodology, while the current research made use of a questionnaire in assessing their communication skills and group decision making skills. Based on the related literatures and synthesis, the researchers would like to determine the effects of team building program on communication skills and group decision making skills of youth organizations. A team is a group of people working towards a common goal. Team building is a process of enabling them to achieve that goal. The team building intervention is based on the experiential principle which postulates that active learning is often more valuable for the learner because the participants tend to have the direct responsibilities for the process and involvement to achieve the desired outcome on the activity (Newes, 2005). This theory emphasizes on the central role that experience plays in the learning process, an emphasis that distinguishes Experiential learning theory from other learning theories. Focus is also given to the study of Brilhart in 2001, wherein he stated that Team building can be used to improve group decision making.

It help members learn more effective ways of handling conflicts, increases creativity, improve communication skills, self-esteem and many other group throughout processes. Next, attention is also given to the importance of communication in groups’ action as cited by Levi, (2007). Also, emphasis is given on the essential ingredient of building an effective group is for them to understand the value of having a strong group decision making skill. Making a Decision follows a pattern; which is, defining the problem, identifying the criteria, developing alternatives, allocating weights to the criteria, evaluating the alternatives and selecting the best alternative. Through effective communication and proper dissemination of ideas, flow of instruction may be put in an orderly manner, accurate and precise instructions may be given and fewer mistakes maybe committed (Levi, 2007). The paradigm of the study is composed of two boxes. The first box contains the independent variable which was team building.

It would then be leading to the next box which contains the dependent variables which were the communication skills and group decision making skills. It has an arrow that signifies that team building has an effect on communication skills and group decision making skills. The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variables was assessed through administration of pre-test, observation during the intervention/activity and post-test, then the statistical treatment through frequency and percentage distribution, then analysis and interpretation of data and lastly, the formation of conclusion and recommendations based from the findings of the study. In this study, the researchers purposively selected participants on Youth Organizations. After giving the team building intervention, the participants are likely to respond positively in improving the communication skills and group decision making skills. The researchers believe that the study will most likely produce significant results regarding the effect of team building intervention on communication skills and group decision making.

Independent Variable Dependent Variables
Figure 1: The effect of team building on communication skills and group decision making skills of youth organizations. This study aimed to find out the effect of team building on communication skills and group decision making of youth organizations. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1.What is the level of communication skills and group decision making of the selected groups before and after the team building activities? 2.Is there a significant difference on the level of communication and group decision making process of the selected groups before and after conducting the team building activities? The said problems is focused on answering the hypothesis that there is a significant difference on the level of communication and group decision making process of the groups before and after conducting the team building activities. The primary aim of this study is to know the effect of a team building on the communication skills and group decision making. The results of the study will be beneficial to the following: For organization leaders and members, if all the members of the organization possess good communication skills, good decision making follows. This study will help these organization members to further improve these skills by means of exposing them to team building activities that are especially designed to enhance their communication skills and group decision making skills.

For guidance counselors, this research is essential in the appreciation of an alternative way of doing group guidance activities. This could be helpful to guidance counselors especially if the researchers could prove that a team building will have significant effects on Communication Skills and Group Decision Making Skills of an individual and be able validate it. For social psychology and group process, the study will push for the validation of a team building that will be essential in the field of social psychology. This study will allow current and future facilitators to have a confidence in the process of team building, for they will now have a credible basis on its effect. For the university student affairs coordinators, to add to their focus teambuilding activities concerning communication skills and group decision making skills to newly elected officers and to other organizations at least twice a year. This study focused on the effect of team building on communication skills and group decision making skills of youth organizations.

The study will be done in approximately one semester. This inquiry would focus on a number of youth organizations only, as its target population. Questions in the communication skill test and group decision making skill test will be intended only to measure the communication skills and group decision making skills of the members of the organization. This will not be directed in giving direct solutions to those problems rather it will just serve as a basis for mapping out future communication and group decision making programs. The study will only be limited in measuring the immediate effect of the intervention (team building) to the given dependent variables (communication skills and group decision making skills) and will not be able to assess the longevity of its effect to the respondents. Every treatment was administered once, due to the limited time and accommodation given by the participating organizations. The researchers also underwent team building activities before conducting the experiment.

Method
Research Design
This research work utilized a pre- experimental design particularly, one – group pre-test-post-test design which was used to address the effectiveness and effect of team building on communication skills and group decision making skills. This experiment has two variables: the independent variable, which is the team building intervention. And the dependent variables, which are communication skills and group decision making skills. Only one group is involved in this experimental method: the experimental group, which was exposed to the team building intervention. Participants

The researchers used a non-probability sampling design, specifically purposive sampling. The participants of the study consisted of forty- five (45) youth organization members out of eighty (80) original youth organization members. Sources of Data

The data of this study were taken mainly on the results of the communication skills test and group decision making skills test. Research Instruments

Communication skills test, group decision making skill test and a survey questionnaire were administered in the study. The researchers constructed two types of test: a twenty-five item scale that measures communication skills and group decision making skills. It is composed of short and easy-to-understand statements that are answerable by strongly agree, agree, strongly disagree, disagree, and undecided. The numerical data were gained by means of substituting the answers to 5, 4,3,2,1 point scale respectively. The instruments underwent content validation through three guidance counselors at Holy Angel University. It also underwent face validation by two English professors and one Philosophy professor. It was also pilot-tested to thirty (30) participants from other youth organizations specifically, theater guild organization. Reliability is at alpha .77 A survey questionnaire will be administered for the purpose of acquiring data for research, a survey will be administered so that the researcher will be able to determine whether the participants have or have not undergone any team building activity in the past to increase their confidence and that observed outcomes are result of the given program and not because of an extraneous variable or events. Procedure

This part enumerates the guidelines set by the researchers. It will be followed by the formulation of the research proposal and the test questions that will be used as questionnaires. This section also discusses the course of action the researchers will take in order to come up with the data for analysis. First, the researchers conceptualized as to which topic or subject to take. Then came up with the background of it, derived major and sub problem and presented assumptions and hypothesis that may support the study. As for the related literature, the researchers made used of journals, books, dictionaries and Internet journal entries. A formal letter of consent was given to the head of the organizations to seek for their approval as the research participants. After the approval, before starting the intervention, the participants will fill out survey questionnaire for the researchers to determine that the participants have not yet undergone any team building program. Then, the reading of the instruction for the pre- test will follow. After the pre- test, the experimental group will be engaging in team building training that will consume an approximation of 9 hours.

After the intervention, questionnaires for post test will soon follow. Same test will be given; the answer of the participants will be evaluated and used as the basis for determining if the intervention affected the communication skills and group decision making skills of the group. The participants shall be informed that all personal information will be kept confidential. At the very end, they will be told about the true purpose of the experiment, the hypothesis that was tested and the reasons for deceptive instructions, and their questions to be answered. This research work aims to identify the effect of team building intervention on communication skills and group decision making of the participants, and in order for the researchers to determine the effect; the researchers would utilize questionnaires or measuring instrument for assessment (pre- test instrument) and distribute them among the selected population: also, team building will be facilitated. To obtain the level of communication skills and group decision making of the respondents, the researchers utilize frequency and percentage distribution.

In order to know the differences between the level of communication and decision making skills of the respondents, t-test for dependent mean was computed using SPSS. Results
This chapter presents data in table with statistical treatment and corresponding interpretations thus showing in detail the results of the investigation about the effect of team building on communication skills and group decision making.

Table 1 show that 11.54% of the participants had a very high level in terms of their communication skills before conducting team building activities which implies that the participants can present ideas articulately and persuasively in a complex discussion plus they can express themselves spontaneously. While 80.77% got high level, which means that the participant keeps up with the discussion and can justify an opinion. Lastly, 7.69% got Low level in terms of their Communication Skill before conducting the team building activities. This means that the participants has some difficulty in keeping up with the discussion and contributes only occasionally.

Table 2 shows minority of the participants (31.58%) got very high level in terms of their communication skills before conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants can present ideas articulately and persuasively in a complex discussion plus they can express themselves spontaneously, while majority of the participants (68.42%) got high level in terms of their communication skills before conducting the team building activities which means that the participant keeps up with the discussion and can justify an opinion. Table 3: Level of decision making skills of We Are Anime Club before conducting the team building activities Level f %

Very High 11 42.31
High 13 50
Low 2 7.69
Very Low 0 0
Total= 26 Total = 100

Table 3 shows that 42.31% of the participants got very high level in terms of their decision making skills before the team building activities. Majority of them (50%) got high level in terms of their decision making skills which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group and 7.69% got low level in terms of their decision making before conducting the team building activities which implies that participants reluctantly moves into groups, must be reminded to stay with the group, often challenges in which group he is placed and is inconsiderate of other individuals or groups. Table 4: Level of decision making skills of youth ministry of San Agustin Parish church before conducting the team building activities Level f %

Very High 13 68.42
High 6 31.58
Low 0 0
Very Low 0 0
Total= 19 Total= 100

Table 4 shows that majority of the participants (68.42%) got very high level in terms of their decision making skills before conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group and is considerate of other groups. And minority of them (31.58%) got High Level which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group. Usually is considerate of other groups.

Table 5: Level of communication skills of We Are Anime Club after conducting the team building activities

Level f %
Very High 15 57.69
High 10 38.46
Low 1 8.85
Very Low 0 0
Total= 26 Total= 100

Table 5 shows that majority of the participants (57.69%) got very high level in terms of their communication skills after conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants can present ideas articulately and persuasively in a complex discussion plus they can express themselves spontaneously while 38.46% of the participants got high level which implies that the participants keeps up with the discussion and can justify an opinion and 8.85% got low level in terms of their communication skill after conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants is having some difficulty keeping up with the discussion and having a hard time in arguing an opinion. Table 6: Level of communication skills of youth ministry of San Agustin Church after conducting the team building activities

Level f %
Very High 7 36.8 High 12 63.16
Low 0 0
Very Low 0 0
Total= 19 Total= 100

Table 6 shows that minority of the participants (26.84%) got very high level in terms of their communication skills after conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants can present ideas articulately and persuasively in a complex discussion plus they can express themselves spontaneously while majority of the participants (63.16%) got high level in terms of their communication skill after conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants keeps up with the discussion and can justify an opinion.

Table 7: Level of decision making skills of We Are Anime Club after Conducting the team building activities Level f %
Very High 21 80.77
High 4 15.38a
Low 1 3.85
Very Low 0 0
Total= 26 Total= 100

Table 7 shows that majority of the participants (80.77%) got very high level in terms of their decision making skills after conducting the team building
activities which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group and is considerate of other groups. While minority of the participants (15.38%) got high level in terms of their decision making skill after conducting the team building activities which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group. Usually is considerate of other group.

Table 8: Level of Decision Making Skills of Youth Ministry of San Agustin Parish Church after Conducting the Team Building Activities Level f %
Very High 17 89.47
High 2 10.53
Low 0 0
Very Low 0 0
Total= 19 Total= 100

Table 8 shows that majority of the participants (89.47%) got Very High level in terms of their Decision Making skills after conducting the Team Building Activities which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group, Is considerate of other groups. Moreover, minority of the participants (10.53%) got High level in terms of their Decision Making skills after conducting the Team Building Activities which implies that the participants moves into groups quietly and quickly, stays with the group and accepts everyone as part of the group. Usually is considerate of other group.

Table 9 Differences in the Pre- test and Post test scores on Group Decision Making and Communication Skills of the Participants T- Test for Dependent Samples. Marked differences at < .0500 Variables t df Sig.

Pre- test and Posttest on
Group Decision Making ( Anime Club) -5.68 18 .00
Pre- test and Posttest on
Communication Skills (Anime Club) -5.17 18 .00
Pre- test and Posttest On Group
Decision Making (Youth Ministry) -6.32 25 .00
Pre- test and Posttest on Communication
Skills ( Youth Ministry) -4.42 25 .05
N = 45 alpha = .01

Table 9 shows the differences on the levels of communication skills and decision making skills of the group before and after conducting the team building activities. There is a significant difference between the pre test and post test scores of the Anime Club with regards to their decision making skills at.05 level of significance. Likewise, there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test scores of the Anime Club relative to their communication skills at.05 level of significance. This implies that there is a significant differences on the level of communication and decision making skills of the Anime Club before and after conducting the team building activities. With regards to the pre test and post test scores of the Youth Ministry members, the value of .00 signifies that there is a significant difference between the decision making scores of the groups’ at.05 level of significance.

This suggests that there is a significant difference between the level of decision making of the respondents before and after conducting of the team building activities. However, no significant differences between the pre test and post test scores of Youth Ministry members relative to their communication skills as revealed by the computed value of .05. This implies that are no changes on the communication level of the Youth Ministry members before and after conducting the team building activities. Table 10. Differences on the Group Decision Making and Communication Skills of the Selected Group before and after Team Building Activities.

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