The seven organizational approaches to studying the human body are body planes and body directions, body cavities, quadrants and regions, anatomy and physiology, microscopic to macroscopic, body systems and medical specialties. Body planes and body directions are the division of the body into sections from front to back, right and left, and top and bottom. These sections are called the mid-sagittal plane, the coronal plane, and the transverse plane. Body directions state the way in which something is moving. For example if an arm is being is turned in a medial direction, it is moving toward the middle of the body. These planes and directions come in use during X-rays for example. This approach is used when studying organs and its function or specific areas with in the body like lungs, brain, and joint and tendons. (McGraw Hill, Chap.2) “In order to visualize and study the structural arrangements of various organs, the body may be sectioned (cut) and diagrammed according to three fundamental planes of reference.”
The Body cavities approach is used to study the areas in the body that contain internal organs. There are two main (Posterior and Anterior) main cavities in the human body which house five sub-cavities. These are confined spaces within the body, which contain organs that are protected by associated membranes. The cranial, spinal, thoracic, diaphragm and abdomino-pelvic cavities are within these. Doctors that specialize in internal organs such as a Cardiac or Neuro surgeon would use this approach to help operate on and /or explore the area within those cavities patients for things such as brain tumors or repair and artery. The quadrants and regions divide’s the lower torso into four sections and nine region sections to identify the areas where internal organs are placed. The quadrants and regions approach is used to divide the body into regions such as upper left and upper right for example, when a patient receives diagnostic testing and procedures. It’s also used to accurately examine a specific area of the patient’s body by medical personnel.
The anatomy and physiology is the study of the structures with in the body and how they function in the body. This approach is good to be used when studying the structure of and how cells work on the nervous system for example, if a doctor were trying to diagnose an Immune disorder such as Multiple Sclerosis. Microscopic and macroscopic is the study of the smallest parts of the body and how they come together to make larger parts and more complex structures or systems. (Turley S., 2011) “Tissues and organs are macroscopic, that is, they can be seen with the naked eye.”
Whereas other cells and their related structures cannot, you must visualize them through a microscope. This approach is good to use when studying how cells combine to make organs and can also detect the effects of disease on the body. The Body systems approach is the study of the body’s organs and how they function together in the body. This approach is good to be used when studying the bodies systems such as the Circulatory, Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Lymphatic systems and how they function in the body together. The Medical Specialties approach is the study of the human body for medical purposes. This approach is also divided in to many different categories which are for the study of anatomy, physiology diseases, diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs. All of which make up the practice of medicine.
McGraw Hill, Body Organization and Anatomical Nomenclature, Chapter 2
Turley S. (2011). The Body in Health and Disease, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson