Tourism has growth into one of the world’s major industries and has thus also become an increasingly important, if complex, issue for environment policy. Unless is developed in a sustainable manner, we will be unable to achieve key objectives of global environmental policy such as preservation of biological diversity. Tourism itself depends a lot on the existence of unspoilt nature and landscapes, as well as a healthy environment. If nature is messed up, landscapes are destroyed, water, energy and soil are over exploited, and the economic based tourism is also undermined.
* Rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry
As an International consultant, I have been given an opportunity to develop a tourist resort of my dreams in a remote, undeveloped but inhabited island in the South Pacific. In my proposal for this project will show aspects of tourism development and planning. I have chose Vanuatu for my project destination resort. In my project, I am going to discuss about whole matters of tourism development starting with stakeholders.
Generally stakeholders are those people who hold stake for any business. According to (Gough & Duncan, 2008) sustainable tourism p.136, “Stakeholders are usually organisations or people who earn money from a business or have an interest in how well the business is run. The stakeholders in the tourism industry are the organisations that put effort into building the industry and making it run smoothly.”
Stakeholders in my chosen tourist destination- Vanuatu
Vanuatu is a least developed country because of its high economic and environmental vulnerabilities. It also has an economy highly dependent on the services sectors but exports of services have remained low and stagnant. The country continues to rely on primary agriculture products for foreign exchange. An offshore financial services sector was established as early as 1971 at Port Vila, which has attracted considerable foreign investment in part because of the expensive fiscal and legal incentives. However considering the increasing international competition to attract foreign investment in financial services, Vanuatu would need to be more proactive beyond incentives.
Development of ICT infrastructure and human capital as well as international marketing are important to attract more investment, especially from Asia. The government has actively promoted the tourism in recent years and the contribution of tourism related activities to the economy is rapidly expanding. In terms of its geographic location and susceptibility to natural disasters, Vanuatu has a bad economy. But it relies heavily on official development assistance. The development of a sound services sector it requires strategic planning at the national level as well as international technical and financial assistance for building domestic capacity.
Type of stakeholders in tourism sector:
There are various types of stakeholders in tourism industry. These are:
* Environmental Campaigners
* Local Government Representatives
* International Industry representatives.
How these stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism sector is Vanuatu:
The development of tourism industry in Vanuatu and its significant contribution for the growth of country’s economy has achieved gratitude by the government. In national development planning tourism sector is featured prominently. According to IBP USA () report, tourism contributes 40% of GDP, 7% of foreign exchange and provides 6000 jobs.
Vanuatu government by itself is investing in tourism sector and also is strongly encouraging to others some of the following sectors of tourism industry. By being stakeholders of following sectors, the stakeholders can benefit. The sectors are: * Accommodation (luxurious boutique resorts, apartment villas, chain hotels, motels, pack backers). * Recreational activities (outdoor adventures, game fishing, scuba diving, paragliding, kite surfing, trekking) * Inter-island cruises (Efate offshore islands and Santo offshore islands). * Attraction (eco-tourism, adventurous and cultural products, pristine marine environment). As a new emerging product Eco-tourism has big potential although it is under developed.
Hotels: The IBP USA, 2011 report (2008) mentioned there are only approximately 1722 rooms (2007) and about 3037 beds (2007). So it is clear if more 5 star hotels are built those can be potential. Because in 2003 the number of tourists increased 7 percent than earlier years whereas it increased 19 percent in 2010.
Cruise ships: Although there are many attractions in Vanuatu but they have few cruise ships. The Pacific Sun, Pacific Princess and Pacific Star include Vanuatu in their itinerary. They visit other destinations in Vanuatu e.g. Port Vila, Luganville only 7-9 times in a month. So, more facilities, cruise ships and water sports activities are needed in those destinations for the tourists. Reviewing above matters it is clear that each and every stakeholder can be benefitted in Vanuatu. There will be more job creations and more development if the stakeholders eager to do so. (IBP-USA, 2011)
Rationale for careful planning in the development of new tourists attractions: All of the people, who are involved in tourism development, should safeguard the natural environment with a view to achieving sound, continuous and sustainable economic growth geared to satisfying equitably the needs and aspirations of present and future generations. The objectives for the development of rationale for careful planning are:
* Identifying the fundamentals of a new attraction plan
* Understanding the attraction plan
* Factors that control tourism process for planning
* Increasing of foreign currency
* Building up infrastructure provision
* Protection & Conservation of wildlife
Rationale of this planning development:
For doing fulfil of these objectives the plan is needed for bringing more
tourists in the place. As our target is achieving the goal and the goal are tourists. The money should be spent for tourism products and other good services. Planning also needed for attracting the visitors in the place. When tourists will come to the place and spend money on local products and services, that money will be spent for local development as well. The planning of development also need for infrastructure projects to support tourism e.g. water supply, car & coach parking, litter control. The increase of visitors also can be dangerous for wildlife. Because there will be increase of litter and there will be more pollution. So, the local people need proper education & training for avoiding this. (Smith & Siguaw, 2010)
The staggering in time and space of tourist and visitor flows, particularly those resulting from paid leave and school holidays, and a more even distribution of holidays should be sought so as to reduce the pressure of tourism activity on the environment and enhance its beneficial impact on the tourism industry and the local economy.
Tourism infrastructure should be designed and tourism activities programme in such a way as to protect the natural heritage composed of ecosystems and biodiversity and to preserve endangered species of wildlife. (Kandari and Chandra, 2004)
Advantages & Disadvantages of Public Private sectors for tourism development planning:
* Government can finance on tourism projects e.g. in developing countries the can build infrastructure and superstructures and in developed countries they can build up the infrastructure. * They can control all of the tourism places e.g. they can make regulations for protection of historical sites, national parks, beaches etc. * Government can support many tourism related things e.g. restoration, improvement, creation of museums, art galleries, encouraging private initiatives, training etc. Disadvantages:
Corruption: For achieving own benefit officials seek illegitimate that is a corruption in terms of political system. In some countries, corruption is so common that it is expected when ordinary business or citizen interact with government officials.
Current example: a case study on Project Management Unit 18 (PMU-18) scandal in Vietnam has shown the multi million dollars political scandal. The bureau within the transportation ministry for road construction and other infrastructure projects with budget of $2 billion includes funds from overseas donors.
* Local residents are able to take control
* Better community status through proprietorship
* Personal opportunities to increase earning power through responsible management and hard work of entrepreneur
* As family proprietorship so they can hire the elderly people who are not employed
* It can build business equity
* All opportunities are not equally accessible e.g. education, family standing
* Small enterprise needs start up capital
* Successful business operation proportionate to personal ability, training and market
* Investigation of various approaches to tourism planning & development
For planning of development of any new destination, there should be concern in every level. These levels are:
International: In this level, the development planning should be globally. It should be included tourism marketing, transportation services, cooperation between the member countries’ entire sector.
National: In national level planning should be included with tourism education, training, national tourism policy, structure and transportation planning etc.
Regional: The tourism planning should be in regional level e.g. states, provinces etc. In regional level the regional policy should be involved with regional policy and infrastructure planning.
Local: In local level the development planning should be in resorts, villages, town, cities etc. The planning should involve with tourism area plans etc.
All forms of tourism development that are conducive to saving rare and precious resources, in particular water and energy, as well as avoiding so far as possible waste production, should be given priority and encouraged by national, regional, and local public authorities. (Travel Industry Management, no date)
Methods of Measuring Tourism Impact
There are different types of tourism measuring methods e.g. Cambridge economic impact model, Environmental Impact Assessment, Pro Poor Tourism approach etc. No single methodology can be used to measure all impacts on all stakeholders engaged in particular initiatives. For examining and measuring the impact for my proposed sustainable resort which is situated in Vanuatu I will choose the economic Impact.
Cambridge Economic Impact Model:
As globally computer and internet based work is popular so we cannot avoid computer. It has made our everyday work is so easier. Cambridge economic model is also computer-based spreadsheet model. By this model we can produce the estimates from existing national and local information of tourism activity. It generates data on total amount spent by visitors, income for local residents created by spending, number of jobs supported by visitors spending. (Broadberry & O’Rourke, 2010)
The reason behind choosing economic impact model:
Some other small islands in the south pacific and Indian oceans there is a huge economic impact in tourism. These are: Tourism dominates the economy and achieved a part of GDP in some islands e.g. Cook Islands & Palau, Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Samoa etc. Tourism contributes as much as 47% to the National GDP, with visitor arrivals to the region now being about a million people annually. But in global term tourism in South Pacific is small, with the region receiving less than approximately 0.2% of world tourist arrivals. The tourism industry is now number one foreign exchange earning industry for about half the south pacific. The total revenue in South Pacific Ocean has reached US$500 million yet the foreign owner hotels, airlines etc. (South Pacific Tourism Organisation, 2005). By 2020 these islands are expecting 14 million visitors and 6.5% grow economy rate annually. (UNWTO, 2001) (Becken & Hay, 2007)
* Need for Planning for a Sustainable Tourism
The tourism which is informed participation of all relevant stakeholders and maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and aware the tourists about the tourism sustainability is a sustainable tourism. According to World Tourism Organisation, “Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and hosts regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological process, and biological diversity, and life support system. (Cooper et al, 2008) p.218
Need of sustainable tourism development:
* For controlling and managing carefully is sustainable tourism * For getting attention to the tourism in ecologically and culturally sensitive areas. * Sustainable tourism can contribute the preservation of diversity and allows for the rationale use of biological diversity. * For getting benefit of local level sustainable tourism area. (Narasaiah, 2004)
Factors that may prevent sustainable tourism
There are some factors that may prevent sustainable tourism development. These factors are; * Globalization:
Globalization is a multiplication factor and closeness index. It is an opportunity for accessing to knowledge, diversity involvement, and partnership expansions. It is good because everybody can know about the sustainable tourism development. But the problem of this is the customs, folklores, handicrafts and traditions are affected.
* Negative impact of tourism:
The negative impact of tourism is also a factor of prevention. Because any area’s social, cultural, environment and economic exploitation and degradation can be brought by it. * Local community involvement:
Local people can be affected by sustainable tourism development. There will be traffic and tourism noises that can effect on the local people. So their views of the development will be negative. Also, there are more negative factors that which can prevent tourism from being effective tool for regional development. Tourism often has low paying job that can be very seasonal. The amount of benefit that a region receives relates to the level of leakage, which occurs through imports. In some small countries the level of leakage can be quite high, thereby reducing the multiple effects. (Kamamba, 2003)
Main stages in planning for sustainability
According to a case study on resorts of Hawaii I have got to know the main stage of sustainable tourism development is “Resort development master planning”. The government of Hawaii has encouraged the master plan for the development of resort as destination planning level. The tourists who are looking for recreation and relaxation, they have high activity environment. In these resorts they have good planning. They have planned for giving many facilities e.g. accommodations with dining, entertainment, shopping facilities. They have a careful consideration for that. These are: * For outdoor relaxation and leisure they think about the climate * Tourists can use major transportation gateways those are direct and convenient * Tourists can get good ocean views that are scenic settled * The utilities and adequate infrastructure
* Private sectors encouragement etc. (TIM, no date)
* Current Issues related to tourism development Planning
Enclave Tourism: This is a kind of all inclusive tourism that is related to remote region where surrounding people are deprived of their right only tourist can go there and enjoy natural beauty and facilities provided by tour operator. Even though it is a new form of tourism to develop the tourism sector it has some merits and demerits. Positive side: If we can see the positive factors of enclave tourism it could be useful for any resort. These are following * Government can get more revenue from enclave tourism.
* Crime in tourism destination can be minimizing as tourist are segregated from local people. * Racism is very common factor in hospitality industry because tourist or local people could be racist. Negative side: The negative side of this tourism is
* Local community has access to their own product and facilities. * There is no cultural exchange between host and guest.
* Local authority cannot sell their local product to tourist. * Local people cannot do any small business inside the place.
In my point of view, the moral issue of enclave tourism is not that much useful for local. So in Vanuatu Island enclave tourism is not perfect but other types of tourism can be suitable.
Implications of balancing Supply and Demand:
A nation or community should be able to do a different numbers of developments of supply side to satisfy the tourism market demand. Market can reach the ultimate tourism development if their supply side matches with the demand side. There is a rapid change of the characteristics of tourism demand. A measurement system can be devised that will permit the plant to adapt to changing demands in a rationale manner. There is a fundamental logic of balancing supply and demand. An Australian tourism research guide recommends steps for a gap analysis determining the difference between travel market seek and region
For linking travel market preferences with supply and demand development, all governments agencies related to tourism have the obligation of making sure their individual policies and practice. For example, there is a dual policy of national park where visitors use and resource protection need a full understanding of travel market supply and demand.
Adopted from (Gunn and Var, 2002) P.34
The growth of tourism is a significant part. As globally this growth is increasing day by day so the planning and development is the key issue behind the growth. Still many places in the world are not developed yet. But the awareness has increased to do so. All stakeholders will be more interested to developing and planning the new destinations.
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