The method of development is divided in to 3 target areas:
To develop individual’s skill to set and accomplish goals, goal setting technique is used. Behavioral amendment is the use of person erudition in the course of strengthening. All methods can be used to develop a person’s skill to accomplish his or company’s desired goals. Goal setting:
Goal is a set of deed which a person attempts to achieve. For example, attempt is to increase selling with high customer’s contentment with service and to reduce non-attendance by 5% are aim of individuals. While 1968, Locke open that to consider a classic paper, so that there has been increasing attention to use goal setting to business troubles and matters. Locke projected that goal setting is a cognitive practice of some realistic value. He said that an individual’s awareness about goal is main parts of actions. One of the most common observed behaviors is that to be likely being going until it reaches contest. When a person desired to do something, he or she should work on it until the desired goal is accomplished. Intent/aim is the basic and important part of goal setting hypothesis. Conscious goal is also very much important in theory. Locke used both part of theory to project and give study support for theory that provide output of high level performance if these goals are accomplished by individuals. Process of goal setting:
Goal setting is easy and simple and many of people think that they can make goals easily and this ability is their inheritance. Whatsoever, effective training is needed in developing goal setting ability. Locke gave the characteristic of how mentally develop the goals. Specificity, complexity and strength are characteristics of goals. Specificity is a quantitative measurement accuracy of goals. Complexity is a scale of expertise and determines the degree of performance required. Strength determines the procedure of goal setting and record the ways how to achieve it. Till today there is not much work done on intensity/strength but a related aspect of it dedication is considered in study of goal setting. Dedication/ Commitment are the degree of effort utilized to accomplish the desired goals.
The main steps of developing goals are (1) analysis (2) to develop the worker and employees for achievement of goals by creating actions plan, communication, instruction and dealings between them (3) giving great importance to organizational goals that are recognized by managers and subordinates (4) and make a review of established goals (5) and gave conclusion about the goal and evaluate the setting, revision and achieving of goals. If to make goal setting an effective method, these steps should be examined and put into practice carefully. Training and development unnoticed in many practices of goal setting, thinking they are not necessary. Research on goal setting:
Locke’s original paper about goal setting adds a lot towards research field. Another factor which emphasis on research is the demand of manager for unique and practical method so they can use in their business. The best technique used by authors is of meta-analytic study which measures the effect of goal setting on work performance. In research specific goal lead to higher result than “Do your Best” goals. Employees expert in their field give better performance if they having specific goals rather than vague goals. A wide range of expert study hold up that specific goal assigned to a person give better performance.
According to Locke and his subordinates that 99 out of 100 research paper indicates that specific goals lead to better performance. If the goal set are specific and challenging than it lead to be clear in front of individual that what he has to do and then i5t increase the level of performance. It gives the employees a clear vision of to do a work with logic of commitment, appreciation and accomplishment and he can determine the level of his performance n by comparing it with pas and the ability what he supposed to do in future. Individual differences and goal setting:
The literature study and research determine the effect individual differences on goal setting. Through the research study, it is declared that education, competition and job term effect the goal setting method. A Survey tells that goal challenge job significantly related the job performance of electronics technicians with 12 or more year of education. In practical field it is examined that goal setting affects the performance of less educated workers but not more. Another study tells that social and motivational factors increased the performance, knowledge of work group loyalty and contentment. Another research examined that competition is an important variable of goal setting. It is also study that clarity in goals and responses also related to performance. Argument against goal setting:
There are some criticisms against goal setting. They are as follow: •Goal setting is considered as a check on employees’ performance and is a control device. •It is a difficult process.
•Achieving goal becomes the passion/aim of goal setters that they neglect the important area of work in achieving goal. •In goal setting, the goal setter work for simple jobs rather than complex and difficult jobs as they think it is difficult and some problem may occur in setting goals. Till today by setting goals in right direction, it is very important and powerful method of encouraging employees. It can increase the performance level, if it is used in correct manner in right direction and checked it properly and regularly by managers. Organizational Behavior modification:
OBM refers to the implement of desirable behavior in organization and to prevent unwanted behavior in organization. This approach is very useful in organization in developing a good culture. Modified behavior is important element in organization. Behavior is influenced by many factors. Implementation is basic part of learning. Generally, inspiration is internal cause of behavior and implementation is external. Positive reinforcement way increases the level of power of reply and encourages the recurrence of performance. Therefore, implementation is important in OBM. Negative strengthening means to remove the negative strength of a response instantly after it happens. It refers to the removal of negative and bad behavior immediately after its response to increase the performance level.
Punishment is a bad result of a fastidious behavior response. For example, a professor deduct 1 marks of absent per day is punishment. Whenever punishment is given it deliver a message of not doing work properly. There is some controversial on punishment. Some believes that it is effective tool and opposite to reward and some people think that it is bad and poor technique of learning. Some of their assumptions about punishment a poor method are: •The result of punishment cannot be forcast as to reward. •The effect of punishment is not permanent.
Extinction is another technique used to remove unwanted behavior through nonreinforcement. Positive, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction are known as Thorndike’s Classic law of effect. Criticisms of behavior modification:
Many authors criticize on behavior modification. The use of reinforce cannot make real change in behavior. The person is just force to perform. It is also criticize that individual become dependent on reinforcer to do work.