Case 1: Frank Johnson
1. How does the urinary system relate to sexual function in males? How does the prostate relate to the bladder infections in males? The reproductive system in the male is closely intertwined with the urinary system, both functionally and anatomically. The male reproductive system is so closely linked with the urinary tract, that urinary health is important for optimum sexual health in the male. When the prostrate is enlarged it can cause a urinary bladder infection in males.
2. On Frank’s follow up examination, what are some of the alarming symptoms and concerns he has? Some alarming symptoms are the rapid weight loss, the painful ejaculations, his difficult time starting and stopping urinations as well as the burning sensation when he urinates.
3. What possible conditions/complications could be causing Frank’s symptoms? What does a negative leukocyte and nitrite urinalysis test strip results rule out? In my opinion a urinary tract infection or maybe an inflammation with his prostrate that could be causing these symptoms. However, if a urinalysis test strip results in negative leukocyte and nitrite then the likelihood of it being a urine infection is probably not likely.
4. What is a digital rectal examination (DRE) and what insight does it provide into Frank’s condition? A digital rectal examination is an exam that consists of a doctor inserting their finger in the rectum and checking internal organs such as the prostrate. It is done for men as part of a complete physical exam to check the prostrate gland.
5. There are two possible conditions that Frank has, what are they and the complications of them? The two possible conditions are prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia which both consist of inflammation or an enlargement of the prostrate gland. Complications include UTI’s or even more severe Kidney infection.
Case 2: Melissa Cataran
6. How credible do you think Melissa’s information she is receiving from the internet? What is the concern with non-health educated individuals searching online for health advice? Not very credible. Though the Internet is a wonderful advancement it is no place to get medical advice, especially from random people posting online. It is impossible for someone to officially diagnose someone else through online advice. The result of Melissa freaking out without really knowing what was wrong with her is exactly the reason why it is not recommended to get advice from online peers.
7. What symptoms of Melissa are concerning?
The painful urination and the vaginal discharge are very concerning symptoms.
8. Do you think Melissa’s boyfriend cheated on her? Why or why not? If Melissa is being honest of not having had intercourse with anyone but her boyfriend, then yes I believe the likelihood of her boyfriend cheating is very likely. And that is because of the symptoms that Melissa is experiencing, there is a chance she could have an STD.
9. What is the concern with Melissa waiting so long to tell her mother? If Melissa is dealing with a urinary tract infection, waiting so long to get help, could lead the UTI to move up to her kidneys and cause a kidney infection which could be much more serious.
10. How is Melissa’s condition treated?
Melissa’s condition can be treated with antibiotics but they must be started early to be successful.
11. Would you agree or disagree with minors making doctor’s appointment for situations like this without parental permission? Why or why not. Yeah I would. Just because waiting could be more detrimental and I am sure the parents would agree that even though their child is having underage and unprotected sex, I am sure they would agree that they would rather get treated in time then to wait for the situation to become worse.
Case 3: Debbie Gibson
12. What are the initial concerning symptoms Debbie is having? Can these symptoms be caused from pregnancy? If so, how? The initial symptoms are urine incontinence, difficult urination, and a strong urge to pee but very little being released. Yes these symptoms can be caused from pregnancy because hormonal changes can cause blood to flow more quickly through the kidneys causing the bladder to fill much quicker.
13. What does Debbie’s test results indicate?
Because of the positive nitrite and small amount of leukocytes I would say that could indicate a urinary tract infection.
14. What symptoms were concerning that Debbie developed after her initial doctor’s visit? Debbie’s fever, the chills and the nausea are all very concerning symptoms.
15. What do these new symptoms possible indicate with Debbie? The lower back pain could indicate a possible kidney infection, which is why I believe the doctor, told her to rush to the hospital.
16. Why could this be a possible medical emergency for Debbie? A kidney infection if not treated quickly and properly can permanently damage your kidneys or the bacteria can spread to your bloodstream and cause a life-threatening infection.
17. How is this condition treated during pregnancy?
Although it is preferred that pregnant women do not take medications because of the affects it could have on the baby, there are a number of antibiotics that are effective in treating kidney and urinary tract infections that are known to be safe for both mother and baby. Such antibiotics are cephalexin, ampicillin, and nitrofurantoin.
Water Can Kill: Part I—”Three True Stories” Questions
1. What sort of environment (hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic) does consuming excessive amounts of pure water create in the body fluid that surrounds your cells? What effect would this have on your cells? The environment would be hypotonic, because the surrounding environment of the cell has the excess of water. Because there is more water outside the cell, it will try to move into the cell in which case it would cause the cells to swell and eventually burst.
2. What types of symptoms did Jennifer, Cassandra, and James have in common? Which organ or tissue seems to have been most affected? The common symptoms were dizziness, nausea and vomiting. The brain seems to be affected the most in these cases.
3. Keeping in mind your answers to questions 1 and 2, what do you think the immediate cause of death was for Jennifer, Cassandra, and James? I believe their immediate cause of death was water intoxication, which caused intercranial pressure of the brain.
4. If you suspected that a patient’s symptoms were caused by the condition suffered by Jennifer, Cassandra, and James, what kinds of test would you run to confirm your suspicions? I would run a blood and urine test to confirm my suspicions as well as take a look at their medical history and their story of when they began to feel like and what they were doing before. I would also possibly order an MRI to see if there are any signs of brain swelling.
5. Once you knew the cause of their symptoms, what kind of emergency treatment might you try for a patient like Cassandra or James if you were the doctor in charge of their care? I would try treatments such as water and salt restriction if hypervolemia, salt tablets if hypovolemia, a high-protein diet, intravenous fluid infusion (usually hypertonic 3% saline), diuretics such as furosemide, arginine-vasopressin, antagonists, and anticonvulsants.
6. Why do you think doctors administer a saline solution instead of pure water to dehydrated patients? Well pure water would just increase the hydration, which is causing the problems. The saline solution would increase the sodium electrolyte therefore absorbing the water and releasing it through urine.
Water Can Kill: Part II—”Facts About Hyponatremia” Questions
1. During periods of intense activity, your body releases an antidiuretic hormone called vasopressin that causes the body to retain water (by decreasing the amount of water that is expelled in urine). Why does this make endurance athletes particularly vulnerable to developing hyponatremia? Because they are retaining the water in they bodies that will dilute the sodium and therefore cause hyponatremia.
2. What might put desert-dwellers in danger of developing hyponatremia? How can they avoid this danger? Babies and small children are at much greater risk for developing hyponatremia than adults. Why is this? The heat could put desert dwellers at risk because their body will try to retain as much water as possible because of the heat. Dress appropriately that will help them keep their bodies cool and seek shade…With Babies and Children they are at much greater risk of hyponatremia because their diet contains very few foods, making it hard to replace lost sodium. And also, their kidneys are still developing, so they can’t filter large amounts of water.