1. Chapter Summary
Seventy percent of individuals involved in the correctional system are not institutionalized but rather involved in the community with some form of probation and or parole. (4) State expenditures more than tripled during the period of 1982-2001. According to studies, it is predicted that children born in the early 2000’s will go to prison at some point in their lives. (4) Statistics show that at least 1/3 of the African American male population in their twenties are involved with some type of correctional control.(5) According to statistics about 7.5 million Americans are at this time in the correctional system in some way.(5) When it comes to social order people must be punished for breaking the rules. (8) Offense, guilt, and punishment are the three basic concepts of Western Criminal Law.(8) Laws are created by state legislature and congress. (8)
When it comes to corrections, it covers all the legal reactions of society to some illegal behavior. (9) There are twin goals when it comes to corrections and they are punishment and protection.(10) When one process affects another it is coined interconnectedness. Outside forces play a major role with correctional agencies such as public opinion, fiscal constraints, and the law. (11) Feedback provides growth so that the system can learn, grow, and improve. The downside is that the system has some issues with gaining useful feedback. (13) There are 102 federal prisons and 1,719 state prisons. (14) Banishment, corporal punishment, the pillory, and death were very common during the Colonial Period. In which jails were rarely used.(15) 4 Principles were the foundation of the Penitentiary Act of 1779.(16) A secure and sanitary building
Inspection to ensure that offenders followed the rules.
Abolition of fees changed offenders for their food.
A reformatory regime.
Institutions for solitary confinement came because of the 1790 Pennsylvania legislature. Five concepts fueled this result. (16) Prisoners would not be treated vengefully.
Being confined on the inside would prevent further corruption. Being that humans are social beings, confinement would be a form of punishment. While isolated offenders would repent.
Solitary confinement would be cost effective
In Auburn, New York and institution was constructed that rivaled Pennsylvania’s concept.(17) In 1870, in Cincinnati prisons began to focus more on rehabilitation rather that punishment. Zebulon Brockway conducted the first reform in Elmira, New York. Which would focus primarily on the young first time felons. (19) Around the 1960’s there was a significant decline in rehabilitation.(23) The crime control model began to take shape in the 1970’s. (23)
2. Key Terms
Community Corrections- the goal of corrections would be to reintroduce convicted offenders into the community rather than put them in jail. Reformatory- system that focused on some sort of training, used the point system, and was given less severe sentences rather than jail. Intermediate Sanctions- forms of punishments that are not as harsh as being put into jail but are more severe than probation. Parole- being released from jail early but still supervised by the correctional system. Probation- community agencies that supervise people who are charged and convicted of crimes, but not put into jails. Congregate System- inmates would be isolated during the night hours but worked with other inmates in the day hours but had to remain silent.
What is the true difference in terms of probation and parole? Being that the definitions are very closely related. If jails hold offenders for periods beyond 48 hours. Where are offenders detained or held during the initial 48 hours?