A Brief History of the Mexican American War Essay Sample

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The grievous wrong perpetrated by Mexico upon our citizens throughout a long period of years remain undressed, and solemn [claims] treaties pledging her public faith for his redress have been disregarded. A government either unable or unwilling to inforce the execution of such treaties fails to perform one of its plainest duties.

Instead of this, however, we have been exerting our best efforts to propitiate her good will. Upon the pretext that Texas, a nation as independent as herself, thought proper to unite its destinies with our own, she has affected to believe that we have severed her rightful territory, and in official proclamations and manifestos has repeatedly threatened to make war upon us for the purpose of reconquering Texas. In the meantime, we have tried every effort at reconciliation.

The cup of forbearance had been exhausted even before the recent information from the frontier of the [Rio Grande] Del Norte. But now, after reintegrated menaces. Mexico has passed the boundary of the US, has invaded our territory, and shed American blood upon American soil. She has proclaimed the hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are now at war.

Document B

Miguel Barragan, Dispatch on Texas Colonists (October 31, 1835)

For a long time the ungrateful Texas colonists have made fun of the national laws of Mexico; disregarding the fact that Mexico gave them a generous welcome and kept them close to our bosom; dispensing to them the same-and even more-benefits than to our sons.

Everytime we have had internal agitation they have thought the Republic weak and impotent to control their excesses. These have multiplied intensely, producing insults again and again against the whole of our National Arms. To the Texas colonists, the word MEXICAN is, and has been, an execrable word. There has been no insult or violation that our countrymen have not suffered, including being jailed as “foreigners” in their own country. All this has reached the point where the flag of rebellion has been raised; the Texans aspiring shamelessly to take over one of the most precious parts of our land. Accomplices to this wickedness are adventurers from the state of Louisiana who foment disturbances and give necessary support to the rebels. The civilized world will not delay in pronouncing the judgment they deserve for this infamous and detestable conduct. The Supreme Government knows its duties and knows how to execute them. The Government believes that not one Mexican worthy of his country will favor the treason of foreign rebels, but that if such a misfortunate exists, the power and duty of punishing him lies in your hands. God and Liberty!

Document C
Charles DeMorse Gives a Texan’s View of the War with Mexico (1846)

At last we have a real “sure enough” war on hand: something to warm the blood and draw out the national enthusiasm. It seems that the “Magnanimous Mexican Nation” has at last come out of its chaparral of wordy diplomacy, treachery, meanness and bombast, and concluded for a little while, quickly with the though- an opportunity to pay off a little of the debt of vengeance which has been accumulating since the Massacre of the Alamo.

We trust that every man of our army, as he points his rifle and thrusts his, bayonet, will think of his countrymen martyred at the Alamo, Goliad, and at Mier, whose blood yet cries aloud from the ground for remembrance and vengeance, and taking a little closer aim or giving a little stronger thrust, will give his blow in his country’s cause and an additional “God Speed.”

Document D
“The Patriots Getting Their Beans” (1845)

James Polk’s supporters in the 1844 presidential campaign to collect support from him for their political causes. Polk sits on a throne seemingly oblivious to the chaotic scene while Andrew Jackson stands behind saying: “That’s right Jemmy, Non Committal. By the Eternal you’re a chip of the old block.” A group of women present him with a petition and ask: “Can’t you do something for us? we are poor weak women in great danger of being seduced! We want a proclamation in behalf of our Moral Reform Society.” Below him John Beauchamp Jones and Francis Preston Blair, editors of influential rival newspapers, the “Madisonian” and the “Globe,” fight each other for the right to be the administrative organ. An Irishman, hat in hand, approaches Polk and asks, “Plaze yer honor’s worship, can’t ye do somethin’ for me? I was bor-r-n in Boston and rared in New-Yor-r-k, be the howly St. Patrick, and nivver a bit of an office have I had yet.” Nearby, a German or Dutchman walks away in disgust shouting, “Dod rot this administration!

I’ve lost my sittivation that Tyler give me, that was worth $15 a year! Dod rot ’em, I say!” In the foreground Secretary of State James Buchanan asks a small, ragged man, “What Office do you expect, my man?” The man, a Rhode Islander, responds, “…I was an Officer with Govr. Dorr, and I should like to be an Officer agin; but I ain’t perticklar, if you haint got no office may be you’ve got some old Clothes to give me!” Dorr was the leader of a revolution in Rhode Island in 1842. On the left John C. Calhoun, a frustrated candidate for the 1844 Democratic nomination, rides off on a bicycle saying, “Let this Poke manage two stools if he can, I’ll cut my stick, and be off for the sunny south.” In the left foreground is a militia troop carrying a banner “For Oregon!! Liberty! or Death!!!” Their leader proclaims, “Follow me brave soldiers, strike but one blow, and Oregon is ours!” Polk’s campaign platform favored reannexation of the Oregon Territory. Above, in the background, members of the “Empire Club” wave their hats and fire a cannon. They may represent the expansionist platform on which Polk campaigned.

Document E

Resolution drafted by Charles Sumner (1847)

Resolved, That the present war with Mexico has its primary origin in the unconstitutional annexation to the United States of the foreign state of Texas while the same was still at war with Mexico; that it was unconstitutionally commenced by the order of the President, to General Taylor, to take military possession of territory in dispute between the United States and Mexico, and in ‘ the occupation of Mexico; and that it is now waged ingloriously by a powerful nation against a weak neighbor unnecessarily and without just cause, at immense cost of treasure and life, for the dismemberment of Mexico, and for the conquest of a portion of her territory, from which slavery has already been excluded, with the triple object of extending slavery, of strengthening the “Slave Power,” and of obtaining the control of the Free States, under the Constitution of the United States.

Resolved, That such a war of conquest, so hateful in its objects, so wanton, unjust, and unconstitutional in its origin and character, must be regarded as a war against freedom, against humanity, against justice, against the Union, against the Constitution, and against the Free States; and that a regard for the true interests and the highest honor of the country, not less than the impulses of Christian duty, should arouse all good citizens to join in efforts to arrest this gigantic crime, by withholding supplies’, or other voluntary contributions, for its further prosecution; by calling for the withdrawal of our army within the established limits of the United States; and in every just way aiding the country to retreat from the disgraceful position of aggression which it now occupies towards a weak, distracted neighbor and sister republic. Resolved, That our attention is directed anew to the wrong and “enormity” of slavery, and to the tyranny and usurpation of the “Slave Power,” as displayed in the history of our country, particularly in the annexation of Texas and the present war with Mexico….

Document F
Mexican Proclamation of War

Be it known: That the general congress has decreed, and the executive sanctioned, the following: The national congress of the Mexican Republic, considering: That the congress of the United States of the North has, by a decree, which its executive sanctioned, resolved to incorporate the territory of Texas with the American union; That this manner of appropriating to itself territories upon which other nations have rights, introduces a monstrous novelty, endangering the peace of the world, and violating the sovereignty of nations… That the law of the United States, in reference to the annexation of Texas to the United States, does in nowise destroy the rights that Mexico has, and will enforce, upon that department; That the United States, having trampled on the principles which served as a basis to the treaties of friendship, commerce and navigation, and more especially to those of boundaries fixed with precision, even previous to 1832, they are considered as inviolate by that nation.

Document G

Mexican general Mariana Arista’s advice to the soldiers of the U.S. Army (1846)

It is to no purpose if they tell you, that the law for the annexation of Texas justifies your occupation of the Rio Bravo del Norte; for by this act they rob us of a great part of the Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and New Mexico; and it is barbarous to send us a handful of men on such an errand against a powerful and warlike nation. Besides, the most of you are Europeans, and we are the declared friends of a majority of the nations of Europe. The North Americans are ambitious, overbearing, and insolent as a nation, and they will only make use of you as vile tools to carry out their abominable plans of pillage and rapine.

If, in time of action, you wish to espouse our cause, throw away your arms and run to us, and will embrace you as true friends and Christians. It is not decent nor prudent to say more. But should any of you render important service to Mexico, you shall be accordingly considered and preferred.

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