P1- Compare and contrast different organizational structures and culture.
Different types of organizational structures and culture.The things what influence the structure of a organization-task,size,age,staff,environment and culture and management style.
This is where roles are more important than individuals. In a role structure, everyone has their designated job descriptions, procedural handbook,accountabilities sheet, hierarchical career path, reward structure.E.G: banks, government offices, insurance companies,etc.
The power culture have a strong leader whit central power who have authority and power.Whit great power it comes great responsability.Responsability must be supported by authority.The leader is manipulating all the organizational activities and they must feel able to take big risks.
Small groups of proffesional work together and design an organization based around a person culture like small consultancies,arhitects,chambers.they only come toether at work just as a matter of convenience or self interest.e.g. consultants in the NHS, or computer programmers or IT people who work on short-term contracts.
In this type of culture structure team work has the priority.Is a team work project based in matrix structure.Here there is no single source of power is about individuals creativity to work together towards organisational goals.E.g. technology companies and management consultancies.
P2-Based on the Scenario given,explain how the relationship between an organization*s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business.
I think the relationship between arganization is very important for that Coca-Cola have a sow big succes.They used a task culture what i think is the best way to a organization because is a team work whit allots of peoples who has very good ideas about the product,publicity and selling.Is a centralised organization because they need to know everything about the products they make and quality.they are very proffesional and the decisions is taking just by the managers.First of all they start from down.e.g.(Functional structure) just one or two products make by a group of employees and after that they make a very good team whit the bottles from all around the world and sending them product in every corner of the glob.In time whit new ideas they grouwth bigger and bigger and now is the best company of the world.They come whit new products on the market ofcourse they tested first to be sure it will be profitable on the market.
They come whit different times of bootles for family to drinking at home 2l,for people who drinking every time walking on the street a smaller bootle(half bootle).If is understanding and working whit the smile on your face,every day its a beautyfoul day coming whit new ideas and profitable ones.Now they have allots of products like Coke,Sprite, etc this because they have new ideas from different tipes of people around the world, is about culture,how to make a good product for customers. I have one good example.Like 5 years all of my family was leaving together,and in that time i was in good relationship whit my parents and brothers too.My mother is cocking the best cake ever for us ,i am telling you very good product.I this days because we don*t have the same relationship in our family,my mother is cocking very rare and when is doing that cake is not sow good enymore.This is about relationship,harmony and love in one group(task culture). This organization is selling the product in every corner of the glob using a geographically based structure.
P3-Discuss the factors which influence individual behavior at work.
There are allots of behavioural problems could accourred at work.First of all for 80% peoples in this world is money(bad economy).If you are not good paid for your job you are not sow happy,and your mind is in other direction and your comportament si bad.Second one if you are not happy whit your family at home you will be the same at work(bad comportament) and your are thinking in other direction.There are different types ,factors what influence your behavior e.g Toxic work
enviornment,preasure to increase productivity,if you are a loner you can have a bad comportament at work too,abuses of alcohol or drugs.And onother think some peoples have physical problems when somebody is pushing you to do something or screaming at you if you make a small mestake,hitting you even sexual assault chan change your comportament,a good comportament or good person in a bad one.Now we can enumerate the factors:
1. Demographic Factors-the demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Organisations prefer persons that belong to good socio-economic background, well educated, young etc as they are believed to be performing better than the others.
2. Abilities and Skills-the physical capacity of an individual to do something can be termed as ability. Skill can be defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well. The individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by ability and skills. A person can perform well in the organisation if his abilities and skills are matched with the job requirement.
3. Perception- the knows process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in a meaningful way is referred to as perception. Every individual on the basis of his/he reference can organize and interpret environmental stimuli. The employees are likely to perform better if they are going to perceive it in a positive way.
4. Attitude- attitude can be defined as a tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably to certain objects, persons or situations. The employees can perform better in the organisation if they form a positive attitude. The factors such as family, society, culture, peers and organisational factors influence the formation of attitude.
5. Personality-personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individual, the inter-relations between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other people and situations. The several factors that influence the personality of an individual are heredity, family, society, culture and situation. Personality can be regarded as the most complex aspect of human beings that influences their behaviour in big way. It can be concluded that the study of personality traits offers an opportunity to understand the individuals. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating them for the accomplishment of the organisational goal. It refers to the fact that different environmental factors may generate different responses.
The study of these responses is very important for the organisation.If you have a bad personality you are not the best person in a organization
P4-Compare the effectiveness of the different leadership styles in two or more organizations of your choice.
A leader can be anyone on the team who has a particular talent, who is creatively thinking out of the box and has a great idea, who has experience in a certain aspect of the business or project that can prove useful to the manager and the team. Sometimes a teammate needs a warm hug. Sometimes the team needs a visionary, a new style of coaching, someone to lead the way or even for that reason, great leaders choose their leadership style like a footballer choice his boots.I know how to compare a leader.
1. A leadership can be (bureaucratic) sever leader, bureaucratic leader work „by the book.” They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely.
2. A charismatic leadership style- can resemble transformational leadership because these leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward. This excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous benefit. A charismatic leader- make the group happy all they and work is runing well.
3. Autocratic leadership- is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have complete power over their people. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team*s or the organization*s best interest.
I think the leadership is a little more important in time because is working all day whit his team and knows how to change what is bad at working in good and for that the organization is runs well.
The leaders have integrity, they inspire people with a shared vision of the future, they set clear goals and motivate people towards them, they manage delivery, and they communicate well with their teams and that its more important in one organization.
P5-Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management.
Many people strive to adhere to the theory to help them become better at their jobs or more successful in life, although this may lead to them having to sacrifice some of their personal principles in order to succeed. Organizational theory and management theory is used in many aspects of a working business. If an individual gets so wrapped up in trying to fit the mould of what they interpret their role should be in terms of organizational theory, they may start to neglect other areas of business. In the same way, management theory may also underpin the personal values of some individuals. For instance, they may disagree with a particular rule or regulation that has been introduced by the organisation, however in order to carry out their job as a manager effectively and professionally, they need to move away from their principles and make the job. It is difficult to try to make both management and organizational theories as a psychological contract between the employer and employee still needs to be maintained. Any changes to the organization or management in a company, is undoubtedly going to have an effect on all of this.
P6-Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations.
Management is regarded at the problem-solving mechanism with the help of mathematical tools and techniques,management problems can be described in terms of mathematical symbols and data.thus every managerial activity can be quantified. This approach covers decision making,system analysis and some aspects of human behavior.Operations research,mathematical tools,simulation,models etc. Are the basic methologies to solve managerial problems.
It has contributed significantly in developing orderly thinking in management which has provided exactness in management discipline.
Various mathematical tools like sampling,linear programming,games theory,time series analysis,simulation,waiting line theory etc. Have provideed more exactness in solving managerial problems.
This approach is a fast developing area in analysing and understanding management It is very difficult to call a separate school of management because it does not provide the answer for total managerial problems. Managerial activities are not really capable of being quantified because of onvolvement of human beings who are govemed by many irational factors also. As management is the process of getting things done by people, managers should understand human behaviour. Emphasis is put on increasing productivity through motivation and good human relations. Motivation, leadership, communication, participative management and group dynamics are the central core of this approach.
It suggests how the knowledge of human behaviour can be used in making people more effective in the organization. An individual’s behaviour is not determined by organization factors alone but also by his attitude, pressure, conflicts of cultural environment etc. Hence these factors must be taken into account.
P7-Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in period of change.
Different types of leadership styles are discussed below:
1. Autocratic leadership
Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have absolute power over their workers or team. Staff and team members have little opportunity to makesuggestions, even if these would be in the team’s or the organization’s best interest.Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Therefore, autocratic leadership often leads tohigh levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. However, for some routine and unskilled jobs, thestyle can remain effective because the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages. 2. Bureaucratic leadership
Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book.” They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their staff follows procedures precisely. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safetyrisks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or wherelarge sums of money are involved (such as handling cash). 3. Charismatic leadership
A charismatic leadership style can seem similar to transformational leadership, because theseleaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams and are very energetic in driving others forward.However, charismatic leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their teams, and thiscreates a risk that a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader leaves. Inthe eyes of the followers, success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitmentfrom the leader. 4. Democratic leadership or participative leadership
Although democratic leaders make the final decisions, they invite other members of the team tocontribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involvingteam members, but it also helps to develop people’s skills. Team members feel in control of their own destiny, so they’re motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.
Because participation takes time, this approach can take longer, but often the end result is better.The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essential, and when quality ismore important than speed to market, or productivity. 5.Laissez-faire leadership
This French phrase means “leave it be,” and it’s used to describe leaders who leave their teammembers to work on their own. It can be effective if the leader monitors what’s being achievedand communicates this back to the team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership iseffective when individual team members are very experienced and skilled self-starters.Unfortunately, this type of leadership can also occur when managers don’t apply sufficientcontrol. 6. People-oriented leadership or relations-oriented leadership This is the opposite of task-oriented leadership. With people-oriented leadership, leaders aretotally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people in their teams. It’s a participative style, and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration.In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership. 7. Servant leadership
This term, created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader who is often not formallyrecognized as such. When someone, at any level within an organization, leads simply by meetingthe needs of the team, he or she is described as a “servant leader.”In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, because the whole teamtends to be involved in decision making.Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that it’s an important way to move ahead in aworld where values are increasingly important, and where servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations, peoplewho practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadershipstyles. 8. Task-Oriented leadership
Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done, and they can be quite autocratic.They actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize, andmonitor. However, because task-oriented leaders don’t tend to think much about the well-being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, withdifficulties in motivating and retaining staff. 9.Transactional leadership
This style of leadership starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader totallywhen they accept a job. The “transaction” is usually the organization paying the team membersin return for their effort and compliance. The leader has a right to “punish” team members if their work doesn’t meet the pre-determined standard.Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. Theleader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives thatencourage even higher standards or greater productivity. Alternatively, a transactional leader could practice “management by exception” ± rather than rewarding better work, the leader couldtake corrective action if the required standards are not met.Transactional leadership is really a type of management, not a true leadership style, because thefocus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work;however it can be effective in other situations. 10. Transformational leadership
As we discussed earlier, people with this leadership style are true leaders who inspire their teamsconstantly with a shared vision of the future. While this leader’s enthusiasm is often passed ontothe team, he or she can need to be supported by “detail people.” That’s why, in manyorganizations, both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. The transactionalleaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while the transformationalleaders look after initiatives that add new value.
P8-Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace.
Employee Motivation in the Workplace: Different Types of Motivation Theories Of the many different types of motivation theories, I would like to highlight three that are of particular use:David Merrill and Roger Reid*s work on the four personal stylesDavid McClelland*s theory of motivation involving three basic needs: achievement, power, andaffiliationFredrick Herzberg*s work on money as a de-motivator at work
There are many more good motivation theories Maslow, Myers-Briggs, etc. but I*ve foundthese three to be most useful in managing groups. The Power of Intrinsic Motivation
The starting point for all three different types of motivation theories is that they are built on theconcept that intrinsic motivation is much stronger than extrinsic. This bedrock fundamental is perhaps the most powerful concept to apply in your work; see my post on top employeemotivators for a more thorough review of incentive plans.Briefly, it means that to get great results, you need people to be intrinsically interested in their work. Your efforts to control, set expectations, and reward people are all methods of extrinsicmotivation, which helps explain why managers are often disappointed with employee resultswhen relying on those motivation tools.So, to help you get better results, here are three methods of intrinsic motivation that all build onthat intrinsic bedrock.
To help people connect intrinsically with their work, structure their work so their major need is met. The Power´ need correlates to the Driver´ above; Affiliation´ to the Amiable´ above.What*s new here is the Achievement´ need. It can cut across all the Merrill and Reid personalmotivation styles. The key here is to surround high achievers with other high achievers. To betheir best, they need to know they*e on a team capable of pulling off a worthwhile, attainablemission. Money as a De-Motivator
Frederick Herzberg was a clinical psychologist and pioneer of job enrichment.´ He proposedthe Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as the two factor theory of job satisfaction.
To create an environment where people motivate themselves, you must adequatelytake care of the hygiene factors. If you don*t, demotivated employees will likely result. The keyhere is that adequate´ is enough; you don*t need an outstanding physical environment because itwon*t increase employee motivation noticeably. In sum, the hygiene factors´ have a downsideif not done well, but not much of an upside potential impact on employees, even if they*re donevery well.
Then, allow the motivator factors´ to work for you these are the factors that have the realupside and can make a strong contribution to your results. And note, they are almost all methodsof intrinsic motivation.The one extrinsic´ item on the list, recognition, can be made intrinsic if it*s in the form of encouragement, rather than as a reward. For example, in Soul of a New Machine, Tracey Kidder writes that the reward´ for successful hi tech engineers is«the chance to tackle the next cool project! Congratulations on the great results. I*m not at all surprised. Now let*s figure out howyou can make that kind of an impact again,´ is more powerful than Atta boy/girl´ in whatever form, whether bonus, plaque, employee of the month award, etc. A Summary of Employee Motivation Theories
Employee motivation is simple.You can*t motivate people.You can provide an environment where people motivate themselves.Apply what you know about people*s styles to strengthen their individual work environment.´And along the way, focus, focus, focus on intrinsic motivation factors.Which means: Build strong work relationships and expand those relationships so that more is possible.These different types of motivation theories are simple in concept. What makes it hard is that allof the above mean building a healthy, vibrant work environment, and that work is as vulnerableas building any other effective relationship in your life
P9-Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers
Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towardsorganizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need.Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumedthat motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone ismotivated by several differing forces.Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes andsimilar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those
things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act ina desired manner.To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities tocommunicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, obtaining feedback, to involve, todelegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward. 1) Treat staff well:
Subordinates have to be treated with diligence. The manager has to stay friendly as well asmaintain a level of distance with his staff. It*s a tricky ground to tread. The staff looks up on themanager as their leader. They expect maturity, rationality and understanding from their superiors. Simple things like calling people by their first name, chatting about their families for awhile or even a general inquiry about their well-being, brings in a feeling of belongingness.Small gestures of this type help in building up of a cordial relationship. 2) Think like a winner:
A manager has to handle two situations, ³The Winning´ and ³The loosing´. The crux is to think like a winner even when all the odds seem against you. It is necessary to equip yourself with all the tools of a winner. Always remember that winning and losing rotate in a cycle. If you have been losing from a long time you are very near the winning edge. 3) Recognize the differences:
All the employees in the organization vibrate to a different pace. A treatment that motivates onemay demonization the other. Understanding the difference in temperament in between theindividuals is important. 4) Set realistic goals:
Set moderate goals. Setting too high a task creates a feeling of non-achievement, right from the beginning itself. The goals set should be such which seem feasible to the employees to beachieved. A slightly higher target than expected provides a challenge.
P10-Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations
The term group can be defined as two or more persons interacting and working together for acommon purpose. When people work in groups rather than as individuals, the goals of theorganization can be easily achieved. However, working in a group is a complex task. Groupdynamics refers to the interactions between the members of a group. A work group of anorganization is the main foundation for the social identity of employees in that organization.Hence, performance at work and relationships outside the organization are influenced by thenature of groups in the organization. In this unit, we will discuss the nature and types of groupsand the stages in development of groups along with the structure, tasks, and processes of groups. Nature of Groups
Different types of groups are formed to achieve specific results in organizations. The definitionof a group as given by Harold H. Kelley and J.W. Thibaut is ³A collection of individuals. Themembers accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact withone another to promote its accomplishment.´ Kurt Lewin popularized the term µgroup dynamics*in the 1930s. There are three views on the nature of interaction between members of a group or group dynamics. The first view is the normative view, which describes how to carry outactivities and organize a group. According to the second view, group dynamics consists of a setof techniques which include brainstorming, role play, team building, sensitivity training, self-managed teams, and transactional analysis. The third view explains group dynamics from the
viewpoint of the internal nature of the groups. The formation of groups, structure, processes, andfunctioning are discussed in this view along with the effect of groups on individuals, other groups, and the complete organization. Dynamics of Group Formation
People form groups for various reasons. Different classical theories of groups try to explain why people form groups. The theory of propinquity proposes geographical closeness as the reason.The propinquity theory provides a very basic explanation that people living or working at placeslocated close to one another tend to form groups. But the theory doesn*t explain the complexityof group formation. The balance theory says group formation results from the similarity of attitudes and values between people. Individuals with common interests maintain their relationship by a symmetrical balance between their attitudes and common interests.
Another theory of group formation is the exchange theory. It proposes reward-cost outcomes of interaction as the reason. There may be several other economic, social, and security reasons for the formation of groups. By becoming members of a group, individuals fulfill their need for affiliation.There are formal and informal groups in organizations. Various groups exist within theorganization and they are of varying degrees of formalization. Groups in organizations are of various types based on the number of members they have and the interactions between them. Formal Groups
A group formed by the organization to accomplish a specific task is termed as a formal group.The organization sets up a formal group and allocates tasks and responsibilities to differentmembers with the intention of achieving organizational goals. Command groups and task groupsare examples of formal groups. A command group is relatively permanent in nature and findsrepresentation in the organization chart. Functional departments of organizations are consideredas command groups. Task groups, on the other hand, are formed for a specific task and aretemporary in nature. They are dissolved after the task is accomplished. After dissolution of thetask group, the members of the task group continue as members of their respective functionaldepartments or command groups with reduced duties. Informal Groups
Unlike formal groups that are established by the organization, informal groups are formed by theemployees themselves. The reasons for the formation of informal groups could be the need for
companionship, common interests, growth, recreation, or support. There are two types of informal groups ± friendship groups and interest groups. Members of friendship groups have acordial relationship with each other, common interests and are similar in age, ethnic heritage,views, etc. They like each other*s company and want to spend time together. Interest groups areformed to organize an activity and are temporary in nature. Informal groups mainly satisfy thesocial needs of members. Stages of Group Development
Before the 1960s, it was believed that groups were formed in a specific sequence but it was later realized that they do not follow a standard pattern of development. Established models of groupdevelopment are the five-stage model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The Five-Stage Model
According to the five-stage model of group development, all groups pass through the forming,storming, norming, performing, and adjourning stages. The duration of each stage varies fromgroup to group and some groups do not pass through all the stages. This model became popular in the mid-1960s. Forming
This is the initial stage of group formation where members try to identify acceptable behavior ina group. The members try to mold their behavior so as be a part of the group. Storming
In this stage, disagreements about leadership among members may give rise to other conflicts.By the end of this stage, a relatively clear hierarchy of positions in the group emerges. Norming
This stage of group development enhances a sense of camaraderie in members through thedevelopment of close relationships. A common set of expectations for behavior in the group isthe outcome of this stage. Performing
In this stage, members of the group exhibit committed performance to achieve goals defined inthe norming stage. This is the last stage for permanent work groups. Adjourning
This is the last stage for temporary groups such as task groups or committees formed toaccomplish a certain task. After this stage, the groups cease to exist. While some of the members
may feel happy about the accomplishments, others may be depressed that they will lose friendsafter the group disperses.The effectiveness of groups is supposed to increase through the stages. But this does not alwayshappen and some groups may cease to exist without passing through all the stages while someother may not follow the sequence of stages given in the five stage model. In fact, groupeffectiveness depends on complex factors.
P11-Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations
Tailored to the organization
Each organization is different and requires an approachcustomized to the culture and aligned with the business strategy and environment.
The off-the-shelf approach can utilize a variety of models and approaches andintegrate our approach with your existing training and organizational development efforts.Materials are professionally produced with your logo, in your style, so that everyone in your organization knows that this is your effort, not a training/consulting firm. Practical and Relevant
In working with team members, it is believed that it is best to ³keepit simple´ and introduce concepts and tools that can be applied immediately to real-lifesituations. Trying to dazzle members with sophisticated concepts and tools is counter-productive. Competency-Based
In training team leaders and team members, applied research that hasidentified the key competencies that distinguish high performing teams from average performingteams. If appropriate, a customized team competency model can be developed for your organization Customer-Focused
It is encouraged that teams to collect and utilize feedback from internaland/or external customers, and manages customers* expectations. Most teams have foundcustomer feedback meetings and service quality improvement tools, such as Moments of Truth/Cycles of Service analysis, to be extremely valuable.
Transfer of technology
Organizations that have had the most success with teams have donemost of the work themselves and have developed the internal capability to provide on- goingday-to-day support for each team. Being dependent any consulting firm in the long term is not agood strategy.
P12-Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation.
New technology has been injected into the workplace at an exponentially increasing rate over thelast few decades. Many companies see new technology as the means to increase profit marginsand to remain competitive in a rapidly evolving marketplace. This paper will discuss some of those new technologies and their impact on the workplace. Specifically, I would like to focus oninformation technology, its implementation, its pitfalls, and its future.In 1977, knowledge and information-based activities contributed to almost half of the grossnational product and employed 47% of the American workforce (Sussan, 2006). One could postulate that those numbers have increased over the last 30 years. As information has becomean increasingly important feature in the business world, new technologies have become availableto facilitate its use and dissemination. This has led to an ever expanding and evolving field of information technology (IT). New developments in IT have led to an increasingly mobile workforce.
We are no longer tied toour desk in order to stay in the information loop. We can take our office with us wherever we go.Cellular phones allow us to be reached almost anywhere. Blackberries and Ultra-mobile PCs permit to access e-mail and other data products at a wide range of locations. A wide range of new technologies have given businesses access to faster communication, increased efficiencies,and the ability to work away from the office (Mamaghani, 2006). New technology has opened a door of opportunities for companies and employees willing toexplore non-traditional work arrangements. Standley (2006) wrote, “91 percent of organizationsallow employees to work at home occasionally.” As telecommuting becomes more popular,employers are realizing the benefits, including “productivity gains, reduced absenteeism, reducedemployee turnover costs, reduced real estate costs, and reduced relocation costs to name a few”
(Mamaghani, 2006). For Employees, “telecommuting can offer more flexibility and a relief fromworkplace policies such as dress code and formal office hours” (Sussan, 2006).This technology also allows a new kind of team to emerge. Virtual teams can be formed, bringing together the best people regardless of location and time (Gignac, 2005). E-mail,teleconferencing, video conferencing, and new emerging technologies are enabling peoplearound the world to communicate and collaborate rapidly and efficiently. Virtual teams arecontributingto a synergy like never before seen. Pitfalls
With all the improvements in productivity and efficiency offered by new technologies, there areareas of concern that must be considered thoroughly by any organization before implementing anew technology. Security is a primary concern inherent in a mobile and accessible IT system.Denying network access to unauthorized users is an ongoing battle in many firms. Physicalsecurity of IT equipment is also an issue. Standley (2006) writes, “It was recently reported thatthe average business laptop held about $1 million of commercial data.”Companies implementing new technology must also take into account the social impact.According to Sussan (2006), “teamwork is a crucial element of workplace functioning.” He goeson to explain that studies have shown lower satisfaction levels for users of virtual meeting toolsin contrast with fact-to-face meetings.
This effect may be able to be mitigated with a hybridvirtual team, where members occasionally meet in a traditional physical location.There are also some concerns to consider with the telecommuting arrangement. If teamcohesiveness is a primary concern with an organization, the lack of interaction between peerscould hinder this goal. Supervision of employees working off-site is also problematic. Evaluating performance, distributing the workload, and motivating employees is more difficult when theyare not physically present. Finally, how will customer service be affected by a transition to amobile workforce? Customer acceptance is important (Mamaghani, 2006).The growth of new technologies to be used in the workplace is showing no sign of slowingdown. Some examples of technology currently in development for commercial use are wearablecomputing, city and region-wide WiFi, and nanotechnology (Standley, 2006). Microsoft andIBM are working on collaboration technology that will facilitate virtual meetings where
participants will be able to teleconference on their computer screens, while creating or changingdocuments and product designs using a “virtual whiteboard” (Mamaghani, 2006). Thesetechnologies and many more, including all the unforeseen advances, will continue to contributeto an increasingly mobile workforce. The challenge lies in discovering how to implement new technology in the workplace as it becomes available. Standley (2006) says that according to a Global Future Forum survey, 76 percent of respondents agreed that “organizations are unable to effectively manage and deploynew technology due to rapid change and constant innovation.” The ability to keep up withtechnology changes and integrate them in to business will require a paradigm shift in the way weview technology. Today’s children are growing up in a high-technology era, and will be verycapable of realizing this new business model in regard to technology (Standley, 2006).