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Bhubaneswar /ˌbʊvəˈneɪʃwər/, also spelled Bhubaneshwar (Bhubanēsbara pronunciation (help•info)), is the capital of the Indian state of Orissa, officially spelled Odisha. The city has a history of over 3000 years starting with the Mahamegha-bahana Chedi dynasty (around 2nd century BCE) who had Sisupalgarh near present-day Bhubaneswar as their capital. Bhubaneswar has been known by names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari (City of Temples) otherwise known as the Temple City of India. It is the largest city of Orissa, and a center of economic and religious importance in the region today. Bhubaneswar’s possession of magnificent sculptures and architectural heritage, coupled with the sanctity asEkamrakshetra make this one of the great religious centres of Orissa since early medieval days.
With its large number of Hindu temples (over 600 in number), which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a Temple City of India and together with Puri and Konark it forms theSwarna Tribhuja (Golden Triangle); one of the most visited destinations in eastern part of India. Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the political capital of the state of Orissa in 1948, a year after India gained its independence from Britain. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often commonly together known as the twin-cities of Orissa. The metropolitan area formed by the twin cities had a population of 1.4 million during 2011. It is the fastest developing cities of India in the recent years. History Of Bhubaneswar
The history of Bhubaneswar may be viewed as two phases: ancient Bhubaneswar and modern Bhubaneswar. While the ancient city has a history that goes back more than 2000 years, the modern city came into existence in 1948 The first mention of Bhubaneswar in Indian history is in the Kalinga War which was held near Dhauli (presently located in south Bhubaneswar) in the 3rd century BCE. The later Emperor Kharavela established his capital in Sisupalgarh which is on the outskirts of the city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves by Kharavela give a good account of that period which is estimated as 1st-2nd century BCE. Later, innumerable temples built throughout ancient and medieval history in tune with its status as Temple City, give a chronicle of the city’s history. Climate
The city has a tropical savanna climate that is designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22–32 °C (72–90 °F). Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June. Winter lasts for only about two and half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, with daily temperatures ranging from 27–38 °C (81–100 °F); January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113.0 °F), and the lowest is 12 °C (54 °F). Temples and Architecture
Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over a thousand temples; earning the tag of the Temple City of India. Temples made in theKalinga architectural style – which typically constitutes, the pine spire that curves up to a point over the sanctum housing the presiding deity, and the pyramid-covered hall where people sit and pray. Some of the famous temples include, Lingaraj Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani Temple, Ananta Vasudeva Temple. The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, served as the site of an ancient Jainmonastery which was carved into cave-like chambers in the face of the hill. These caves, with artistic carvings, date back to the 2nd century BCE. Dhauli hills has major Edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock, and a dazzling white Peace Pagoda has been built by the Japan Buddha Sangha and the Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha in the 1970s. Apart from the ancient temples few other important temples were built in recent times that includes Ram Mandir and ISKCON temple. Sports
Bhubaneswar’s major sporting arena is the Kalinga Stadium, having facilities for athletics, football, hockey, basketball, tennis, table tennis and swimming. East Coast Railway Stadium, a prominent cricket stadium hosts Ranji Trophy, and other matches.Construction of the galleries and renovation of the stadium is under process. An air-conditioned indoor stadium with a capacity of 2000 spectators for hosting badminton, volleyball, basketball and table tennis games is also under construction. Barabati Stadium, Cuttack, Orissa’s only venue for international cricket matches, is located around 25 kilometres (16 mi) away. Bhubaneswar has its own franchise of Odisha Premier League, Bhubaneswar Jaguars, which started in 2010. Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in the Infocity area of the city. Festivals of Bhubaneswar
Some of the important festivals of Bhubaneswar are:- Makar Mela, Megha Mela, Maha Shivaratri, Taratarini Mela, Durga Puja, Lakshmi Puja