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Adaptation and Natural Selection Essay Sample

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Adaptation and Natural Selection Essay Sample

Adaptation that is, the way that species’ anatomy, physiology, and behaviour appear to be well suited to the demands of their environments. Adaptation is pervasive in nature. Moreover, once created, species were believed to change little, through time. In his Origin of Species, published in November 1859, Darwin explained the purpose of the book as follows: “I had two distinct objects in view; firstly to show that species had not been separately created, and secondly, that natural selection had been the chief agent of change.” Natural selection, Darwin believed, explained how species became adapted to their environments.

Natural selection, then, is differential reproductive success, with heritable favourable traits bestowing a survival advantage on those individuals that possess them. Generation by generation, favourable traits will become ever more common in the population, causing a micro-evolutionary which shift within the species. Such traits will remain favoured, however, only if prevailing conditions remain the same. A species’ environment usually does not remain constant in nature. A change in a species’ physical or biological environment may alter a population’s adaptive landscape, making a less advantageous trait more favourable. Natural selection or “struggle for existence” as Darwin believe it, is a local process, consisting of a generation by generation adjustment to local conditions. The power of natural selection can be seen in the phenomenon of convergent evolution, in which distantly related species come to resemble one another very closely by adapting to similar ecological niches.

The mollusc Littorina saxatillis is a snail species that is found on the shores around Iceland. There are usually found on rocks, under the stones. The snails may have different in colours (yellow, black, green, brown and etc). On Kópavogur shore and Álftanes shore, they change into different colours by adapting themselves to the environment around both shores. The height of the snails may also be varies and the foot opening ratio may also varies.

Around Kópavogur the shore is relatively sheltered, around the shore is flat and sandy. The sand is usually black in colour. Seaweeds can be found around the shore and is green to dark green in colour.

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