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Alternative Motivational Theory Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

The Theory of Taylor

Taylor stated in his theory, that an employee’s key motivator to perform at high standards is increased wages. He thought that peoples main ambition to work is for what they will receive; money. He found this out by conducting experiment at a business environment – the findings were that when tasks that each employee are paid do are divided into smaller areas, employees became more efficient and effective at the single task they perform, therefore Taylor assumed that jobs must be split into small tasks, so that the employees will repeat the same process of the task and this will mean that the employees will work quickly and mistakes will be eliminated, as due to the employees constantly doing the same task it will lead to them becoming an expert in the area, resulting to excellent performance at the workplace.

How piece rate is used in Waitrose? (Taylor at Waitrose)

Piece rate could be used in Waitrose by shelf stacking, due to there being more shelves therefore packages/boxes must be unloaded and stacked by employees in order to ensure they receive higher pay. Another way is through tills, as if the employees have more customers to serve, the higher the wage they will receive as they will be paid for the number of customers served. The employees on the customer service desk could also be used to pay workers by piece rate, as the number of customers they deal with will determine whether they receive a higher or lower pay. There are employees in the bakery section and Waitrose use piece rate in this section, due to having the number of loaves of bread produced to determine their wage.

How to break tasks in Waitrose? (Taylor at Waitrose)

Waitrose could break tasks by having specific employees working in the deliveries stage, in which they have to unload the stock and store them in the suitable areas in the supermarket, by stacking them on the shelves. Another section is the bakery which the specific employees gather the ingredients and mix them together then put the mix into tins which creates a specific shape for different pastry’s/ bread. After the ingredients are put together, the employees put the pastry/bread in the oven and then take the bread/pastry out of the oven for the employees to then stack the product on the shelves and serve it to the customers.

* 6 areas that could benefit from this method

* Need to look at how it might have a benefit and negative impact on Waitrose

Staff morale:

Breaking down on tasks

* Advantages

The Breaking down of tasks will make employees happier, as they will get very good at completing that task and therefore may feel a sense of achievement and that they are an “expert” in that area which will result to the business having a better chance at creating a better atmosphere at Waitrose, which leads to the employees giving excellent customer service increasing a good reputation for Waitrose.

* Disadvantages

The Breaking down of tasks will mean that employees will start to become bored of their day-to-day tasks at work, due to it being repetitive and not allowing the employees to develop and learn different areas of Waitrose apart from that specific area. This means that the employees may not be enthusiastic about their job, which decreases staff morale and this makes the business as a whole perform ineffectively, as the employees are demotivated to work productively or efficiently, which will be a weakness for Waitrose as the employee’s customer service and production will be weak giving a bad name to Waitrose.

Piece rate

* Advantage

Piece rate is an advantage as it gives the employees the opportunity to earn more money and get financially rewarded for doing well and this will make them feel positive, as they know that their efforts are directly rewarded with their wages, which will allow the employees to acknowledge that they are being noticed in doing their hard work, therefore they will continue keeping the Waitrose team happy with their performance.

* Disadvantage

The disadvantage of piece rate, is that If the employees are not as fast as other workers, piece rate may make them feel they are underachieving which will create a bad atmosphere at work, due to other workers becoming jealous of those that completed the tasks before, which will make employees become less enthusiastic and start to produce less and feel that they are lacking in their own personal challenge, which leads to their self-esteem as the employee may start to believe that they cannot perform at high standards to be better or the same level as the other employees.

Quality of product

Breaking down on tasks

* Advantages

The breaking down of tasks will allow the employees to work on a specific area for a long period of time, which involves repetitively doing the job at work again and again, to eventually become familiar with the machinery they may have to use in Waitrose, or techniques they need to learn in that area which will enable the workers to become experts in working in that part of the company, which will ensure that the products they produce are at high quality to meet the customers standards.

* Disadvantages

However, the breaking down of tasks can have negatives, as the employees may become de-motivated as they feel that they are doing the same job constantly and feel that they are not being able to grow and learn new skills other than the specific skills needed for that specific area in Waitrose e.g. making sandwiches. This means that employees may not produce the high quality product due to boredom e.g. sandwiches that Waitrose promise their loyal customers may not be consistently of high quality as employees are not paying enough attention to the product that they have responsibility in making.

Piece rate

* Advantages

By Using piece rate in Waitrose, this will allow the employees to be enthusiastic in producing more products e.g. in the bakery section the employees will be driven to produce as many breads as they can, to then allow more customers to buy the bread, this means the higher the output the higher sales Waitrose will encounter and this will motivate employees as they are driven into completing the task as quickly, at high quality as staff must be careful to ensure that products e.g. bread are of good quality as the manager may reject poor quality items which means that they may not get paid for it.

* Disadvantages

If the employees feel that their pay is based on how many products they produce or how many customers they serve, they may rush the speed in which they perform these tasks which will mean that the quality of the product will not be at Waitrose high standards and the quality of the service they provide to the customers will be poor. All in which will lead to the customers not being satisfied at Waitrose, giving a high chance that they may not return back.

Productivity

Breaking down on tasks

* Advantage

The productivity of the employees will increase because if Waitrose break down the work on different tasks, the employee will become experts on the given job due to them doing the task repetitively, therefore the employees will learn how to work efficiently at the task and do so by also working effectively. All this will increase the productivity of the workers at Waitrose, therefore there will be more products being made thus more sales will occur.

* Disadvantage

The Breaking down of tasks may increase the boredom of some employees at Waitrose, as doing the same work at the same area may not be seen as exciting for some employees due to them not learning new things and not being able to change the scenery at work. This will cause the workers at Waitrose to work much slower, due to them not having any challenge to overcome.

Piece rate

* Advantage

The piece rate will encourage workers to work faster by producing more in order to earn more, therefore the productivity of the service and products given to customers will be efficient and effective.

* Disadvantage

Not all workers are trusted to work well as each other, therefore there may be some staff that are working extremely hard and others that are working less effectively, this means that those that are working hard may see this unfair therefore there staff morale will fall. Which leads to employees not bothering to work productively; as if the whole business fails their personal hard work is not shown and are not individually rewarded.

Staff turnover

Breaking down on tasks

* Advantage

The Breaking down of tasks allows the individual employees to feel like experts, due to having the experience of being well trained in one particular area at Waitrose, therefore this means that they will enjoy being good at their small role and enjoy not having to ask anyone for help as they are very familiar with the techniques needed. In addition some employees may like having a lack of responsibility, therefore having them assigned to one particular job, means that they will only need to be responsible for one area.

* Disadvantage

Breaking down on task means that due to the repetition of the same task assigned to the employees, this increases boredom therefore the employees will have a lack of challenge that gives them enthusiasm to overcome and increases the chance of them leaving as they may find a different job which provides them with more exciting challenges for them.

Piece rate

* Advantage

With piece rate the employees can potentially earn more this way than other jobs, as they will provide the employees with traditional pay methods, which may not be as high as with piece rate therefore the employees are more likely to stay in the company.

* Disadvantage

However with piece rate Waitrose employees have no guaranteed income, as they are only paid for production levels therefore if they get sick or if someone else in the company does not work effectively enough, than the salary of all the employees at Waitrose will be negatively affected, therefore the employees may not like the fact that they have to depend on other workers when it comes to their pay.

Recruitment of workers:

Breaking down on tasks

* Advantage

This idea may appeal to those potential workers who don’t look for responsibility, therefore want to be specialised in one particular role at Waitrose, in addition the fact that there may be some potential workers at Waitrose, that are wiling to be assigned to the job role, due to those workers not being keen on working in that specific role that they already have, therefore by recruiting workers this means that it will increase staff morale as employees will be happy at their job role.

* Disadvantage

Breaking down on tasks means that employees will encounter lack of responsibility, which they may not be too happy about, as they may believe that they are not given the opportunity to grow in the company and repetition of task may not be appealing to many of the potential applicants and they will believe the job title seems boring and lacks personal challenge.

Piece rate

* Advantage

Piece rate may attract potential workers as they may find the opportunity to earn a higher wage- eye catching, in addition they may find the whole process more interesting, as they may find it as a challenge to try and get more of a higher salary if they work productively, therefore the mission of working hard for higher wage will drag them into the company.

* Disadvantage

Piece rate means that the potential employees may not be keen to work at Waitrose as the they may not be happy with the amount of pressure they will be in, as they have to ensure they are working harder than usual, in addition the lack of stability of employees will not encourage them to work at Waitrose, therefore there will be limited applicants applying for job roles at Waitrose.

2B Leadership

Types of leadership style

Autocratic:

This is when the leader of a company makes decisions affecting everyone within without reference to any of the workers as they have a high degree of dependency. How

ever this means that the workers not involved in decisions can lead for them to become de-motivated.

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In addition this may be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively.

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm

This type of leadership style will fit in when there is a need in high production; this is usually in special occasions like Christmas time. Therefore Waitrose must increase their production, to ensure that the stock will be up for customers to buy the presents they need for family and friends. Thus by having autocratic management style it will mean the main leader will ensure that all the employees are working effectively to have a high production level and to avoid delays occurring e.g. this could involve ensuring that all of the shelves are fully stocked and telling staff to fill specific shelves when needed. Overall by having autocratic it will mean that the customers will be satisfied, as they will have the products ready for them when they come to do their Christmas shopping despite the company being busy, which in addition will create excellent customer service, which makes customers come again and that increases profit levels for Waitrose.

Another example is, when Waitrose have new employees coming into the business, they must be trained in order to ensure that they will be working effectively and are working safely. An example of when a new employee will need to be trained at Waitrose is when they need to use the machinery at the bakery section. This is very much needed in the organisation, as if they get injured the company will have a bad reputation causing a limit of applicants wanting to work at Waitrose, additionally it will mean that the efficiency of Waitrose will be slow, as they will not be confident with the tools they must use, therefore increase the mistakes that they make which will to conclude, cause the productivity and the quality of the products and service, decrease making customers unhappy and unsatisfied. Therefore having autocratic leadership style will mean that the manager will have full responsibility in training the employee successfully, avoiding any negatives happening in the business.

An Autocratic leadership style will motivate staff, due to them being able to learn how the manager organises everything and adapt to it, also it will mean that the workers will be rewarded through promotions, which will encourage them to work more effectively, however punishments will occur if they don’t work as Waitrose demands, therefore this makes the employees at Waitrose ensure that they do not perform badly, which may give them punishments such as going down a step of authority in the company or even getting fired additionally staff will feel reassured that what they are doing is correct and the close supervision will mean that they know they are doing this correctly and can ask for help if needed.

However there are negatives that may arise with this type of leadership at Waitrose. This is due to autocratic leadership not being suitable when morale is low. If staff are feeling undervalued and de-motivated to work – an autocratic style of leadership may make this worse, as staff may feel worse if they are too closely monitored and not consulted about issues which might affect them, which will mean that there will be a high level of absenteeism, which leads to delays in productivity in the workplace e.g. this may occur through Easter holiday, as the company will need a lot of employees working due to the shop floor being busy with customers and if the employees call in sick then the company will run less efficiently, – therefore, an autocratic leadership style would not allow for the opportunity to understand why staff are feeling deflated thus another form of leadership may be more appropriate.,

Another reason why it may not be suitable for Waitrose is for example, at Waitrose the employees have the right to put their views across and be involved in decision-making due to it being a Co-operative company. This is because they need to encounter advice from different areas of the business I.e. bakery section, sandwich section etc. this is due to them being more of an expert, therefore if Waitrose are improving a particular section such as the bread, they will ask the employees to take part due to their advice being a effective source, into making a good decision for the company. Additionally Waitrose must inform employees on big decisions as they are a workers Co-operative, which means that the company is self managed by all its employees, so staff will feel as part owners of the business therefore they have the right to be heard. For instance if Waitrose became a 24hr supermarket, these employees as owners and with an employment contract would want to be consulted rather than simply being told about this significant change that will affect them.

Democratic:

This management style encourages decision making from different perspectives, which makes leadership be more emphasised through the organisation. There are four points that come with democratic leadership style:

– Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken.

– Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct

– Scale: Paternalistic: Where consults but final decision

– Country Club Management: Takes all into act and perhaps votes or allows all a share in decisions.

http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/f/democratic-leadership.htm

An example of this type of leadership at Waitrose is when they ask the employees in specific areas of the company for advice in the section that they are experts in i.e. in the bakery section, if Waitrose for example was looking to increase the amount of bread produced during Christmas holiday at a specified time, the employees will be affected as they will have to make the bread at the best quality , and have the product ready on time for the customers to collect. It is important that Waitrose does this as these are matters directly affecting the employees, thus may need consultation, if they don’t, the employees may be offended and may decrease staff morale. Overall by having democratic leadership, Waitrose will have good advice from expertise to ensure that they have made the right decision and will allow the employees to feel more involved, resulting in increase of motivation

Another example where this type of leadership exists at Waitrose is how they allow employees input on judging how to achieve their personal goals e.g. Waitrose have appraisals which involve congratulating their employees on achieving their personal objectives as well as the company’s within the year. This lies on the democratic management style as both the employees and their section management at Waitrose have a meeting for the employee to have the opportunity to discuss any achievements that they have accomplished with their manager and additionally have the chance to come up on the next objective that will help their own personal development as well as the company’s as a whole which means that due to this compromise between two tittles i.e. mangers allowing the employees input in a business decisions, it works under democratic leadership style.

This type of leadership is good for Waitrose, as it will mean that employees will feel they are value in the business and this makes them more motivated to do well in the company, due to feeling like an important member in the business. This also allows the company to ensure that they are making the right decisions, as even though the manger manages the employees, he/she is not qualified for all the sections in Waitrose, which is why it is important that they involve the employees that are, to ensure that they are making the most effective decision.

However there are negatives that come with democratic style of management. An example being when different holidays occur, Waitrose need to ensure that they are working efficiently, such as if it was the Christmas holidays, Waitrose employees and managers cannot waste any time negotiating on different ideas of conclusions of whether they should have a discount on a certain product or not. This needs to be done by one manager in the company, as this will ensure that Waitrose will be run efficiently and smoothly. This is due to Waitrose not being able to afford disagreements as this will lead to delays on the production line, and customers will not be satisfied due to the wait they must take to receive the product they want. If customers are not happy then this will result in profit levels decreasing, as they will not want to shop at Waitrose again.

Another negative that can occur with democratic leadership is delays on stock. This is a negative to Waitrose as this means that if employees cannot come up with a conclusion, on what which stock they need for the section at Waitrose, delays may occur on the whole company due to not receiving the particular stock on time and this causes the whole company to run slower making customers not happy with the service given to them, which will lead bad reputation. Only one leader should make decisions for Waitrose, as this means that they can make the final say and there is no confusion on what stock to get thus eliminates mistakes occurring.

* Laissez-Faire (let it be):

This is when the leadership responsibilities are shared with all the employees in the organisation. Allowing this type of management style to happen in a business can be very useful in companies where creative ideas are important, as different people have different ideas, which if you combine will create a fantastic outcome. By having all the employees involved can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life as they get a say in their working hours and other decisions which may affect them. However it can make coordination and decision-making time-consuming due to lack in overall direction, as there is no manager in the team, which makes the final say to what the outcome should be due to this style relying purely on good teamwork and good interpersonal relations, which is not certain in the business.

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/laissez-faire-leadership.html

This style of management would work at Waitrose by allowing different departments in the company to have their own inputs on decision-making e.g. for the marketing department, they will have the responsibility to find out ways to attract customers as they are trusted by the managers at Waitrose due to them being highly experienced and an expert in that area and this lies on the ‘Laissez-Faire’ management style as employees are free to work independently when making decisions, without supervision from managers.

Another example of how this management style could work in Waitrose is when different occasions occur throughout the year. E.g. for Christmas holidays the manager would need to ask employees for their input on what special theme they should do at the workplace, as employees are more in contact with customers i.e. employees who are working at the tills have friendly ‘chats’ with the customers. This will benefit the company as they will be able to get the theme right which leads to them standing out compared other supermarkets and this also lies on ‘Laissez-Faire’ management style, as managers are giving the employees the opportunity to input their opinion, due to it being important in determining the success of the company.

A strength of using this leadership at Waitrose would be, giving the responsibility to workers at Waitrose as it will mean that the staff will be motivated to do the work, therefore this means that it increases their staff morale, this is due to them being trusted by Waitrose, in addition to this, it will mean that instead of the mangers spending their time watching over employees they can spend it on something else which is important such as the customers, this is because the employees don’t need supervision, especially those that have worked for many years at Waitrose. Therefore this makes the company run smoothly and efficiently.

However there are negatives with this type of leadership, this is because the employees at the business may make mistakes, due to the manager not being there to guide them in decision making and this therefore means that there is a chance that they will make mistakes. For example if they have to make a decision on a particular stock to get for Waitrose and the manger is not available, they will have to come up with a decision on their own and with all that pressure and responsibility they may encounter mistakes. All this will affect Waitrose such as it running slower due to delays as the mistakes are occurring and externally due to the customers not being happy thus reputation decreases.

Another negative is, the employees will learn that there is no manger there to supervise their every move, which means that their performance of high quality service and products will decrease. This is because they see that there is no point in working hard if they don’t get noticed doing it. Therefore this will affect Waitrose as this means that that the reputation will decrease due to the quality of products and service decreasing.

Task 2C

Wanting control over job versus Requirements to work:

* Conflict

The worker can have conflict with the business due to the amount of control they have on the work that is given to them. This is due to the business for example making the employee do Saturday shifts when they want to have Saturday off to stay in with his/her family. This will make the employee angry with the fact that they have to work at that day and this means that it will decrease the employees staff morale, as they will be looking to call in ‘sick’ to avoid going in that day which in the end increases absenteeism.

Screenshot of Opening Hours

Source: http://www.waitrose.com/bf_home/bf/215.html

* How can it be resolved?

The manger can have a meeting with the employee and explain to them that they can pick the hours on a Saturday that will be well suited for them so they still have a chance to be with their family. E.g. in the morning they can work 6 hours 7am till 12pm so they are off work for the rest of the day or do a rota for this unpopular shift, therefore the employees will not always have to do this shift.

* How can it be avoided?

The manager could ask those in advance that do not have family or need that specific day off to swap shifts with the employee that needs that day off so it can avoid conflict and avoid the employee being de-motivated to work.

* How can it be justified?

Mangers must explain that they need more staff on a Saturday as it’s one of their busiest days additionally state that they have to be fair to all staff in the shifts offered and sometimes shift changes cannot be helped.

Till Worker versus Till Worker

Conflict can happen at Waitrose by a till employee not getting along with another till employee for example, this can occur if the manager is paying more attention to one till worker than the other, and thus give that till worker more rewards than the other who is doing the exact same job. this causes conflict as the worker who is not getting noticed will feel that they are not being appreciated about the work they produce and the fact that the other employee is will get the worker jealous as in their eyes they believe that the worker prefers the other employee to them. This means that the atmosphere at the workplace will be negative which will be reflected on how the business is presented which means that the customers will not receive the service that they should be getting at Waitrose.

* How can it be resolved?

This can be resolved by the manger having a meeting with the till workers and explaining why the other employee is getting more rewards than the other, and what the other employee should do to try and get the same treatment as the other in order to be promoted the next level. This meeting will allow the tension between workers to be eliminated which means the atmosphere will be back to normal.

* How can it be avoided?

This can be avoided by having the till employees working at different sections so they don’t discuss or whiteness the other employee getting more rewards than the other. This means that the manager can eliminate the chance of arguments occurring at the workplace.

* How can it be justified?

The Manger can inform the employee that he makes judgements on who should be rewarded purely on the proof of performance he/she can see from the employees and that he/she has no favourites and treats employees fairly.

Workers ambition versus Lack of opportunity to progress

* Conflict

A worker who is a sales assistant may be looking to become a store manager in the company as the employee may believe that they need access in showing what they can do and have opportunities to develop those skills however this is not promised to the employee as they do not have the specified qualifications for the job role additionally there are no available vacancies for the employee to be promoted and are in need for sale assistants. Therefore this means that the employee will have decreased staff moral which makes the employee feel less ambitious to work hard to perform at high standards as the managers at Waitrose are not giving the employee the chance to expand his/her skills and have opportunities to work at a higher level.

* How can it be resolved?

This can be resolved by the manger at Waitrose having a meeting with the employee to state that there are no vacancies available at this period of time and that they are lacking employees in the sale assistance role so Waitrose need as many employees who are sales assistants to stay put and justify to the employee that they are an important member to their business to ensure motivation is kept, by allowing the employee be put on a work-shadowing scheme for managers so as soon as there is a vacancy that they will be the ones to fill the place.

* How can it be justified?

The manager can show that there are no spaces for promotion and that they are very pleased with the work that they are doing and as soon as there is a space they will fill it.

Snapshot of the Available Managerial Positions Across England

https://atsv7.wcn.co.uk/search_engine/jobs.cgi

Snapshot of the Assistant Available Positions

https://atsv7.wcn.co.uk/search_engine/jobs.cgi

Threes ten positions for sales assistance position roles compared to only three managerial role positions across the UK therefore showing that there is a unlikely possibility that the employee will be able to get that promotion she wants due to the lack of availability not in just her store but in others too.

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