Complete the matrix by entering cultural, political, and economic developments that had lasting effects or that are significant of each civilization. The table includes one example.
Developed the beginnings of astronomy and mathematics
Believed in many gods not just one.
Emergence of Kings, exercised distinct political rather than religious authority. Also warring Sumerian city-states, which fought for control of the river valleys in the lower Mesopotamia. Commerce and trade had been established because farmers had learned how to irrigate their land. They could grow more food than they could eat. They used surplus to trade for their goods and services Egyptian
One Language and culture over a massive empire
One people, one government
Egyptians had many farms and growing livestock to trade for their tools to make their food. Minoan
Bronze age civilization,
Minoan religion seems to have been based on the religion of the Neolithic peoples they conquered in moving to Crete. Bulls were sacred to the Minoans, and bull-leaping was a religious ritual. The labyrinth at Knossos is the best-known example of a Minoan temple. They also had many different kinds of languages like the hieroglyphic script, Linear A, which consisted of different symbols that represented a syllable, word, or number and was mainly used for record keeping. Linear B was a script used for government records and it eventually turned into the modern Greek language. The Minoans were also known for their art and architecture.
Kings and bureaucracy
Crops were cultivated, like wheat, barley, grapes, olives, and figs. The Minoans had several animals, including cattle, goats, and pigs. Bees were domesticated for honey production, as were donkeys and oxen for plowing The Minoans also had a strong shipping industry that they had recognized throughout the eastern Mediterranean. They were also involved in the tin trade. As bronze tools and weapons (bronze is made from tin and copper) were replaced by superior iron ones, the tin trade (and then the Minoan economy) suffered. Their trade network extended from Mesopotamia and Egypt all the way to Spain. Mycenaean
Wide-ranging commerce circulated Mycenaean goods throughout the Mediterranean world from Spain and the Levant. The evidence consists primarily of vases, but their contents (oil, wine, and other commodities) were probably the chief objects of trade. Art was also a big deal. Kings ruled from palaces.
Major fleets that would carry transport for trade, they were a wealthy civilization. Archaic Greece
Learning and the arts, particularly architecture. Athens became the center of Greek literature, philosophy, and the arts. Monarchies, although small landowners held the power and formed a warrior aristocracy. Growth of commerce.
Mediterranean art, literature, and the education of aristocratic youth
Aristocratic assemblies and officials formed the most clear single city-state theme in Greek politics. Trade became more abundant and cities grew.
Public buildings and parks, a museum, and a library
Achaean and Aetolian Leagues.
Opening up of an immense area of trade from the Indus River to the Nile as a result of the Alexandrian conquests. A rise in prices because of the Persians gold and silver started circulating. The upgrade of trade and industry by governments as a means of increasing the profits of the state.
Write a 100- to 200-word response for each question.
How were the worldviews of the Mesopotamians and Egyptians similar? How were they different? What factors have influenced the way these civilizations developed their worldviews? Mesopotamians and Egyptians were polytheistic, which is the belief that there are many gods. Egyptians believed that pharaohs were reincarnated into gods, whereas the Mesopotamians had four gods, heaven, earth, water and air. Ancient Egypt had a highly integrated government. Its well-organized bureaucracy and the pharaohs’ high-ranking position meant that rulers had great power over the entire country. But the ancient Mesopotamia, were more religious based, each city had its own government and they incorporated the same structures of we call democracy. They had kings and elected others who could hold power over the kings. They also both were dependent on agriculture and both were located in fertile regions near major waterways.
Mesopotamia was not as well protected geographically as Egypt and was as a consequence more open to attack. The geography of these two civilizations was a central factor in not only their basic survival and success, but also in the way they envisioned the world and the nature of the universe. In what ways did geography contribute to the fundamental differences between the Mycenaean and Minoan civilizations? Greece was a hilly and mountainous land, breaking it up into literally hundreds of self-governing city-states. These city-states had spent much of their time fighting one another rather than tying in a common cause. Greece was also by the sea with many natural harbors. This and the fact that it had poor soil and few natural resources forced the Greeks to be traders and sailors, following in the footsteps of the Phoenicians and eventually exceeding them. The first Greek civilization was the Minoans on the island of Crete just south of Greece, with little to no protection.
The Mycenaean where from the mainland and they had the advantage of the Minoans’ weakened state to conquer Crete and assume Minoan dominance of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean. They were a vigorous and active people who engaged in trade and some piracy over a wide area extending from southern Italy in the west to Troy and the Black Sea in the northeast. What effect did the characteristics and achievements of the Minoan civilization and the Mycenaean civilization have on Archaic Greece? There are so many different achievements and characteristics that happened during these times for instance, they were familiar with the technologies of metal, and they could use bronze and iron to make different tools. There was also the formation of an Aegean Oecumene between the southern Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. There seen the first traces of poleis formations, which was from the Minoan colonies.
They also showed the first signs of writing. Ancestors of colossal architecture was also a great achievement, they could build beautiful palaces and temples quite easily. In what ways did Archaic Greece lay the foundations for Western civilization? Archaic Greece is responsible for so many different ways like agriculture, philosophy, mathematics, engineering, politics, art and architecture, and the sciences like Astronomy, Physics, and Medicine. Politics were influenced by the Greeks, democracy and republics were all early forms of Greek city-state politics and in the end applied by Rome, Europe, America and all over the world. With agriculture, certain foods were first made and created in Greece, including Wine, Olive oil, octopus, and certain other types of fish, as well as certain agricultural styles like how to till the land, the idea of crop rotation.
What I find most interesting is that ancient Greek art is still used, statues, marble and painting in tradition styles still exist as well as pottery, mosaics, and even the idea of the Artistic Building or Architecture still plays a huge role in our society, giving us many styles of building like the state and federal capitols. How was Classical Greek culture involved in the development of the Hellenistic world? Alexander the great was involved on the development of the Hellenistic culture. It stemmed from Hellenism. Culturally, the Hellenistic age represents the spread of Greek language, literature, and education. The spread of the Hellenistic culture was vast, and was involved in many different culture exchanges. According to our text, “Instead of simply accepting Greek culture, these non-Greek peoples engage in a process of cultural adaptation and synthesis. In this way Hellenism, which throughout this period remained open to outside influences, absorbed foreign scientific knowledge, religious ideas, and many other elements of culture. These were then transmitted to the greater Hellenistic world.” (Levack, 2014)
What are the two stages of Hellenistic history? What were the causes for political change during this period? The Hellenic age and the Hellenistic age are the two stages of Hellenistic history. Political change happened because Hellenistic kingdoms were beginning to become weak and they were creating more space for hostile kingdoms. The city-states that were dominated before, were then replaced by different kinds of kingdoms who had more centralized power. The basic idea of administration is what changed, it was no longer a problem of handling the civic affairs in the name of the community, but by delegation in the name of a one personal power.
Levack, B. M. (2014). The West. Encounters and transformations Combined Volume (Fourth ed.). Pearsons Education. Retrieved May 25, 2015