Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, which have had an enormous influence on the Western world, are two civilizations that served important roles in the evolution of Western civilizations. Much of their cultures were very similar, although there were some very notable differences.
One remarkable difference between Ancient Greek and Roman societies is with regard to citizenship. Citizenship in Ancient Greece was generally available only to “legitimate” Greek men, and women were not citizens because they were considered inferior and less intelligent that the men. In Ancient Greece, women were forever under the dominance of men, and even have to be accompanied by a male when in public places. On the other hand, Roman women were considered citizens, which is one of Ancient Rome’s notable differences with Ancient Greek society. Ancient Roman women were almost equals of men, with some restrictions due to the patriarchal culture.
Aside from the citizens, Ancient Greek society consisted of slaves, freedmen (freed slaves), and metics (non-Greeks who have taken up residence within Greece). Ancient Rome, on the other hand, had slaves, freedmen, plebeians (the ordinary citizens) and patricians (the privileged class), with much less distinction between men and women.
Ancient Greek culture valued art highly and produced what can be regarded as “fine art,” while, in contrast, the Ancient Romans, who are generally considered “copycats” of Greece when it comes to art, are notable for producing “decorative” art.
Another similarity between the two civilizations is that their economies were based on agriculture. However, while Greeks preferred to be self-sufficient, the Romans also took up trading, an occupation that the Ancient Greeks scoffed at. Roman economy was more heavily dependent on slave labor compared to Greek economy. The two civilizations had coinage, and their societies were divided according to wealth.
In conclusion, while the two civilizations had many similarities, their differences (especially regarding the status of women) make the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman experience profoundly different.