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Annotated Essay on Diabetes Essay Sample

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Annotated Essay on Diabetes Essay Sample

Introduction

            Since few decades, rapid advancement has been observed in medical science that has allowed experts and clinicians to identify varying factors causing different diseases and illnesses, in order to provide their effective solutions and treatments. In this regard, such a progression in medical science has encouraged experts, scholars, clinicians, and students to involve in researches and related publications that have resulted in huge number of publications and resources related to different diseases and new advancements in healthcare science. In the United States alone, more than twenty-three million individuals are suffering from diabetes that is approximately eight percent of the USA population. Although efforts are being carried out to diagnose patients, and healthcare organizations have been successful in diagnosing more than seventeen million affected people, a huge number of patients are still suffering from diabetes in the country.

In this regard, this paper will be specifically endeavoring to identify few resources, such as research-based articles, information published by public healthcare organizations, and researches carried out by clinicians and experts on one of the common and adverse health diseases that are resulting in deaths of thousands of lives annually, Diabetes. One of the major objectives of this paper is to identify different resources on Diabetes that will facilitate in comprehensive understanding of this deadly disease, and thus, will allow an effective overview of different aspects about such illness.

Identification and analysis of different resources will be beneficial for the students and healthcare professionals, and will aware them of varying factors involving such healthcare problem. Moreover, it will enable clinicians to deal with their patients more efficiently by being updated with recent studies on the topic. It is very important for a study to reflect on various previously carried out researches and methodologies, in order to recognize and evaluate possible gaps and findings related to the topic. Secondary research involves archival and desk research of journals, articles, and books that was very vital for identifying and formulating required materials related to diabetes. In this regard, secondary research permitted the researcher to take a stand on various issues related to the disease.

During the methodology, ‘Google’ (2009) search engine was preferred to identify journals and books related to diabetes that provided better and detailed understanding of reviewed literature and effective results. Such search engine was very helpful in acquiring sound material and identifying books written by different authors and experts on the issue of diabetes. Besides Google, database such as MedlinePlus and MedPub proved to be effective platforms for carrying out researches on the selected topic. Although search on Google resulted in thousands of websites on diabetes; however, it should be noted that a very minimal percent of these websites were professional and valid in terms of academic research, and thus, the researcher felt need of carrying out research on other database mentioned above.

Some of the keywords used for carrying out this research were diabetes, types of diabetes, diabetes and journals, diabetes and pregnancy, types of diabetes, research on diabetes, reports on diabetes, etc. Every research methodology has its benefits, as well as, drawbacks. Some of the benefits of this research were detailed and comprehensive amount of resources, timesaving due to internet’s accessibility, and funding that was not required due to availability of material on the internet. On the other hand, researcher confronted problems due to invalid and inaccurate information related to diabetes, and that resulted in unproductive outcomes. Furthermore, a number of academic journals on the internet required subscription and registration that limited the research process; however, the researcher was able to identify few journals that allowed accessibility to full-text articles on diabetes.

            Betteridge, John. (2000). Diabetes. Informa Health Care.

Abovementioned is one of the exceptional books that were identified during the research process on diabetes. Professor John Betteridge is author of this excellent book who has attempted to include established and recognized facts about the Diabetes. In this attempt, international experts on diabetes from different countries collaborated with the author to provide updated information related to causes, risk factors, treatments, and diagnosis of diabetes that occurs due to non-production of malfunction in the production of insulin that is responsible for providing energy to human body from the food.

This book has been divided into eighteen chapters, and some of the significant ones are genetics of diabetes, Insulin resistance, and Insulin sensitizers that converse about revolutionized therapies and advancements to treat different types of diabetes. One of the other qualities of this book is not its comprehensives but its updated content that plays an imperative role in providing information regarding latest advancements related to diabetes. A number of other books were identified during the researcher; however, updated material inclined the researcher to include it in this paper.

            Burke, J. P., & Jacobson, D. J. (2007). “Diabetes and sexual dysfunction.” Journal of Urology. Volume 177, Issue 4, Pages 1438-42.

            After rapid advancement in healthcare science, experts are now endeavoring to identify relation of one disease with another that have allowed clinicians to treat patients in an effective manner. In this regard, a number of studies have related diabetes with varying number of diseases, such as coronary diseases, blood pressure, kidney failure, etc. A similar attempt has been done in the identified article from the Journal of Urology that related diabetes with sexual dysfunction. The article specified that individuals from Olmsted County, Minnesota were selected as targeted population for the study that involved few questions related to their sexual drive, satisfaction, ejaculation, and erectile problems.

Moreover, one of the major questions inquired occurrence of diagnosis due to diabetes. During the study, individuals suffering from bladder surgery or any medical condition that may cause urinary problems were excluded. Article indicated that results of the study showed that people diagnosed due to diabetes were confronting greater sexual dysfunction, as compared with individuals not diagnosed due to diabetes in the past. Furthermore, multivariate statistics proved diabetes as a significant risk factor and cause of sexual dysfunction in men. In this regard, analysis of such article allowed a critical understanding of effects of diabetes on different functions of the human body.

            Colwell, John A. (2003). Diabetes. Gulf Professional Publishing.

Another significant book identified during the research was ‘Diabetes’ by John A. Colwell who played a significant role by providing brief information related to diabetes, and specifically, diabetes mellitus and its related factors. One of the quality features of this book is its information that can be accessed easily without any complications. One of the major reasons of selecting this book for this paper is its consideration of different case studies that enables experts and clinicians in dealing and treating with their patients more effectively. In this regard, the author has taken an evidence-based approach rather than theoretical approach like other writers in the field.

As earlier mentioned in the paper, different studies are being carried out to understand different factors and processes that may reduce or increase the causes of diabetes. In this regard, important information given in the book is about the drug therapy that has been a benchmark in diagnosing patients with diabetes. According to studies, individuals confronting higher glucose level when injected with drug rosiglitazone are able to prevent diabetic conditions in their bodies. Specifically, rosiglitazone is a type of thiazolidinedione drug that has been effective in reducing risk factors related to diabetes, and thus, preventing pre-diabetes patients from type 2 diabetes. In particular, pre-diabetes is one of the four types of diabetes that are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes. In pre-diabetes, glucose levels in individuals increase from the normal level; however, remain lower than the level considered for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Studies have indicated that every ninth American is suffering from pre-diabetes condition that is fifty-seven million Americans in the country.

            Cook, C. B., & Miller, W. J. (2006). “Disparities in diabetes-related hospitalizations.” Journal of Ethnicity and Disease. Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 126-31.

            Although diabetes is a health-related problem; however, a number of studies and experts have attempted to relate it with social and cultural aspects of the society, in order to identify every factor that may cause and encourage diabetes in the human body. In this regard, the research identified an article from the Journal of Ethnicity and Disease that focuses on association of various diseases with ethnicities and culture. The article has indicated that the study was carried out to identify any ethnic, gender, or age related factor of diabetic patients and its impact on duration of hospitalization, hospital discharges, etc.

            For such endeavor, data from the Georgia hospital for the year 1998-2001 was selected for a cross-sectional study. Results of the study indicated that during this period, more than 50,000 patients were discharged from the hospital after getting diagnosis of diabetes. Average stay of such patients was for 5.1 days, and approximately $6000 was spent on inpatient charges during the treatment. Moreover, people aged sixty years or above were more into diagnosis for diabetes, as well as stayed longer, as compared with individuals below thirty years of age. On gender-based results, men were diagnosed for diabetes at a higher extent, and women had shorter settlements at hospitals.

            In terms of ethnicity, experts noted that Hispanic Blacks confronted more hospitalizations, as compared with non-Hispanic Whites. On the other hand, Hispanics suffering from diabetes had shorter stays as compared with Whites. In summary, authors of this article signified that diabetes patients confront ethnic, gender, and age-related differences, and it is important that further studies should be carried out to understand causes of such differences in diabetic patients.

FamilyDoctor. (2006). “Diabetes: Helping a Family Member Who Has Diabetes.” Family Doctor.org. Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/diabetes/living/353.printerview.html

            During the search at Google, researcher identified a health-related website that is an outcome of efforts by the American Academy of Family Physicians in the USA. One of the qualities of articles on this website is that it is validated and recognized by more than ninety thousand physicians, clinicians, practicing professionals, and medical students from all over the country. However, the website notifies that information on this website should be used for educational purposes, rather than for medical purposes. While searching for diabetes-related articles, Google provided an article on Diabetes that converses about efforts that can be made to help and support a family member suffering from diabetes. Such a topic of the article inclined the researcher to include it in the paper, as it will be beneficial for this paper, as well as, for its implementation practically along with advises from the physicians.

            In brief, one of the quality features of this article is its question-answer approach that allows the readers to understand different aspects of the diseases in a specific manner, rather than in integrated manner, which often becomes a complicated process for non-professionals. In this article, some of the questions related to diabetes are about definition of diabetes, need of help by suffering individual, ways to help and support family members confronting diabetes, and some other strategies to prevent diabetes. During the analysis of this article, the researcher felt that although the article talks about how one can help a family member; however, the reader would himself be able to prevent a diabetic condition that is a significant achievement of the article.

            Article specifies that non-production of required insulin results in the occurrence of diabetes in the human body. Moreover, it states that sugar is converted into energy by Insulin that is a type of hormone. Furthermore, it introduces two types of diabetes: type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes. Article has endeavored to explain the need of help by diabetic patients, as they require someone to monitor their eating habits, in order to control their glucose levels in the blood, and thus, family members can play an important role in helping patients in the family. Some of the strategies advised in the article are avoidance of prohibited foods by family members as much as possible, and consideration of fruits, vegetables, and fresh fruits in family dietary plans.

            McEwen, Laura N., & Kim, Catherine. (2006). “Diabetes Reporting as a Cause of Death.” Journal of Diabetes Care. Volum3 29, Issue 2, Pages 247-253. Retrieved on July 19, 2009:             http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/29/2/247.full

            This article has attempted to identify the deadly effect of diabetes by analyzing deaths involving diabetic reasons in death certificates. For this purpose, the National Death Index was used to obtain data with the help of approximately 12,000 participants suffering from diabetes. Results of the study indicated that thirty-nine percent of death certificates recorded diabetes, and thus, it was a fundamental cause of deaths in the country. However, the study noted that death certificates record diabetes as a cause even in case of cardiovascular factors in diabetic patients. Thus, it is important that administration should play an important role in dealing with this biased illustration of diabetes on death certificates according to the authors of this article identified from the Journal of Diabetes Care.

            Moran, Katherine J. (2004). Diabetes: the Ultimate Teen Guide. Scarecrow Press.

            Another informative book written by Katherine J. Moran was identified during the research that converses different aspects of diabetes. However, one of the distinguishing features of this book is its specification for teenage individuals. Teen language has been used often in the book to associate with teenagers suffering from diabetes. The author has put efforts to provide tips that may allow teenagers to enjoy their life while controlling diabetic conditions as well. Some of the major topics focused in the book are types of medications for diabetes, importance of sugar readings, significance of healthy diet and exercise, and history of diabetes.

            National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2009). “Take Charge of Your Diabetes: Pregnancy and Women’s Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/tcyd/pregnant.htm

            During the research, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion was highlighted in Google, and thus, the researcher agreed to include one of its articles in the paper. This article has focused on diabetes while specifying it to women, and especially, pregnant women. It is a myth that diabetic women always give birth to unhealthy babies, and this article has endeavored to bust such myth by giving useful tips. Author in the article agrees that uncontrolled glucose levels during pregnancy will be worsening for baby; however, at the same time, article advises pregnant women to involve in discussions with healthcare professionals to plan the pregnancy. Some of the advises include alteration of meal plan, frequent check up of eyes and kidneys, daily intake of folic acid, and breast feeding the baby.

            Besides advices, article has introduced the third type of diabetes that is gestational diabetes, which occurs in the pregnant women only. It is noted that women with gestational diabetes incline to diabetes type-2 after pregnancy due to uncontrollable glucose levels in the body. In this regard, article has indicated different indications of higher glucose levels during the pregnancy, such as yeast infection in the vagina resulting in dryness or itching, etc that will allow pregnant women to have a healthy baby while controlling their glucose levels.

            National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2009). “Diabetes.” Medline Plus. Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diabetes.html

            Medline Plus proved to be one of the most efficient databases for identifying various articles related to the selected disease. A very brief article on Medline Plus’ website that briefly provides definition of the diabetes as a disease occurring due to higher glucose levels. It then identifies the source of glucose as food, and source of energy as glucose. Subsequently, article describes types of diabetes that is non-production of insulin, improper production of insulin, and diabetes in pregnant women result in diabetes type-1, diabetes type-2, and gestational diabetes respectively. Some of the symptoms of diabetes described in this article are weight loss, exhaustion, frequency in urination, etc.

            U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). “Diabetes.” Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://womenshealth.gov/faq/diabetes.cfm#a

            This article from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2009) has used the question-answer approach as well to describe and explain diabetes, its types, causes, risk factors, treatments, advices, and preventive measures related to the disease. It is a comprehensive article published on Womenshealth.gov website, and is useful for understanding almost every aspect of diabetes in a brief and concise manner.

Conclusion

Presently, the United States is confronting diabetes at an alarming rate that should be handled by the concerned authorities and organizations in an efficient manner. At the same time, individuals should control their dietary habits; in order to prevent diabetes in their body. It is noted that a number of psychological, biological and drug therapies have been introduced for the prevention of diabetes in the country; however, rate of diabetic patients and deaths have been stable since few years. Further advancement in healthcare science will allow better and detailed understanding of different related factors of diabetes that were discussed in this paper. Conclusively, the paper has discussed some of the significant resources related to diabetes that were identified during the research process. It is hoped that the paper will be beneficial for students, teachers, and professionals in better understanding of the topic.

References

            Betteridge, John. (2000). Diabetes. Informa Health Care.

            Burke, J. P., & Jacobson, D. J. (2007). “Diabetes and sexual dysfunction.” Journal of Urology. Volume 177, Issue 4, Pages 1438-42.

            Campioni, M & Basu, R. (2007). “”Effects of nonglucose nutrients on insulin secretion and action in people with pre-diabetes.” Journal of Diabetes. Volume 56, Issue # 4, Pages 1113-1119.

            Colwell, John A. (2003). Diabetes. Gulf Professional Publishing.

            Cook, C. B., & Miller, W. J. (2006). “Disparities in diabetes-related hospitalizations.” Journal of Ethnicity and Disease. Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 126-31.

            FamilyDoctor. (2006). “Diabetes: Helping a Family Member Who Has Diabetes.” Family Doctor.org. Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/diabetes/living/353.printerview.html

            McEwen, Laura N., & Kim, Catherine. (2006). “Diabetes Reporting as a Cause of Death.” Journal of Diabetes Care. Volum3 29, Issue 2, Pages 247-253. Retrieved on July 19, 2009:             http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/29/2/247.full

            Moran, Katherine J. (2004). Diabetes: the Ultimate Teen Guide. Scarecrow Press.

            National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2009). “Take Charge of Your Diabetes: Pregnancy and Women’s Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/tcyd/pregnant.htm

            National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2009). “Diabetes.” Medline Plus. Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diabetes.html

            U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2009). “Diabetes.” Retrieved on July 20, 2009: http://womenshealth.gov/faq/diabetes.cfm#a

Word Count: 2678 words (excluding cover page and references

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