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Anthropology Final exam Essay Sample

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Anthropology Final exam Essay Sample

Question 1
Multiple Choice
1 points

A hominid is

an ape-like primate that walks on two legs

a non-human animal

an example of a “paradigm”

none of these
A

Question 2
Multiple Choice
1 points

Biocultural anthropologists study

hominid evolution

the relationship of the skeleton with its surrounding tissue

human variation

the interplay of biological and cultural factors
D

Question 3
Multiple Choice
1 points

Natural selection can be summarized by which statement?

All species are fixed.

Organisms transform and pass these transformations on to their offspring.

A divine creator creates all species according to an unknowable plan.

Within a population, some variations are favored by environmental conditions and others are not.
D

Question 4
Multiple Choice
1 points

When discussing natural selection, the term “fitness” is best thought of as

a reference to physical fitness

reproductive success

strength

none of these
B

Question 5
Multiple Choice
1 points

Where do new variations come from?

changes in the genetic material

point mutations

chromosomal mutations

all of these
D

Question 6
True/False
1 points

According to the Biological Species Concept, two groups of creatures are sometimes considered separate species even if they are capable of creating fertile offspring.

True

False

Question 7
Multiple Choice
1 points

What is a difference between the concepts of race and ethnic group?

Races are separated from one another by social barriers.

The concept of race explicitly incorporates sociocultural factors.

Ethnic groups are separated from one another by social barriers.

The term ethnic group has been replaced by the term race.
C

Question 8
Multiple Choice
1 points

is defined as the study of evolutionary phenomena that occur within a species.

Anthropometry

Racial taxonomy

Population genetics

Microevolution
D

Question 9
Fill in the Blank
1 points

The preserved remnants, or traces, of past species are known as _____________.

Question 10
Multiple Choice
1 points

The fundamental adaptation that defines hominids is

tool use

complex social interaction

increased cranial capacity

upright posture
D

Question 11
Multiple Choice
1 points

The ____ chromosome is the male equivalent of female mitochondrial DNA.

X

23rd

14th

Y

Question 12
True/False
1 points

Many Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids possessed cranial capacities that are easily within the modern human range.

True

False
T

Question 13
True/False
1 points

In Europe, we find H. sapiens tool types earlier than actual H. sapiens fossils.

True

False
T

Question 14
Multiple Choice
1 points

Which of the following is true of the Middle Stone Age?

Few if any new tool types were introduced.

The first stone tools appear early in the Middle Stone Age.

Little change occurred in stone tools types during this period.

Middle Stone Age Tools are the same as Upper Paleolithic tools.
C

Question 15
Multiple Choice
1 points

Aurignacian technology is directly associated with

Middle Paleolithic Neandertals

late African H. erectus

Upper Paleolithic H. sapiens

none of these

Question 16
Multiple Choice
1 points

The Cro-Magnon fossils were found in and date to approximately years ago.

Romania/62,000

France/27,000

Romania/36,000

France/148,000

Question 17
Multiple Choice
1 points

Long flakes that can be used as blanks to create a variety of flaked tools are called

microliths

blades

burins

atlatls
B

Question 18
True/False
1 points

Tools made from bone do not appear in the archaeological record before the Upper Paleolithic.

True

False

Question 19
Multiple Choice
1 points

About 40,000 years ago, new mortuary practices, including cremation appeared at

Kow swamp in Australia

Chauvet, France

Lake Mungo in Australia

Flores, Indonesia
C

Question 20
Multiple Choice
1 points

Upper Paleolithic Europeans produced

blades

cave art

ritual objects

all of these
D

Question 21
Multiple Choice
1 points

The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) measurements from both Y chromosome and mtDNA show that

humans evolved in Africa and then moved out less than 200,000 years ago

humans evolved millions of years ago in contradiction to all of our archaeological data

humans are all related through Neandertal

clear distinctions exist between European, African, and Australian humans
A

Question 22
Multiple Choice
1 points

Microwear analysis of the teeth of Upper Paleolithic peoples indicate

an extreme reliance on meat

cooking

a greater amount of vegetable matter

a diet of mostly nuts and tree bark
C

Question 23
True/False
1 points

The “upper cave” fossils from China support both of the models of the origins
of the first H. sapiens.

True

False

Question 24
True/False
1 points

Research indicates that australopithecines and paranthropines were more encephalized than the great apes.

True

False
T

Question 25
Multiple Choice
1 points

Which of the following best describes the “environment of evolutionary adaptedness”?

large agricultural societies

urban societies dependent on industrialized agriculture

small groups of hunter-gatherers

none of these

Question 26
Multiple Choice
1 points

Which of the following is an example of the biocultural approach to understanding human behavior?

studying human behaviors as the result of direct evolutionary pressures

charting the relationship between agricultural practices and the evolution of the sickle cell polymorphism

hypothesizing about the cultural abilities of ancient hominids by comparing them to living nonhuman primates

focusing on the ecological factors that influence present-day hunter-gatherer societies

Question 27
True/False
1 points

Modern human throat anatomy is associated with a great risk of choking.

True

False
T

Question 28
Multiple Choice
1 points

William Calvin speculates that language developed

along with throwing behavior

as a replacement for grooming

in order to maintain exclusive sexual relations

all of the above

Question 29
Multiple Choice
1 points

The rearrangement of throat anatomy for language purposes has

improved breathing overall

introduced new risks in everyday life, such as choking

had no effect on other throat functions

improved our ability to swallow hard foods
B

Question 30
True/False
1 points

As the brain expanded, its functional organization has also changed.

True

False

Question 31
Multiple Choice
1 points

Much of what makes human behavior more complex than the behavior of other animals depends on our possession of

spoken language

a calcarine sulcus

sociality

a frontal lobe

Question 32
True/False
1 points

In almost all primate species, females have larger brains than males.

True

False

Question 33
Multiple Choice
1 points

The conflict model correlates the evolution of a sexual division of labor with

nutritional elements

monogamy

the changing size of human societies

the fact that males have different problems to overcome than females
D

Question 34
True/False
1 points

We are anatomically specialized both to produce language and process language-oriented sounds.

True

False

Question 35
Multiple Choice
1 points

The position of the Neandertal possibly indicates speech.

basiocranial flexion

Wernicke’s area

hyoid bone

prefrontal lobe
C

Question 36
Multiple Choice
1 points

Which of the following is an example of human evolutionary ecology?

studying human behaviors as the result of direct evolutionary pressures

charting the relationship between agricultural practices and the evolution of the sickle cell polymorphism

hypothesizing about the cultural abilities of ancient hominids by comparing them to living nonhuman primates

focusing on the ecological factors that influence present-day hunter-gatherer societies

Question 37
Multiple Choice
1 points

Which of the following is typical of the gestational stage?

the appearance of the first permanent teeth

the appearance of the last permanent teeth

rapid development

puberty
C

Question 38
Multiple Choice
1 points

Problems associated with the so-called thrifty-gene is associated with

obesity

diets of excess

diabetes

all of these

Question 39
Multiple Choice
1 points

Individuals suffering from pellagra

are probably from a hunter-gatherer culture

lack niacin in their diet

lack thiamine in their diet

lack lime in their diet

Question 40
Multiple Choice
1 points

The secular trend in growth refers to the fact that

primates all reach sexual maturity at the same age

adolescence provides for more social learning

children in industrialized nations grow larger

mortality rates rarely change over time

Question 41
Multiple Choice
1 points

The clues revealed by a skeleton allow the forensic anthropologist to begin constructing an individual’s

biological profile

chronological age

cause of death

all of these

Question 42
Multiple Choice
1 points

could be considered a disease of nutritional abundance.

rickets

diabetes

pellagra

beriberi

Question 43
True/False
1 points

One theory of aging is related to levels of DNA repair enzymes.

True

False

Question 44
Multiple Choice
1 points

In humans, a prolonged juvenile stage

prolongs the onset of adulthood

provides an extended period of social learning

prolongs the onset of the ability to reproduce

all of these

Question 45
Multiple Choice
1 points

Passage through the stages of infancy and the juvenile stage are defined with reference to

average weight

the appearance of permanent teeth

sexual maturity

all of these
B

Question 46
Multiple Choice
1 points

_________ went into decline after a bout of smallpox in 180 A.D.

Central Europe

The Roman Empire

Western Europe

The Aztec Empire

Question 47
True/False
1 points

The processes of growth and development remain constant, regardless of environmental conditions.

True

False

Question 48
Multiple Choice
1 points

Growth and development is charted using

height

head circumference

cognitive skills

all of these

Question 49
Multiple Choice
1 points

The best skeletal indicator of sex is the

skull

femur

ribs

pelvis

Question 50
True/False
1 points

Individual and cultural practices have little to no effect on the spread of infectious disease.

True

False

F

The Final is worth 50 points and consists of 50 multiple-choice, true/false, multiple answer and fill-in-the-blank questions. You have an hour-and-a-half to complete the final and must complete it once you open it. The Final Exam covers: Chapters 13-15, the required lesson materials, plus review topics and concepts from the following chapters:

1: hominid, biocultural anthropology
2: natural selection, fitness
5: variation, biological species concept
6: race, ethnic group, microevolution
9: fossil
10: anatomical features of bipedalism

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