We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Behaviourism Essay Sample

essay

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.

Get Access

Introduction of TOPIC

Behaviourism (also called the behavioural approach) was the primary paradigm in psychology between 1920s to 1950 and is based on a number of underlying assumptions regarding methodology and behavioural analysis:

* Psychology should be seen as a science. Theories need to be supported by empirical data obtained through careful and controlled observation and measurement of behaviour. Watson stated that “psychology as a behaviourist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is … prediction and control” (1913, p. 158).

* Behaviourism is primarily concerned with observable behaviour, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion. Observable (i.e. external) behaviour can be objectively and scientifically measured. Internal events, such as thinking should be explained through behavioural terms (or eliminated altogether).

* People have no free will – a person’s environment determines their behavior

* When born our mind is ‘tabula rasa’ (a blank slate).

* There is little differen

ce between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other animals. Therefore research can

Sorry, but full essay samples are available only for registered users

Choose a Membership Plan
be carried out on animals as well as humans.

* Behaviour is the result of stimulus – response (i.e. all behaviour, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus – response association). Watson described the purpose of psychology as: “To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction” (1930, p. 11).

* All behaviour is learnt from the environment. We learn new behaviour through classical or operant conditioning.

The History of Behaviourism

* Pavlov (1897) published the results of an experiment on conditioning after originally studying digestion in dogs.

* Watson (1913) launches the behavioural school of psychology (classical conditioning), publishing an article, “Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It”.

* Watson and Rayner (1920) conditioned an orphan called Albert B (aka Little Albert) to fear a white rat.

* Thorndike (1905) formalized the “Law of Effect”.

* Skinner (1936) wrote “The Behaviour of Organisms” and introduced the concepts of operant conditioning and shaping.

* Clark Hull’s (1943) Principles of Behaviour was published.

* B.F. Skinner (1948) published Walden Two in which he described a utopian society founded upon behaviourist principles.

* Bandura (1963) publishes a book called the “Social Leaning Theory and Personality development” which combines both cognitive and behavioural frameworks.

* Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour (begun in 1958)

* B.F. Skinner (1971) published his book Beyond Freedom and Dignity, where he argues that free will is an illusion.

We can write a custom essay on

Behaviourism Essay Sample ...
According to Your Specific Requirements.

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Classical and Operant Conditiioning

Have you walked into the pet store and went to buy pet treats? Which one stands out the most? Most would see the yellow bag of Beggin Strip. Beggin strips has a very humorous form of classical conditioning in there commercial. It starts out with the dog lying on the bed, he hears the bag open. The smell travels up the stairs, across the street to the neighbor’s dog. The smell even traveled to Paris, France where French poodle was standing by the Eiffel Tower. Once the dog smells the treats he takes off running down the stairs where he sees the women in the kitchen. As the dog continues running downstairs he saying repeatedly “bacon.” The women proceeds to say “who wants Beggin strips”, the dog very hyper, thinks “me, me, me, I would get it myself but I don’t have thumbs.” The lovely lady kneels down and give...

Psychology Assignment Final

Describe and discuss how each psychological perspective explains smoking using empirical evidence A perspective or approach in psychology is a specific understanding as to why and how individuals think, feel and behave. The perspectives/approaches are essential to the study of psychology; they reinforce all psychological thought and investigation. The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate the psychological perspectives in order to explain smoking. The psychodynamic approach Psychodynamic psychologists assume an individual’s behaviour is determined by their unconscious thoughts and memories, making it a deterministic approach. They believe that each manifest (surface) thought or behaviour hides a latent (hidden) motive or intention. This reflects our instinctive biological drives and early experiences, predominantly before the age of five. Primarily, how a child is treated by their parents, reflects their adult behaviour. This approach is regarded as a reductionist approach to psychology rather than a holistic one. Sigmund Freud (1896-1939) believed that...

Causes and Effects of Violation

Violation is another term for an offence or an infraction. All of these terms generally mean an act of Disobeying a law or a legal order. There are several categories of violation that exist at various levels Of the legal system. Committing violation can result in a variety of consequences dependeing on the type of disobedient behavior A violation is a wrong doing or some tpye of disobedience. Everyone is generally bound by the laws in the jurisdiction when they are. Where a person is determines what is or is not a violation. There may be laws that exist in one jurisdiction that do not exist in another. When a person acts illegally he violates the law and may be held accountable. This is often true even if the individual did not know that the law existed when he broke it. In some instances, sincere, mistake, even when illegal, are...

Popular Essays

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?