Benefits and Costs of Authorized Immigrants to Workers Essay Sample
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Benefits and Costs of Authorized Immigrants to Workers Essay Sample
Benefits and costs of authorized immigrants to workers, consumers, and the economy are varied. Authorized immigrants have the ability to come to the US and make higher wages than they usually can in there home country. With the legality of their working here they will still pay taxes, and abide by all US laws. This allows for firms to hire workers that will do many of the undesirable jobs most people would not want to do, or are over qualified to do without forcing the firms to operate in the “black market.” Labor consumers get benefits that they have more options available to hire. Authorized immigrants could have more specialized education in industries/fields that are not as apparent or as developed in the US. This leads to benefits in the economy as a whole as some of the specialized fields could lead to whole new industries in the US, which equates with more job availability. Along with this, the economy will have a whole new demographic of workers to choose from for hire. The diversity that comes from it can only be beneficial, making the market more competitive overall. Costs of authorized workers are pretty much few, but they are big ones. Some problems question American pride and ability.
Some ask, “Why do we need foreign workers in the US anyway?” We are self-sufficient and do not need them regardless if they are legal or not. Although there are benefits many people are against even authorized workers. This causes some problems among workers, there can be tensions between the native-born and foreign-born. Consumers of labor can have problems because with authorized foreign workers sometime firms are required to hire certain races/ethnicities. The only problem being with that is that a firm might be forced to hire a less qualified, productive worker just because they are a certain ethnicity. Costs to the economy as a whole is that some American funds, such as wages made by workers on Visa’s are often sent home to another country to support one’s family there, This act takes money straight out of the American economy and puts it into another. A 1-2 punch in weakening the local economies. Unauthorized immigrants are a different story. In my opinion the benefits are scarce and the costs are immense.
The benefits can be said to come from the workers willing to work at less of a wage, for unwanted hours, and undesired professions. Even so, I don’t think these actions are right for either party. The worker gets taken advantage of, while the employer is breaking the law, all at the same time as the worker not paying taxes while benefiting from all our society’s advantages. All moral and legal thoughts aside, bare bones, the worker is making a wage, and the labor consumer is saving money by paying less or a wage. These can be said to be benefits to the certain individuals. With this situation I see no benefits to the economy as a whole, only to individuals in micro-economies as just explained. Costs to unauthorized workers go beyond the possible legal actions that could be taken against the workers and the consumers for operating in this black market. As said before the worker gets taken advantage of and the consumer has no one to stop them from it. The costs to all of society is that neither party will be required to pay the mandatory taxes that our society requires to keep it running at current status. The illicit workers take away the jobs of the legal/authorized and give them to the unauthorized.
This essentially double the effect on the economy as a whole by taking taxes away that would have been paid by a authorized worker, then not having taxes paid by the unauthorized worker. The US has many programs in place to encourage immigration in the US, and they welcome immigrants to come work here. There are temporary visas, permanent worker status availability, and student and exchange visitor programs. These among others make up the US’s programs to encourage immigration. To explain one more in depth the temporary worker visa is issued for a individual seeking to enter the United States temporarily for a specific purpose. Non-immigrants enter the United States for a temporary period of time, and once in the United States, are restricted to the activity or reason for which their non-immigrant visa was issued. The policies in place to discourage immigration into the US are obvious. All the laws in place to keep out unauthorized immigrants are all in place to discourage it. Along with the punishments associated with the laws. Without these laws, immigration into our country would be unregulated and anybody/any number of people could enter, live, and work here no problem.
There are many benefits and costs of authorized immigrants to workers, consumers, and the economy as a whole. One of the benefits of authorized workers is that they will be paying our government taxes and this will allow more money to be designated to our country’s budget. Not only will they be tax paying citizens, but they will also greatly diversify the labor market. With this diversity comes competition. With competition comes a more skilled labor force. This will usually lead to a better economy as a whole considering the efficiency of those who work will be have to be greater in order to remain employed. However, with these benefits of authorized workers, some costs come as well. One of the big costs of hiring authorized workers is the communication barrier that is likely to exist.
Many authorized workers do not speak English very well and will have trouble communicating their ideas to their English speaking co-workers. This risk can tend to lead to a less productive work force. Communication isn’t the only problem however. Many Americans believe that hiring immigrants, even authorized ones, is bad for our country no matter how the idea is spun. They often believe that these immigrants are taking away jobs from our own citizens and this can cause a tiff between employees. The economy as a whole endures a cost of hiring authorized workers because often times the money earned by these employees is not spent in America, rather it is sent to the authorized workers’ home country to support their family. This can be devastating for our economy if money is being sent from here directly to another country.
While there are many benefits and costs of authorized immigrants to workers, consumers, and the economy as a whole, there are also many benefits and costs of unauthorized immigrants. One of the benefits of unauthorized workers is that companies can (illegally) hire these employees at a very low wage. This can lead to greater profits for the company and they could eventually phase out their unauthorized workers after becoming successful. The economy as a whole could benefit as the company is likely to grow faster and could end up hiring more American workers than they would be able to if they only hired legal employees. The consumers are likely to see a lower cost product since the cost of production is down as well. With these benefits, come costs however. One of the main costs to the economy is that America will continue to have a low employment rate as illegals are hired in the American work force. The money being paid to these employees is often under the table so no taxes are paid by the employer or the employees for that fact. So while the company may be profiting more, the American economy and job market will suffer in return.
The good news is that there are policies in place the encourage immigration to the United States and policies that discourage immigration to the United States. Some programs that encourage immigration include foreign exchange student programs, temporary visas and the ability to obtain permanent worker status. All of these programs indicate a welcoming stance to immigrants. Some programs that discourage immigration are the many laws and punishments that prohibit immigrants from crossing our border. Some of these immigrants are shots upon crossing the border illegally. I don’t know of a bigger deterrent to illegal immigration than being shot at! These policies are enforced by the border patrol and other law enforcement agencies.
A benefit of authorized immigration is that it brings in more laborers. Whether skilled or unskilled, these laborers benefit the economy and consumers. If they help produce more products at lower costs, than consumers benefit by having more of the goods they need/want at lower prices. They also benefit the economy by earning, paying taxes and spending. For authorized immigrant workers, they gain the opportunity of earning more income and providing for their families. For American workers, the demand for skilled labor increases as unskilled labor increases. One cost of authorized immigration can include welfare (if they are using more welfare than the taxes they are paying). Another cost of immigration is felt by unskilled substitutable laborers who may have less employment opportunities when immigrant low-skilled workers are seeking jobs at the same time.
When considering the effects of unauthorized immigration, many of the benefits and costs are similar. If unauthorized immigrants are here to work, they will probably be low-skilled workers who work for low wages. This benefits employers and consumers because more products/services are available at lower prices. They also may be paying taxes and spending money in the economy. However, the costs are that they may be receiving welfare programs from the government (that are more than the taxes they may be paying in). They also may not be paying taxes (but according to our book they likely are). For workers, the demand for skilled labor will increase while the availability of low-skilled low-wage jobs may decrease.
The United States encourages immigration through policies that offer welfare and government assistance to anyone, whether they are authorized or not. Many of the United States’ policies implicitly encourage immigration by not being stricter about immigration policies that are in place. The United States discourages immigration with the Immigration and Nationality Act that reserves immigration for people who are escaping persecution or reuniting with family members. This act makes it more difficult for people to immigrate to the United States just for a job.
To start with the benefits authorized immigrants add a diversity to the workforce that I really feel our country needs some times. It allows many companies to broaden their horizons and sometimes hire workers that can give a different perspective on situations. Now there are negatives to this, even for authorized workers. The negative though seems to be the same for both sides though, and that is the fact that immigrants to the country take jobs away from the American citizens and in this day and age there are very few jobs available to begin with.
Now we transfer over to the unauthorized immigrants which seem to be the real labor force that is in question most of the time. The big cost of unauthorized immigrants really stems from the fact that when they are “off the books”, as most illegal immigrants from Mexico are, it creates a real problem in the labor force because most of them will work for below minimum wage because it is worth so much to send back home. This in turn puts companies in the situation which many don’t want to be in, either hire immigrant workers for cheaper than American labor or do the opposite and run the risk of falling out of competition with other companies in your industry. It is a difficult situation to be in for a company because it really turns into an ethical issue. So while the cheaper price of labor can be a benefit and a cost to our society and the company what is the real cost of hiring illegal labor.
One policy that the U.S. has in place that discourages immigration in the U.S. is its Visa system that rarely grants immigrants the right to work. This is so because most immigrant visas are either visiting or student, neither of which it is legal to work with. This really holds back immigrants to the U.S. because the process to allow them to work with that visa is not an easy one. The U.S. does not have many policies in place today to encourage immigration into the U.S. aside from bringing in more brain power. Usually the easiest way to immigrate to the U.S. is through a student visa which allows a foreign student to come and attend school in the U.S. This sometimes leads to these people staying in the U.S. after being in the country for an extended period of time.
Authorized Immigration – Benefit – The benefits to authorized immigration is the same as those benefits of free trade. Allowing authorized immigration allows for comparative advantage to take place at a greater level in the labor market. This benefits the workers that are allowed to come to America, native employers due to lower cost labor, the consumers who can now purchase lower priced products (assuming the immigration is mostly unskilled) and the economy as a whole. Cost -The main cost of authorized immigration is to the native worker who is at the same skill level as the immigrant. This immigration increases the supply of workers in that industry thus driving down the price one can earn. Another possible cost of authorized immigration would be if a country had over population and thus the sudden influx of people caused more strain on an already troubled infrastructure.
Unauthorized Immigration – Benefit – The benefit to unauthorized immigration is the same as authorized except at a higher level since more immigrants are able to participate. Cost – The cost of unauthorized immigration is the same as authorized with a few more issues. Unauthorized immigrants do not pay taxes at the same level that authorized immigrants do. This causes a free rider issue where someone gets to benefit from public items (schools, healthcare, roads, public transit, etc) without paying some of the taxes that support these services. Another cost is that of those who immigrate with bad intentions. These include drug cartels, terrorists, and others participating in illicit activities.
Policies – Encourage – Quotas for the most part have been removed from America’s immigration policy. Student visas and worker visas are also available to encourage immigrants to come to America. Discourage – most spots for immigration is reserved for family-unification purposes thus restricting those without that purpose. There are other laws that make someone who enters this country illegally and stays a criminal, however these laws are not pursued as strictly as others thus creating “sanctuary cities”. Border patrol and any fences and immigration entrance points (customs) also discourage immigration into the United States.
The benefits of authorized immigrants definitely outnumber the benefits of unauthorized immigration. Firstly, when immigrants are authorized, they are required to pay income taxes on the wages they earn, whereas unauthorized immigrants are not required to pay taxes simply because the government has no record of them being in the country. This also means that employers do not have to pay certain taxes for unauthorized workers for the same reason. They are also not required to pay these “invisible” workers minimum wage. Savings all around for the companies who hire unauthorized immigrants. However, there are steep penalties for hiring unauthorized workers. But again, it’s the government, so there are ways to keep them from finding out what’s really going on. Another point on unauthorized immigrants is that they bid American labor out of certain jobs because employers can get the work done for less than minimum wage, increasing the unemployment rate of unskilled American workers.
On the flip side, authorized immigrants are required to be paid minimum wage and to pay income and other taxes, while employers of authorized immigrants are required to pay the taxes associated with them just like any native workers. Unskilled native workers are not bid out of low paying jobs when it comes to authorized immigrants the minimum wage is the same. If an authorized immigrant lands a job over a native worker, it is because the immigrant possesses the proper skills to perform the job at a rate for the employer that is greater than the wages paid to them (classic MB>MC). Consumers get better quality products, and the economy gets increased tax revenues.
The United States offers student and work visas to immigrants to encourage them to come into the country to make a better life for themselves. However, these visas expire after a certain number of years, which means that the immigrant must obtain citizenship to continue to work and study in this country legally. Sadly, it is a long, costly, and difficult process to obtain citizenship, and so many immigrants simply do not obtain citizenship and continue to reside here in an unauthorized manner.
here are both costs and benefits of authorized immigrants in the United States. A benefit for employers is immigrants initially earn substantially less than natives. However, as they learn the language and become skilled in working area, they can ask for higher pay.
There are also both costs and benefits of unauthorized immigration discussed in the text. A major cost is the unauthorized immigrants reduce the wage of native-born workers. This is a result of the unauthorized immigrants working for less money than would be paid to an American citizen. A major benefit discussed in the text is unauthorized immigrants are willing to do work that is seen as undesirable to Americans.
Both authorized and unauthorized immigrants offer benefits to American workers by taking jobs that are less satisfying to Americans. On the other hand this hurts Americans by taking jobs away from them. Immigrants can benefit consumers by working for a lower wage. This helps consumers because since the employer pays the immigrant a lower wage, they can in-return offer the product for a lower price to the consumer.
Policies have been put in place to both encourage and discourage immigration to the United States. Reasons that would encourage immigrants to come to the U.S. could be the hope for a better life. They could be offered work and a source of income which could be hard to find in their home countries. They can receive student or work visas that allow being in the States legally. There are also things that can discourage immigrants. First-off, it is illegal to come to the U.S. unauthorized. The United Stated have stepped on border patrol, and made it expensive to cross the border. In 1990 the United States amended a law which restricted overall immigration. Most spots were reserved for family-reunification and few spots for skilled workers who try to enter the U.S. for work.
Authorized immigrants would bring countless benefits to the workers, consumers, and the economy of the United States. About the benefit, those authorized immigrants change their residence and come to American, usually they can get higher wage rate than their original place. Also, the quality of their life will be improved, for example, the welfare in American is better than many other countries. About the costs, the authorized immigrants need pay high taxes to US government.
Nonetheless, there will be a different story for the unauthorized immigrants; in many cases, they have to choose the undesirable job, not able to enjoy the welfare that the US citizen and permanent resident can have and so forth. As far as I know, some of the unauthorized immigrants are well educated ones; nevertheless, they could not maximize their values because of some limitations of the immigrant laws. Moreover, a large number of engineers with PHD degrees are not American or American resident; consequently, some unsuitable sanctions would make these technologic elites switch to some other countries.
As well all know, the American government tried to attract elites especially knowledge- intensive ones to work and stay here in the United States. For instance, international college students will automatically acquire an optional practice time after their graduation so as to encourage them to seek employment opportunities in the US. What is more, the domestic companies and institutions of America will apply green cards for the foreign employees, and the majority of them are usually own university degrees or even above. However, we still need some punishments associated with those discourage laws because many of the immigrants will be unregulated without some proper restrictions and rules, and vice versa. All in all, the strategies that state make is to promote the stability and prosperity of the United States.